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Full text of "Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society"

1 




COLLECTIONS 



OF THIS 






Scotia Historical H>ocie t j> 



"Out of monuments, names, wordes, proverbs, traditions, 
private records, and evidences, fragments of stories, passages of 
bookes, and the like, we do save, and recover somewhat from the 
deluge of time." Lord Bacon: The Advancement of Learning. 

"A wise nation preserves its records, gathers up its muniments, 
decorates the tombs' of its illustrious dead, repairs its great structures, 
and fosters national pride and love of country, by perpetual re- 
ferences to the sacrifices and glories of the past.' 1 Joseph Howe. 



VOLUME XVIIL 





PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY WM. MACNAB & SON, 
HALIFAX, N. S. 
1914. 



"The care which a nation devotes to the preservation of the 
monuments of its past may serve as a true measure of the degree 
of civilization to which it has attained" 

(Les Archives Principales de Moscou du Minister e des 
Affairs Etrangeres Moscow, 1898, p. 3.) 

"To discover and rescue from the unsparing hand of time the 
records which yet remain of the earliest history of Canada. To 
preserve while in our power, such documents as may be found 
amid the dust of yet unexplored depositories, and which may 
prove important to general history, and to the particular history 
of this province." Quebec Literary and Historical Society. 



NATIONAL MONUMENTS. 

(By Henry Van Dyke). 

Count not the cost of honour to the deadl 
The tribute that a mighty nation pays 
To those who loved her well in former days 

Means more than gratitude for glory fled ; 

For every noble man that she hath bred, 
Immortalized by art's immortal praise, 
Lives in the bronze and marble that we raise, 

To lead our sons as he our fathers led. 

These monuments of manhood, brave and high, 
Do more than forts or battle-ships to keep 

Our dear bought liberty. They fortify 

The heart of youth with valour wise and deep ; 

They build eternal bulwarks, and command 

Eternal strength to guard our native land. 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Title Page, i 

Contents, iii 

Objects of Collections, v 

Acts of Incorporation, vii 

Act Amalgamating Collections, Management, etc., viii 

Rules and By-laws, ix 

Officers and Members, 1914, xi 

List of Presidents, 1878-1914, xvi 

List of Vice-Presidents, 1878-1914, xvii 

Council 1878-1914 , xviii 

President's Address, xix 
Papers, 

Wolfe's Men and Nova Scotia, by Beckles Wilson, 1 

Jonathan Belcher, First Chief Justice of Nova Scotia, 25 

by Sir Charles Townshend, D. C. L. 

Dockyard Reminiscences by Charles Roche, 59 
Early Scottish Settlers in Cape Breton, by Mrs. Charles 

Archibald, 69 

Artists in Nova Scotia, by Harry Piers, 101 
History of Nova Scotia Postage Stamps, by Donald 

A. King, 165 

List of Donors to N. S. Historical Society, 206 

Papers read before the Society 1878-1914, 209 
Collections of Nova Scotia Historical Society, Vols., 

I to XVIII, List of. 215 

Index, 218 



OBJECTS OF COLLECTIONS. 

1. Manuscript statements and narratives of pioneer sett- 
lers, old letters and journals relative to the early history and 
settlement of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland 
and Prince Edward Island, and the wars of 1776 and 1812; bio- 
graphical notes of our Indian tribes, their history, character- 
istics, sketches of their prominent chiefs, and warriors, together 
with contributions of Indian implements, dress, ornaments 
and curiosities. 

2. Diaries, narratives and documents relative to the Loyal- 
ists, their expulsion frpm the old colonies and their settlement 
in the Maritime Provinces. 

3. Files of newspapers, books, pamphlets, college 'cata 
logues, minutes of ecclesiastical conventions, associations, con- 
ferences and synods, and all other publications, relating to this 
Province, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and New- 
foundland. 

4. Drawings and descriptions of our ancient mounds and 
fortifications, their size, representation and locality. 

5. Information respecting articles of pre-historic antiqui- 
ties, especially implements of copper, stone, or ancient coins or 
other curiosities found in any of the Maritime Provinces, to- 
gether with the locality and condition of their discovery. The 
contribution of all such articles to the cabinet of the society 
is most earnestly desired. 

6. Indian geographical names of streams and localities, 
with their signification, and all information generally respect- 
ing the condition, language and history of the Micmacs, Mali- 
eetes and Bethucks. 

(v) 



vi NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

7. Books of all kinds, especially such as relate to Canadian 
history, travel, and biography in general, and Lower Canada 
or Quebec in particular, family genealogies, old magazines, 
pamphlets, files of newspapers, maps, historical manuscripts, 
autographs of distinguished persons, coins, medals, paintings, 
portraits, statuary and engravings. 

8. We solicit from historical societies and other learned 
bodies that interchange of books and other materials by which 
the usefulness of institutions of this nature is so essentially en- 
hanced, pledging ourselves to repay such contributions by 
acts in kind to the best of our ability. 

9. The Society particularly begs the favor and compli- 
ments of authors and publishers, to present, with their auto- 
graphs, copies of their respective works for its library. 

10. Editors and publishers of newspapers, magazines and 
reviews, will confer a lasting favor on the Society by contri- 
buting their publications regularly for its library, where they 
may be expected to be found always on file and carefully pre- 
served. We aim to obtain and preserve for those who shall 
come after us a perfect copy of every book, pamphlet or pap- 
er ever printed in or about Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince 
Edward Island and Newfoundland. 

11. Nova Scotians residing abroad have it in their power 
to render their native province great service by making dona- 
tions to our library of books, pamphlets, manuscripts, etc., bear- 
ing on any of the Provinces of the Dominion or Newfoundland. 
To the relatives, descendants, etc., of our colonial governors, 
judges and military officers, we especially appeal on behalf of 
our Society for all papers, books, pamphlets, letters, etc., which 
may throw light on the history of any of the Provinces of the 
Dominion. 






ACT OF INCORPORATION. 



CHAPTER 87. 

SECTION. SECTION. 

1. Incorporation. 3. Property vested in cor- 

2. May hold real estate. poration. 

An Act to incorporate the Nova Scotia Historical Society. 
(Passed the 17th day of April, A. D., 1879). 

Be it enacted by the Governor, Council, and Assembly, as 
follows : 

1. The Honourable John W. Ritchie, the Reverend George W. 
Hill, the Reverend Thomas J. Daly, the Honourable William J. 
Almon, Thomas A. Ritchie, William D. Harrington, George E. 
Morton, and John T. Bulmer, and their associates, members of the 
Nova Scotia Historical Society, and such other persons as shall be- 
come members of such society, according to the rules and by- 
laws thereof, are hereby created a body corporate by the name 
of the Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

2. The said corporation may purchase, take, hold, and en- 
joy real estate not exceeding twenty thousand dolars in value, 
and may sell, mortgage, lease, or otherwise dispose of the same 
for the benefit of the corporation. 

3. Upon the passing of this act the property o* the said Nova 
Scotia Historical Society, whether real or personal, and all debts 
due thereto, shall vest in the said Nova Scotia Historical Society 
hereby incorporated. 



Viii NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

AN ACT. 






To provide for the Amalgamation of the Library of the Nova 
Scotia Historical Society with the Legislative Library 
and the Management of the Joint Collection. 
(Passed the 10th day of April, A. D., 1881.) 
Be it enacted by the Governor, Council, and Assembly, as 
follows : 

1. The Library of the Nova Scotia Historical Society shall 
be amalgamated with the Legislative Library of Nova Scotia, 
and the regulation and management of the Joint Collection and 
any additions that may be made thereto is hereby vested in a 
commission of nine persons to be called the Nova Scotia Library 
Commission, of whom the Lieutenant-Governor of the Province 
for the time being shall ex officio be one, and the remainder of 
whom shall be appointed annually, one half by the Nova Scotia 
Historical Society and the other half by the Governor in Council. 

2. The Lieutenant-Governor for the time being shall be ex 
officio the President of the Commission. 

3. Should the Nova Scotia Historical Society at any time 
fail to appoint any or all of the Commissioners whom said So- 
ciety are hereby authorized to appoint, the rights and powers 
vested by this Act in the Commission shall devolve upon the 
other members of the Commission. 

4. The Librarian shall be appointed by the Governor in Coun- 
cil, and shall be such person as the Commissioners shall nomi- 
nate, and shall hold office during good behaviour. 

5. The Commissioners may make bye-laws from time to time 
for the regulation and management of the Library and prescrib- 
ing all matters necessary for the control thereof, but such bye- 
laws shall not go into force until approved by the Governor in 
Council. 

6. The Commission shall make an annual report of the ex- 
penditure, the general state of the Library, and on all such mat- 
ters in connection therewith as may be required by the Govern- 
or in Council, which report shall be laid upon the table of each 
branch of the Legislature during the session. 



RULES AND BY-LAWS- 

REVISED MAY 27, 1910. 

1. The Society shall be called the Nova Scotia Historical 
Society. 

OBJECTS. 

2. The objects of the Society shall be the collection and 
preservation of all documents, papers and others objects of in- 
terest which may serve to throw light upon and illustrate the 
history of this country, the reading at the meetings of the Society, 
of papers on historical subjects, the publication, as far as the 
funds of the Society will allow, of all such documents and papers 
as it may be deemed desirable to publish, the formation of a lib- 
rary of books, papers and manuscripts, affording information, 
and illustrating historical subjects. 

MEMBERS. 

3. The membership shall consist of Ordinary, Life, Corres- 
ponding and Honorary Members. The Ordinary or resident 
members, shall pay at the time of admission, an entrance fee of 
Five Dollars, and Two Dollars after each succeeding annual 
meeting. The Ordinary Members residing outside the limit of 
15 miles from the city, may become members on payment of 
Two Dollars entrance fee, and One Dollar annually thereafter. 
Any Ordinary Member may become a Life Member by the payment 
of Forty Dollars. The Corresponding and Honorary Members, 
shall be elected by the unanimous vote of the Society, and are 
exempt from all dues. 

4. Candidates for membership may be proposed at any 
regular or special meeting of the Society by a Member. The pro- 
position shall remain on the table for one month, or until the 
next meeting, when a ballot shall be taken, one black ball in 
five excluding. No person shall be considered a member until 
his entrance fee is paid, and if any member shall allow his dues 
to remain unpaid for two years, his name may be struck from 
the roll. 



X NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

MEETINGS, OFFICE-BEARERS, ETC. 

5. The regular meetings of the Society shall be held at 8 
p. m., on the first Friday of each month, from November to May, 
both months inclusive, and special meetings may be convened on 
due notification of the President, or in case of his absence, by the 
Vice-President, or on the application of any five members. 

6. The annual meeting of the Society shall be held at 8 
p. m., on the first Friday of April, at which meeting there shall be 
chosen a President, three Vice-Presidents, a Corresponding 
Secretary, a Recording Secretary, a Treasurer, and two Auditors, 
and a Council of four members, who with the foregoing shall 
constitute the Council of the Society. The election of members 
to serve on the Nova Scotia Library Commission, under the pro- 
visions of Chapter 17, N. S. Acts of 1880, shall take place at the 
annual meeting, immediately after the election of office-bearers 
and Council. 

7. All communications which are thought worthy of pre- 
servation, shall be minuted in the books of the Society and the 
originals kept on file. 

8. Seven members shall be a quorum for all purposes at or- 
dinary meetings, but at the annual meeting, in April, ten members 
shall form a quorum. 

9. No article of the constitution nor any by-law shall be alter- 
ed at any meeting when less than ten members are present, nor 
unless the subject has either been discussed at the previous 
meeting, or reported on by a committee appointed for that purpose. 

10. The duties of the Office bearers and Council shall be the 
same as those performed generally in other Societies. 

11. The Publication Committee shall consist of four mem- 
bers and shall be appointed by the Council, to them all manu- 
scripts shall be referred, and they shall report to the Council 
before publication. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

12. All elections of officers shall be made by ballot, and a 
majority of those present shall be required to elect. 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 

OF THE 

NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 
1914. 



PRESIDENT. 

The Yen. Archdeacon Armitage, M. A., Ph. D. 
VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

David Allison, LL. D. Major J. Plimsoll Edwards. 

Joseph A. Chisholm, K. C. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

Harry Piers. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 
William L. Payzant, M. A., LL. B. 

TREASURER. 
George E. Nichols, LL. B. 

AUDITORS. 

W. L. Brown, Lt.-Col. F. H. Oxley. 

OTHER MEMBERS OF COUNCIL. 

A. H. McKay, LL. D. George Mullane. 

George W. T. Irving, W. C. Milner. 

LIBRARY COMMISSIONERS. 

James S. MacDonald, Rev. John Forrest, LL. D. 

J. Johnston Hunt, D. C. L. A. H. McKay, LL. D. 

LIBRARIAN OF SOCIETY, AND OF AKINS LIBRARY. 
Miss Annie Donaho?. 

(H) 



Xll 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



THE TREASURER'S LIST OF MEMBERS 



who have qualified by paying their entrance fees as required by Nos. 3 and 4 of the 
Rules and By-Laws. 



Abbott, Very Rev. H. P. A., (Hamilton, 

Ont.) 

Allison, David, LL. D. 
Allison, J. Walter 
Archibald, L. B., (Truro, N. S.) 
Almon, Dr. W. Bruce 
Archibald, Charles 
Archibald, Mrs. Charles 
Archibald Wm. C. (Wolfville, N. S.) 
Archibald, Chas. C., M. D. (Bear River, 

Archibald, R. C., (Wolfville, N. S.) 

Armitage, Yen. Archdeacon, Ph. D. 

Armstrong, F. W., (Glace Bay. C. B.) 

Baird, Rev. Frank, (Woodstock, N. B.) 

Baker, G. Prescott (Yarmouth, N. S.) 

Barnes, H. W. 

Bent, Barry D., (Amherst, N. S.) 

Bill, Caleb Rand, (WolfviUe, N. S.) 

Bill, J. Philip W., (Ottawa.) 

Bissett, Dr., M. P. P. 

Bell, Hon. Senator, A. C., (New Glasgow, 

N. S.) 

Bell, Charles 

Bernasconi, G. A., (N. Sydney, C. B.) 
Black, W. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Blackader, H. D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Bond, Rev. Geo. I., D. D. 
Borden, Hon. Sir F. W., K. C. M. G., 

(Ottawa, Ont.1 
Borden, Sir Robert, K. C., D. C. L., 

(Ottawa, Ont. 
Bourinot, John C., (Port Hawkesbury, 

N. S.) 

Boutilier, Arthur, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Bowes, F. W. 

Bremner, J. J. Col., (Halifax, N. S.; 
Brookfield, S. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Brown, Richard H. 
Brown Wm. L. 

Browne, Rev. P. W., (St. Jaques, N. F.) 
Browne, Rev. J. D. H., (Santa Monica, 

Cal.) 

Bryden, Rev. C. W., (Westawasis, Sask.) 
Buchanan, G. O., (Vancouver, B. C.). 
Buckley, A. H. 
Burchell, C. J., K. C. 
Burpee, L. R., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
Cahan, C. H., K. C., (Montreal, Q.) 
Calkin, Hugh E., (Londonderry, N. S.) 
Cantley, Thos., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Cameron, H. W. 
Campbell, A. J., (Truro, N. S.) 
Campbell, Dr. D. A. 
Campbell Dr. Geo. M. 
Campbell, Geo. S. 
Carter, R, S., (Maccan, N. S.) 
Chambers, R. E., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Chipman, L. deV., Annapolis Royal. 

Chesley, A. E. H., (Kentville, N. S.) 
Chesley, Judge S. A., K. C., (Lunenburg, 

Chisholm, J. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Chisholm, J. Scott, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Chisholm, Dr. Murdoch. 
Christie, Lor ing C., (Washington.) 



Chute, Rev. A.'C., D. D., (Wolfville, N. S.) 

Clarke, M. S., (Halifax, N. S.) 

Clarke, Willard G., (Bear River, N. S.) 

Clayton, W. J. 

Cobb, A. R. 

Cohoe, Rev. A. B., (Halifax, N. S.) 

Congdon, Fred. T., (Toronto, Ont.) 

Cowie, Dr. A. J., (Halifax, N. S.) 

Cox, Dr. (New Glasgow, N. S.) 

Cox, Geo. H. (New Glasgow, N. S.) 

Cox, Rob., M. D., (Upper Stewiacke, N. S.) 

Connolly, E. W., Prof., (Truro, N. S.) 

Covey, L. E. Mrs. (Halifax, N. S.) 

Creelman A. R., K. C., (Montreal, Q.) 

Crowe, Harry J., (Toronto, Ont.) 

Crowe, Geo. R., (Winnipeg, Man.) 

Crowell, Rev. J. O., (Portsmouth, Ont.) 

Cumming, M. Prof., (Truro, N. S.) 

Curry, J. M., (Amherst, N. S.) 

Cutten, Rev. Geo. E., D. D., (WolfviUe, 

N. S.) 

Cutler, R. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Cutler, R. M. Mrs. (Halifax, N. S.) 
Dawson, Mrs., (Montreal, P. Q.) 
Dawson, Robert, (Bridgevvater, N. S.) 
Daniels, Hon. O. T., K. C., M. P. P. 
Davidson, A. L., M. P., (Middleton, N. S.) 
Davison, Frank, (Bridgewater, N. S.) 
DesBarres, Rev. F. Q. Q., (Sackville. N. B.) 
DeCarterst, Capt. W. S. 
Dennis, Senator Wm. 
Densmore, Dr. L. D., (Sherbrooke, N. S.) 
Dickie, Alfred, (Stewiacke, N. S.) 
Dickson, M. S. Dr., (Dartmouth, N. S.) 
Dickson, W. A., (Pictou. N. S.) 
Dimock, W. D. (Truro, N. S.) 
Doane, H. L., (Truro, N. S.) 
Donaldson, Rev. L. J-, M. A., (Halifax, 

N. S.) 

Douglas, John C., M. P. P., (Glace Bay.) 
Doull, Very Rev. A. J., (Victoria, B. C.) 
Drysdale, Hon. Mr Justice, (Halifax, 

N. S.) 

Dumaresr ., S. P. 

Dustan, J. F. Rev., (Bridgewater, N. S.) 
Eager, W. H., M. D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Eaton, B. H., K. C. 
Edwards, Major J. P., (Londonderry, 

N. S. 

Elliot, Dr. C. S. (Stellarton, N. S.) 
Elliot, F. E. Mrs. (Halifax, N. S.) 
Ellis, Hon. Dr. J. F., M. P. P., (Sher- 
brooke, N. S.) 

Fairbanks, Edw. B. (Campbellton, N. B. 
Falconer, Rev. Prof. 
Parish, Dr. Geo. T., (Yarmouth, N. S.) 
Faulkner, Hon. Geo. E., M. P. P. 
Faulkner, Prof. J. A. (Madison, N. J.) 
Fenerty, E. Lawson. 
Ferguson, Wm. McM., (Truro, N. S.) 
Fergie, Chas. M. E., (Montreal, P. Q.) 
Fielding, Hon. W. S., D. C. L., (Ottawa, 

Ont.) 

Fleming, Sir Sandford. 
Flemming H. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Flint, Thos. B., LL. D., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
Fogo, Fred C., (Pictou, N. S.) 



MEMBERS. 



Xlll 



Forrest, Rev. John, D. D. 

Fortier, L. M., (Annapolis Royal, N. S.) 

Francis, Thos. H. 

Frame, Joseph F., (Regina, Sask.) 

Francklyn, Geo. E. 

Fraser, A. L. Rev., (Great Village, N.S.) 

Fraser, D. Stiles, Rev., (Elderbank, N. S.) 

Fraser, Rev. W. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 

Fraser, Dr. C. F., (Halifax, N. S.) 

Fraser, Mrs. D. C., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 

Fraser, A. S. M., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 

Friel, James, (Moncton, N. B.) 

Fielding, J. N. Mrs. (Windsor, N. S.) 

Gillis, Rev. D. C., Ph. D., (Antigonish, 

N.S.) 

Gilpin, Edward L., (Sydney, N. S.) 
Gisborne, F. H., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
Gordon, Rev. Principal D. M., D. D., 

(Kington. Ont.) 

Harrington, G. S., (Glace Bay, C. B.) 
Harris, Prof. David Fraser, M. D., D. Sc., 
Harris, Robt. E., K. C., D. C. L. 
Harrison, Major H. J., (Maccan.) 
Hart, Miss L. H., (India) 
Harvey, W. C. 

Haslam, Mrs. H. Leo., (Liverpool. N. S.) 
Hebb, Willis E. 

Hemeon, Rev. E., (Hamilton, Bermida.) 
Henderson, D. H., (Two Rivers, Wash. 

U. S. A. 

Henderson, Geo., Halifax, 
Hendry, A. W., (Liverpool.) 
Hensley, Mrs. G. W., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Hetherington, J. L., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Heward, Capt. S. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Hewitt, H. W., (Saskatoon, Sask.) 
Hill, Rev. A. M., D. D., (Yarmouth, N. S.) 
Hill, Arthur E. B., (Vancouver). 
Hill, Albert J., (New Westminster.) 
Hill, A. Ross, (Columbia, Mo., U. S. A. 
Howe, Sydenham, (Middleton, N. S.) 
Hoyles, N. W., K. C. t D. C. L., (Toronto, 

Ont.) 

Hunt, Dr. J. J., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Hunt, Louis, Dr., (London, Eng.) 
Harivel, S. J., Halifax. 
Irvine, J. A., (Calgary, Alta.) 
Irvin, John, K. C., (Bridgetown, N. S.) 
!rving, Geo. W. T. 

Jameson, Clarence A., M.P., (Digby, N.S.) 
Jack, A. M. 

Jack, Rev. T. C., D. D., (N. Sydney, C. B.) 
James, Rev. Willis G., (Calgary.) 
James Clarence, M. P., (Digby, N. S.) 
Jeffers, Rev. E. T., D. D., (York, Pa.) 
Jenks, Stuart, K. C.. 
Jennison, J. L., K. C., (Calgary, Alta.) 
Jennison, H. V., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Jennison, W. F., (Truro, N. S.) 
Johnson, Jacob A., (Calgary, Alta.) 
Johnston, Rev. Robt., 
Jones, Herbert L., (Weymouth, N. S.) 
Jones, Dr. J. Edgar, (Digby, N. S.) 
Jones, Jas. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Jordan, Rev. Louis H., (Eastbourne Eng.) 
Jpst, Dr. A. C., (Guysboro, N. S.) 
Kaulbach, R. C. S., (Lunenburg, N. S.) 
Keator, J. Gillis, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Kellogg, W. B., (London, Eng.) 
Kennedy, W. M. P., Prof. F. R., H. S. 

Antigonish, N. S. 
Kent, W. G. 
King, Donald, A. 



King, Rev W B , M. A., (Cambridge 

Mass.) 

Knight, J. A. 

Knight, Rev. M. R., (Sackville. N. B.) 
Laing, Rev. Robt. ((Halifax, N. S.) 
Lane, Charles, W., (Sackville, N. B.) 
Lawson, A. E., (Winnipeg, Man.) 
Lawson, J. Murray, (Yarmouth, N. S.) 
Leckie, Lt. Col. R. G. E., (Vancouver, 

B. C.) 

Lockhart, Rev. Arthur John (Winter- 
port, Maine.) 

Laurie, M. Miss, (Oakfield, N. S..) 
Levatte, H. V. C. Hon., (Louisburg, N.S.) 
Lockwood, Dr. T. C., (Lockport, N. S.) 
Logan, Daniel, (Honolulu.) 
Logan, F. J. M. P. P. (Musquodoboit 

Harbor, N. S.) 

Logan, J. D., Ph. D., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Logan, J.W. 
Longard,E. J. 

Longley, Hon. Mr. Justice J. W. 
Lugar, E. L. Mrs. (Halifax, N. S.) 
Lumsdon, Rev. James, (Gabarus.) 
Mader, A. I., Dr. (Halifax, N. S.) 
Margeson, J. W., M. P. P., (Bridgewater, 

N. S.) 

Marshall, W. E., (Bridgewater, N. S.) 
Martell, Archdeacon, D. C. L., (Windsor, 

N.S.) 

Martin, Capt. E. H., R. N., (Dockyard.) 
Masters, C. H., (Ottawa.) 
Masters, John, F., (Boston, U. S. A.) 
Mathers, Isaac H., R. St. O. 
Maynell, W.B., (Louisburg, C. B.) 
Milner, F. L., (Amherst, N. S.) 
Milner, W. C. 

Mills, Col. D. A., (Beaulieu, Hants, Eng.) 
Minard, Asa R., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Mitchell, Archibald S. 
Mitchell, C. H., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Moffatt, T. I. D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Morrow, Mrs. Geoffrey, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Morse, Rev. Wm. T., (Lynn, U. S. A.) 
Morton, Rev. A. D., (Sackville, N. B.) 
Morse, Rev. E. B. (Halifax.) 
Moore, H. C., L. C. B., B. A., (Halifax 

Muir, H. A. Mrs. (Shelburne, N. S.) 

Mullane, Geo. 

Murray, Prof. D. A., (Montreal, Q.) 

Murray, President Walter C., LL. D., 
(Saskatoon, Sask.) 

Murray, Mrs. L. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 

Muir, Rev. W. Bruce, (Annapolis Royal, 
N.S.) 

Mylius, L. J., (Winnipeg.) 

McClare, Chas. H., (Cambridge, Mass.) 

McCurdy, F. B., M. P. 

McCallum, J. D., Ottawa. 

Macdonald, C. Ochiltrce. 

MacDonald, Daniel F., (Stellarton, N. S.) 

MacDonald, E. M., K. C., (Pictou, N. S.) 

MacDonald, J. A., "The Globe," (Toron- 
to, Ont.) 

MacDonald, Jas. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 

MacDonald, Margaret, (Quebec.) 

MacDonald, Mr. J. G., (Elizabeth R., 
Nelson, B. C.) 

MacDonald, Hon. James, M. P. P., 
West Bay, C. B.) 

MacDonald, John D., (Pictou, N. S.) 

MacDonald, Roderick 



XIV 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



McGregor, Hi. Honor Lt. Gov. J. D. 

McGregor, Hon. R. M., M. P. P., (New 
Glasgow, N. S.) 

MacGregor, Jas., (Halifax, N. S.) 

McGillivray, Hon. A., (Antigonish, N. S.) 

Macgillivray, D. 

Mclnnes, Hector, K. C. 

McKay, Alexander, 

MacKay, A. A., K. C. 

MacKay, A. H., LL. D. 

MacKay, Prof. E., Ph. D. 

McKay, W. Senator, (Ottawa, Ont.) 

MacKeen, Hon. Senator David. 

MacKenzie, President A. S., D. C. L. 

MacKenzie Wm. F., (New Glasgow, 
N. S.) 

MacKinlay, Andrew, (Halifax, N. S.) 

MacKinnon, Prof. Rev. C., D. D., (Hali- 
iax, N. S.) 

McLean, Jas. A., K. C., (Bridgewater, B.S. 

MacLean, Hon. A. K., (Halifax, N. S.) 

MacLean, Rev. John, D. D., (Winnipeg.) 

McLennan, Daniel, K. C., (Port Hood, 
C. B.) 

MacLennan, Donald, M. P. P., (Port 
Hood. C. B.) 

McLennan, Cham. A., (Truro, N. S.) 

McLenann, S. D., (Truro, N. S.) 

McLeod, Prof. C. H., (Montreal, Q.) 
Macnab, Brenton A., (Montreal, Q.) 

Macnab, John. 

Macnab, Wm. 

MacPhie, Rev. J. P., (Lynn) 

McNeil, Archbishop, (Toronto, Ont.) 

McRoe, A. O. Dr., (Calgary, Alta.) 

NicH ion, C. B., (Detroit.) 

Nichois, E. Hart, (Digby, N. S.) 

Nichols, Geo. E. E. 

Nicolls, Rev. W., (Mulgrave, N. S.) 

Orde, J. F., (Ottawa, Ont.) 

O'Dwyer, J. S. (Moncton, N. B.) 

O'Mullin, J. C (Halifax, N. S.) 

Outram, Capt., (S. S. Alsatian) 

Owen, D. M. 

Owen Mrs. J. M., (Annapolis Royal, N. S.) 

Oxley, Col. F. H. 

Paint, Henry N. 

Parker, Rev. Lewis W., (Truro, N. S.) 

Patterson, His Hon. Judge Geo., (New 

Glasgow, N. S.) 
Payzant, J. Y., K. C. 
Payzant, W. L. 

Pearson, Mrs. B. F., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Perry, Mrs. N. Irwin, (St. Catheiines, 

Ont.) 

Piers, Harry. 
Pollok, Rev. Allan, D. D. 
Pope, Miss Georgina, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Power, J. J., K. C. 
Power, J. U., (Toronto.) 
Power, Hon. Senator L. G., K. C. 
Powell, W. R., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Prescott, C. A. 

Primrose, J., Mayor, (Pictou, N. S.) 
Putman, Harold, (Truro, N. S.) 
Pyke, John Geo., (Liverpool, N. S.) 
Ragsdale, J. W., U. S. Consul General. 
Ralston, J. L., M. P. P. 
Ralston, Mrs. J. L. 
Rand, Mrs. C. D., (Vancouver, B. C.) 
Reid, Rooie L., (Vancouver, B. C.) 
Regan, John W. 

Richardson, Yen. Archdeacon, D. C. L., 
(London, Ont.) 



Richardson, H. A., (Toronto.) 

Ritchie, Miss Eliza, Ph.D.,;(Halifax, N.S. 

Ritchie, James D., (Head St. Margaret's 

Bay.) 

Ritchie, Hon. Mr. Justice J. J. 
Ritchie, Miss Mary. 
Ritchie, Reginald L., (Regina, Sask.) 
Ritchie, W. B. A., K. C., (Vancouver, 

B.C. 

Roberts, Arthur, (Bridgewater.) 
Robertson, T. Reginald, (Vancouver, 
Robertson, Wm. (Halifax, N. S.) 
Rogers, Mrs. H. W., (Amherst, N. S.) 
Rogers, T. Sherman, K. C. 
Ross, Senator, K. C. 
Ross, Edwin B., (Vancouver, B. C.) 
Ross, H. S., K. C., (Montreal, Q.) 
Rowley, W. H., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
Rowley, C. W., (Winnipeg, Man.) 
Ruggles, J. R., (Lockport, N. S.) 
Rutherford, R. W., Col., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Sterling, J. W., Dr., (Montreal, Q,) 
Shreve, R. Rev. D. D. (Sherbrooke, Q.) 
Salter, Frank, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Sare, R. G., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Sedgwick, Rev. T., D. D. (Tatamagouche, 

Saunders, Edward M., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Saunders, Miss M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Savary, His Hon. Judge A. W., (Annapolis 

Royal, N. S.) 

Shand, F. A., (Windsor, N. S.) 
Shatford, A. W., (Hubbards, N. S.) 
Shatford, Rev. A. P., (Monteeal, P. Q,) 
Shaw, Leander, (Vancouver, B. C.) 
Shortt, Alfred. 

Schwartz, W. E., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Silver, A. E., K. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Silver, L. M., Dr., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Simson, Frank C. 
Sinclair, John H., M. P., (New Glasgow, 

N.S.) 

Slade, F. M., (Montreal, Q.) 
Slayter, J. M., Maj., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Smith, Rev. A. W. L., (River John. N. S.) 
Smith, C. R., K. C., (Amherst, N. S.) 
Smith, Edmund A. 

Smith, F. P., M. D., (Mill Village, N. S.) 
Smith, L. Mortimer. 
Smith, Dr. M. A. B., (Dartmouth, N. S.) 
Soloan, David, LL. D., (Truro, N. S.) 
Smithers, A. W. Canon, (Frederickton, 

N. B.) 

Sedgwick, F. R., (Granville Ferry, N. S.) 
Sponagle, J. A., Dr., (Middleton, N. S.) 
Stairs, Geo. W., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Stairs, Geo W 

Stairs, A. P., Miss (Halifax, N. S.) 
Starratt, F. A., (Prof., (Hamilton, N. J.) 
Starr, Mrs. F. N. G., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Steel e, Rev. D. A., D. D., (Amherst, N. S. 
Stewart, Rev. John H., (Upp. Stewiacke, 

Stewart, Frank E., (Sydney, C. B.) 
Stewart, W. B., (Digby, N. S.) 
Stuait, Geo. W., Mayor, (Truro, N. S.) 
St. Louis Mercantile Lib., Assoc., (St. 

Louis, Mo.) 

Studd, W. H., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Sumichrast, Prof. F. J. de., (Boston, 

Mass.) 
Tanner, C. E., K. C., M. P. P., Pictou, 

N. S.) 
Theakston, Henry, (Halifax, N. S.) 



MEMBERS. 



XV 



Thompson, Alfred, M. P., (Ottawa, Ont.) 

Thompson, A., Very Rev. D. D., (Glace 
Bay, N. S.) 

Thomson, Arthu> , M. B. C. M , (Strat 
ford on Avon. Eng.) 

Thome, E. L. 

Tory, President H. M., LL. D., (Edmon- 
ton, Alta.) 

Tory, Mrs. John A., (Toronto, Ort.) 

Tory, Mr. J. A., (Toronto, Ont.) 

Tremaine, R. A., (Truro, N. S.) 

Tory, James C., M. P. P., (Guvsboro, 

Townshend, Hon. Sir C. J., Ch. Justice. 
Trefry, J. H. 

Towns end, Rev. W. T., ^Carcross, Y. T.) 
Tremaine, A. DeB., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
Tremaine, H. B., M. P., (Windsor. N. S.) 
Tufts, Prof. J. F., D. C. L., (Wolfville, 

N. S.) 

Tupper, Hon. Sir C. H., K. C., (Van- 
couver, B. C.: 

Tupper, Rev. Joseph Freeman, (Domin- 
ion, C. B.) 

Uniacke, C. J., Lt. Col., (Southsea, Eng.) 
VanBuskirk, C. E., (Dartmouth, N. S.) 
Vickery , Edgar, J., (Yarmouth, N. S.) 
Vidito, Lt. Col. I. W., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Walker , E. M., (Dartmoi-th, N. S.) 
Walker , Smith L., M. D. y (Truro, N. S..) 
Wallace, O. C. S. Rev., (Westmount, P.A.) 



Warman, Charles, (Halirax, N. S.) 
Webster, David, Dr. (New York, U. S. A.) 
Webster, H. B., (KentviHe, N. S.) 
Wether be, Hon. r>ir R. L., (Late Ch 

Tustice.) 

Whidden. C- Edgav. (Antigonish, N. S.) 
White, Hon. N. W.. K. C.. O'i-Tima 

b. (.,.^. 

V<iltson. SecMes. (Windsor, N. S.) 
Whitman, A. Ha* diield. 
Wh : tman, C. H., (Canso, N. S.) 
Whitman, E. C., (Canso, N. S.) 
Whitman, F. C. (Annapolis Ro al, N. S.) 
Wilson, Canon W. Chas., (Springhill, 

Wiswell, Wm. H., (Halifx.) 
Warner, F. A., (Halifax.) 
Wilson, J. T., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Willis, A. P , (Montreal, P. Q.) 
Willis, Rev. J. J., (Westmount.) 
Wilson, J. T., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Wood, Geo. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Woodbury, Dr. F. 
Woodworth, J. E., (Beiwick, N. S.) 
Worrell, Rt. Rev. C. L., D. D., Lord Bis- 
hop of Nova Scotia 
Yorston, Fred., (Montreal, P. Q.) 
Young, Mrs. Frank, (Dartmouth, N. S.) 
Zwicker, Edward J., (Cape North, C. B.) 
Zwicker, Rupert G., (Cape North, C. B.) 



A number of persons have been nominated and duly elected, but have not yet 
qualified by paying their entrance fees as required by Nos. 3 and 4 of the Rules and 
By-laws. 



Life Members. 



Whitman, Wm., (Boston, Mass.) 
Ellis, Hon. J. V., (St. John, N. B.) 



Curry, Hon. Nath., (Amherst, N. S.) 
Macdonald, James S. 



Corresponding Members. 



Goldsmid, Edmund, F. R. S., (Edin- 
burgh,) 

Ward, Robert, (Bermuda.) 
Griffin, Martin, J., M. G., (Ottawa.) 
Wrong, Prof. Geo. M. M. A.(Toronto.) 
Bryce, Rev. Geo., D. D., (Winnipeg.) 
Eaton, Rev. Arthur Wentworth, D.C. L. 
(Boston, Mass.) 



Adams, Chas. Francis, (Boston.) 
Prowse, Judge D. W., (St. John's, Nfld.) 
Ganong, Prof. W. F., (Northampton, 

Mass. 
Doughty, Arthur, G., LL. D., C. M. G. 

(Ottawa.) 



Honorary Members. 



' Sir. Conan Doyle, (London.) 
Chas G. D. Roberts, (Lomdon.) 
Ven. Archdeacon Raymond, (St. John. 
N. B.) 



Eaton, Rev. Arthur Wentworth Ham- 
ilton, D. C. L. (Boston) 



PRESIDENTS, 

THE NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
1878-1914. 



HON. MR. J USTICE JOHN W. RITCHIE 1878-1879 

REV. GEORGE W. HILL, D. D 1880-1881 

THOMAS B. AKINS, D. C. L 1882-1883 

REV. GEORGE W. HILL, D. D 1883-1885 

LT.-Gov. SIR A. G. ARCHIBALD 1886-1892 

U.-Gov. M. H. RICHEY , 1893-1895 

HON. MR. JUSTICE WEATHERBE. 1896-1897 

HON. MR. JUSTICE LONGLEY 1897-1904 

Rev. JOHN FORREST, D. D 1905-1906 

PROF. ARCHIBALD MACMECHAN, M. A., PH. D. . . . 1907-1909 

JAMES S. MACDONALD 1910-1911 

VEN. ARCHDEACON W. J. ARMITAGE, M. A., PH. D. . 1911 



VICE1-PRESIDENTS, 

NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 
1878-1914. 



REV. G. W. HILL, D. D 1878-1879 

DAVID ALLISON, D. C. L 1880-1881 

REV. GEO. W. HILL, D. D \ 1882 

HON. SENATOR W. J. ALMON, M. D 1883-1889 

THOMAS B. AKINS, D. C. L 1890 

1891. 
THOS. B. AKINS, DAVID ALLISON,D.C.L., MR. JUSTICE WEATHERBE 

1892. 

MR. JUSTICE WEATHERBE, HON. SENATOR POWER 

HON. M. H. RICHEY. 

1893-1895. 

MR. JUSTICE LONGLEY. HON. SENATOR POWER. 

REV. JOHN FORREST, D. D. 

1896-1897. 

HON. SENATOR POWER. REV. PRINCIPAL FORREST, D. D. 

DR. A. H. MACKAY. 

1898-1901. 

HON. SENATOR POWER. MR. JUSTICE TOWNSHEND. 

DR. A. H. MACKAY. 

1902-1904. 
W. H. HILL. MR. JUSTICE TOWNSHEND. HON. SENATOR POWER. 

1905-1906. 

MR. JUSTICE LONGLEY. SENATOR POWER, 

MR. JUSTICE TOWNSHEND. 

1907-1909. 

MR. JUSTICE LONGLEY. SENATOR POWER. 

VEN. ARCHDEACON ARMITAGE. 

1910. 

MR. JUSTICE LONGLEY. VEN. ARCHDEACON ARMITAGE. 

DR. M. A. B. SMITH. 

1911. 

MR. JUSTICE LONGLEY. LT.-COL. F. H. OXLEY. 

A. H. BUCKLEY, PH. M. 

1912. 

DAVID ALLISON, D. C. L., JOHN Y. PAYZANT, M. A., 

A. H. BUCKLEY, PH. M. 

1913-1915. 

DAVID ALLISON, D. C. L. MAJOR J. PLIMSOLL EDWARDS 

J. A. CHISHOLM, K. C. 



COUNCIL 1878-1914. 



1878. 

DR. W. J. ALMON 
JAS. S. MACDONALD. 
REV. T. J. DALY. 
GEO. E. MORTON. 



1890. 

HON. SENATOR ALMON 
PETER LYNCH. 
DR. A. H. MACKAY. 
REV. T. W. SMITH. 



1902. 

REV. DR. T. W. SMITH. 
J. J. STEWART. 
PROF. A. MACMBCHAN. 
REV. DR. SAUNDBRS. 



1879. 


1891. 


1903. 


DR. W. J. ALMON. 
REV. T. J. DALY. 
GEO. E. MORTON. 
W. D. HARRINGTON. 


HON. DR. ALMON. 
DR. A. H. MACKAY. 
J. J. STEWART. . 
REV. T. W. SMITH. 


ARCHIBALD FRAME. 
PROF. A. MACMECHAN. 
J. J. STEWART. 
REV. DR. SAUNDBRS. 


1880. 


1892. 


1904. 


DR. W. J. ALMON. 
J. J. STEWART. 
G. E. MORTON. 
WM. COMPTON. 


HON. DR. ALMON. 
J. J. STEWART. 
DR. POLLOK. 
REV. T. W. SMITH. 


REV. DR. SAUNDERS. 
PROF. A. MACMECHAN. 
ARCH. FRAME. 
J. J. STEWART. 


1881. 


1893. 


1905. 


DR. W. J. ALMON. 
G. E. MORTON. 
J. J. STEWART. 
JOSEPH AUSTEN. 


HON. DR. ALMON. 
J. J. STEWART. 
DR. A. H. MACKAY. 
REV. T. W. SMITH. 


REV. DR. SAUNDBRS. 
DR. A. MACMECHAN. 
J. J. STEWART. 
ARCHIBALD FRAMB. 


1882. 


1894. 


1906. 


HON. SENATOR ALMON. 
DR. J. R. DEWOLF. 
JAMES S. MACDONALD. 
PETER Ross. 


HON. JUSTICE TOWNSHEND. 
J. J. STEWART. 
DR. A. H. MACKAY. 
REV. T. W. SMITH. 


DR. A. MACMECHAN. 
J. J. STEWART. 
ARCHIBALD FRAME. 
HARRY PIERS. 



1883. 

HON. SENATOR POWER. 
PETER LYNCH. 
R. J. WILSON. 
PETER Ross. 

1884. 

HON. SENATOR POWER. 
W. D. HARRINGTON. 
DR. D. ALLISON. 
F. B. CROFTON. 

1885. 

R. J. WILSON. 
DR. D. ALLISON. 
F. B. CROFTON. 
W. D. HARRINGTON. 

1886. 

SIR ADAMS ARCHIBALD. 
T. B. AKINS. 
DR. DAVID ALLISON. 
REV. DR. FORREST. 

1887. 

JUDGE WEATHBRBE. 
DR. D. ALLISON. 
PBTBR LYNCH. 
REV. DR. POLLOK. 

1888. 

PETER LYNCH. 
THOS. BAYNB. 
DR. POLLOK. 
PBTBR Ross. 

1889. 

HON. DR. ALMON. 
THOS. BAYNE. 
RBV. T. W. SMITH. 
PBTBR LYNCH. 



1895. 

HON. C. J. TOWNSHEND. 
J. J. STEWART. 
DR. A. H. MACKAY. 
REV. T. .W. SMITH. 

1896. 

J. J. STEWART. 
MR. JUSTICE TOWNSHBND. 
REV. T. W. SMITH. 
PROF. A. MCMECHAN. 

1897. 

J. J. STEWART. 
MR. JUSTICE TOWNSHBND. 
PROF. A. McMscHAN. 
REV. T. W. SMITH. 

1898. 

REV. DR. FORREST. 
REV. T. W. SMITH. 
PROF. A. MACMECHAN. 
REV. DR. SAUNDERS. 



1907. 

J. J. STEWART. 
J. P. EDWARDS. 
A. H. BUCKLEY. 
ARCHIBALD FRAME. 

1908. 

JAMES S. MACDONALD. 
A. H. BUCKLEY. 
ARCHIBALD FRAME. 
G. W. T. IrviNG. 

1909. 

ARCHIBALD FRAME. 
A. H. BUCKLEY. 
G. W. T. IrviNG. 
J. H. TREFRY. 

1910. 

G. E. E. NICHOLS. 
A. H. BUCKLEY. 
DR. A. MACMECHAN, 
G. W. T. IRVING. 

1911. 



REV. DR. FORREST. 


G. E. E. NICHOLLS. 


REV. T. W. SMITH. 


J. H. TREFRY. 


REV. DR. SAUNDERS. 


JAS. S. MACDONALD. 


PROF. A. MACMBCHAN. 


DR. JOHN FORREST. 


1900. 






1912. 


REV. DR. FORREST. 


G. E. E. NICHOLLS. 


Rev. T. W. SMITH. 


G. W. T. IRVING. 


REV. DR. SAUNDERS. 


DR. M. A. B. SMITH. 


PROF. A. MACMECHAN. 


W^C. MILNER. 


1901. 


1913. 


J. J. STEWART. 


A. H. BUCKLEY. 


REV. DR. SAUNDBRS. 


G. W. T. IRVING. 


REV. T. W. SMITH. 


W. C. MILNER. 


PROF. A. MACMBCHAN. 


HON. MR. JUSTICE RCSSBLI 


1914. 




A. H. MCKAY, LL. D. 




G. W. T. IRVING. 




W. C. MILNER. 




GEORGE MULLANK. 





THE PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. 



The Venerable Archdeacon Armitage, gave the President's 
Report. 

The Archdeacon said that the year 1913-14, had been 
marked by many signs of development, which were most 
distinctly encouraging. The regular meetings of the Society 
had been well attended, and the interest in every department of 
the Society's work had increased. The membership continues 
to grow steadily. During the year 164 new members were 
added to our roll; and of this number your President had the 
pleasure of nominating no less than 145. The membership 
roll of the Nova Scotia Historical Society is fast becoming the 
roll of honour of Nova Scotians who have distinguished them- 
selves in various walks of life. While we have associated 
with us a very large number of educationists, as is natural, 
we have also a remarkable list of men of affairs in the com- 
mercial and industrial world. It is noteworthy also, that we 
have many of the leaders in political life. The legal profession 
is worthy of special mention, so large is their contribution, 
We are favoured also with a great increase in the number of 
ladies who have joined our ranks. There is no reason, in my 
judgment, why we should not have at least 1000 members, 
which would secure an income for the Society which would en- 
able it to prosecute its work with far greater efficiency, especially 
in the direction of the publication of historic information. 

It has been well remarked: That the care which a nation 
devotes to the preservation of the monuments of its past may 
serve as a true measure of the degree of civilization to which 
it has attained. 

(xix) 



xx NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The aim of the Nova Scotia Historical Society may be stat- 
ed in brief terms. It is to discover and preserve the documents 
which relate to the history of the Province. It is to make 
available to the historical student the mass of information 
which has been gathered in the Archives concerning the settle- 
ment and development of Nova Scotia. It is to encourage all 
workers in the field of historical research. It is to suggest prd- 
per methods of research, and to cultivate the critical faculty in 
the use of materials. It is to inculcate the scientific spirit 
in the study of history. It is above all to assist in the 
historical domain personal research of original documents, and 
to make accessible to students, manuscripts and other material 
of an antiquarian and historical character. 

, The greatest historian on the formative period of English 
history, wrote his monumental work from printed books, and 
did not consult a mass of original material, which formed the 
true mine in which he should have explored. It has remained 
for later students to dig deeper, and to enrich the subject from 
the ore in which the wealth of knowledge was to be found. 

These facts, and others of a similar nature, place upon us 
only a heavier obligation to pursue the scientific method, and 
to insist on its rigid application in our chosen field of study. 

A society with such a high standard, and with such lofty 
aims, requires money for its operations. For thirty-three years 
it has carried on its useful work with poverty staring it in 
the face. Its membership was small, its fees trifling. Only 
one life member was on the roll with a payment of $40.00. The 
society has entered upon better times, with a greatly increased 
membership, however, and consequently a larger income. 

We have laudable ambitions; we have a large measure of 
responsibility; we have a great work to be accomplished, and 
for such work we need money. It is only in the light of con- 
trast that we are able to see our needs. The Massachusetts 
Historical Society has $417,892.91 in invested funds. Its re- 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. xxi 

ceipts in 1911 were $32,000.00. The Nova Scotia Historical 
Society had in that year no invested funds, its income was be- 
low $600.00. 

There are a few objects of a secular character towards which 
our men of means could give with better results. The Society 
needs a building of its own in which to house its records, and in 
which to do its work. The investment of $100,000.00 for that 
purpose would be of inestimable benefit to the province. 

We need a fire-proof building where historical manuscripts 
may be deposited with safety, if the highest functions of the 
society are to be fulfilled. The irreparable losses recently 
suffered in the United States by the fires in the State houses of 
New York and Kansas, ought to be a sufficient warning to all 
governments. 



The President handed to the Archivist a photograph of 
Colonel Charles James Stewart who on the 5th November, 1913, 
completed his ninety-second year; a picture of the tablet on 
the Royal Bank, Annapolis Royal, marking the birthplace of 
Sir Fenwick Williams; a picture of the inscription marking 
the visit of the first French bishop at Ste. Anne's, Church Point, 
with the inscription legibly written out kindly drawn up by 
Canon Vroom, of Windsor. 

The inscription, which is quite legible is: 

III NON IVN 

MDCCCIII 

DOM: PDENAVT 

QVEBEC 

HAS IN ORAS 

PRIM. APPVLIT 

EPISCOP 

ET 

TRIBVS 

EIII2KOIIE 

DIEBVS 

On the side of the stone is: 

HIC STETIT ARA CHRISTI 



xxii NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The President stated that he had an inquiry from Captain 
Hicks, R. N., private secretary to the Lieut. Governor, regarding 
the original journal of Charles Mason, who with Jeremiah Dixon 
surveyed the boundary line between Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land in 1764-7. Mr. Thatcher T. P. Luquer, consulting en- 
gineer of New York, in a letter to the Private Secretary says : 
"In the encyclopaedias reference is made to the finding in 1860, 
among some waste papers in the basement of Government 
House at Halifax, of the original Journal." "Mr. Porter C. 
Bliss described the journal in the Historical Magazine of July 
1861, and states that it was then in the possession of a gentle- 
man of Nova Scotia." 

The President exhibited a State paper of great historical 
interest, the original document, bearing the Royal signature and 
seal : The Additional Instructions of King George I to Gover- 
nor Phillips of Nova Scotia, dated August 31st, 1724, regard- 
ing import duties on European goods, imported in English 
vessels into our Province. This document is now in the pos- 
session of Mr. Beckles Willson, of Clifton Grove, Windsor, N. S. 

The President stated that Dr.J. Johnston Hunt,had present- 
ed the Library with a bound copy of the first volume of "The 
Mayflower, or the Ladies Acadian Newspaper," first published 
in 1851. 

The President handed the Archivist a copy of "The May- 
flower," a patriotic song, by the late Ernest E. Leigh, formerly 
organist and choir master of St. Paul's Church, Halifax. 

The President referred to the sad loss which historical cir- 
cles in the Maritime Provinces had suffered by the death of 
David Russell Jack, one of the foremost historical students in 
Canada. The late Mr. Jack was a man with large sympathies, 
a wide out-look upon life, and of indefatigable energy. He 
possessed the true historical spirit in a large degree, and gave 
of his time, energy and means for the futherance of the work 
he so dearly loved. We sympathize with the members of the 
New Brunswick Historical Society in their great loss. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. XX111 

The President handed to the Archivist a photograph from 
an old Silhouette, of Mrs. Rebecca Clements Hill, wife of Wil- 
liam Hill, Loyalist. The picture bears the date 1738-1813. 
He also handed over a photograph of Major John Lewis 
Hill, 1805-1888, Cape Breton Militia, for 15 years Sheriff of 
Cape Breton County, 1860-1875. The photographs are pre- 
sented to the Society by a member, Mr. Albert J. Hill of New 
Westminster. Mr. Hill has presented the Society with an 
excellent likeness of Rev.Ranna Cossitt, one of the early Church 
missionaries who died at Yarmouth in 1815, and with a geneal- 
ogical record of the Cossitt family from 1700 to the present time. 

The President stated that he had a communication from 
Miss M. I. Willet of 354 West 57th Street, New York, asking 
for information concerning Samuel and James Willet, who were 
taken prisoners in the Revolutionary War and brought to 
Canada. 

The President stated that Frank Dyer Chester, Ph. D., 
had written from The Bristol, Boston, asking for information: 
May I inquire whether you have in your library the colonial 
record of the family of Simeon Chester (from New London- 
Groton, Conn,) and his wife Elizabeth Bent (of Milton, Mass.) 
who settled at Truro, N. S. about 1760. 

This Simeon Chester had nine children perhaps all born in 
Nova Scotia : 

Simeon b Mch. 30, 1767. [Elian (Elisha) b Dec. 24, 1773 

Elizabeth b June 12, 1768' 1] Elijah " " " " 

Calvin b 'B lElias " " " " 

3 (Lydia b Susannah " Mch 31, 1776 

B( Caleb d 

They all later moved to the State of Ohio, except perhap s 
the branch of Eliah (Elisha) who married Hannah Ladowney 
(LeDernier?) about whom I would like information. Elijah 
may have died young; but Elias married Oct. 15, 1797 Hannah 
Vincent Freeman of Pomfret, Conn, whose father was Capt . 



XXIV NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY . 

Elisha Freeman of Truro, Mass, and Norwich, Conn. Her 
sister Abigial married Col. Street of St. John, N. B. Another 
sister, Ann Frances, married a LeDernier. 

I have a feeling that there must be a family of Chesters in 
your province related to us, either from this Simeon branch, 
or from an earlier member of the family. 

Please accept my hearty thanks for all that you can do for 
me in this regard. 

The Freemans and Bents were in Amherst, N. S. 

P. S. It is stated that Simeon Chester was head of Cumberland 
County Committee of Safety in November, 1770. 

The President stated that he had a communication from 
the distinguished historical student, Professor Ganong, con- 
gratulating the Society on Volume XVII, not only for the value 
of its contents, but also on the good judgment displayed, in 
the selection and arrangement of the material. Professor 
Ganong is anxious to have the inscriptions on the Yarmouth 
stones reproduced photographically. 

The President had a communication from the Rev. Dr. 
Eaton of Boston, in regard to the Greenough family, concerning 
which inquiry was made at the December meeting. Dr. Eaton 
writes: "In the grant of the Township of Newport in 1761, 
Daniel Greeno, or Greno, or Greenough does not appear, but 
in the Newport Township book are the following entries: 

Daniel Greno, and Elizabeth Little, widow, were married 
7th October, 1762, by Isaac Deschamps, Esq., J. P. Daniel 
and Elizabeth, born 25th December, 1764. Allen, born 27th 
April, 1764. 

Daniel Greenough was not a Loyalist, he evidently came in 
1761 or 1762. What property he may have owned can be 
found only from Crown Land records in Halifax, (if he had any 
grant) and from Deeds in Windsor, N. S." 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. xxv 

The President announced that papers had been promised 
by the following members: 

Mr. Horace Flemming, of the Bank of Nova Scotia, on the 
subject of: "The Old Currency of Nova Scotia." 

The Rev. Arthur John Lockhart of Winterport, Maine, 
known as "Pastor Felix," in the literary world, on the subject: 
"Acadian Reminiscences of Fifty Years Ago." 

The President presented the Report of the Committee ap- 
pointed at the February Meeting to wait on the Provincial 
Government, to ask for the publication of the Acadian Docu- 
ments relating to the Expulsion which, it is claimed, have come 
to light since Dr. Akins published the volume of the Record 
Commission. The Government, it is understood, will take 
action in the matter. 

The President reported that there had been a very con- 
siderable demand on the part of learned bodies, for the early 
volumes of our "Collections." We had recently a request 
from the University of Hong Kong; and "The Western 
Reserve Historical Society" of Cleveland, Ohio, has made 
application for volumes 1 to 10. It would be well to reprint 
some of the earlier volumes, as soon as the Society is in a 
financial position to do so. Volumes 1, 2 and 5 are out of 
print. 

The condition of the French Burial Ground near Rock- 
ingham Bedford Basin has aroused considerable interest. 

The Historical Society has started a movement to interest 
the French Government, the Government of Quebec, and Can- 
adians generally in erecting a monument to the memory of the 
dead of the Due d'Anville's fleet who perished of fever in large 
numbers while in temporary camp at Bedford Basin. 

The President reported that Mr. John Howard, Agent 
General of Nova Scotia through whom inquiries had been made 



xxvi NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

by Mr. A. M. Payne, as to the whereabouts of the painting 
of Lord Halifax, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, after whom the City 
of Halifax was named, and the possibility of obtaining a copy 
of the same, had stated that the picture had been offered at 
Christie's Art Sales and had been purchased by Lord Curzon, 
ex-Viceroy of India. His Lordship courteously permitted a 
photograph to be taken of this fine picture and copies were 
forwarded to Mr. Payne for the Society. 

Through the kindness of Mr. I. C. Stewart, a valued mem- 
ber of our Society, copies of this picture were distributed, 
at the Annual Meeting, when Mr. A. M. Payne took the Earl 
of Halifax, as the subject of his paper. 

The President submitted a resolution unanimously passed 
at a meeting of the Maritime Board of Trade, where the Society 
was represented by Mr. W. C. Milner August 21st, 1913. 

"Whereas, the territories embraced within the limits of 
Ancient Acadia first settled three hundred years ago, being 
the first European Settlement made in America, north of St. 
Augustine, wherein the struggle for national supremacy, were 
the scenes of many conflicts in the French, Indian and Revolu- 
tionary wars, and were associated with many historic indivi- 
duals and with deeds of valor and heroism, and with acts of 
self sacrifice and patriotic devotion; 

And whereas, except in five cases, the sites of such scenes 
have passed into private hands and in no case, but one, has the 
Federal Government taken any steps to preserve and perpetuate 
such sites for the benefit of future generations; 

Resolved, that this Board of Trade strongly recommends 
the Federal Government to acquire by purchase, or otherwise,, 
such historic sites as they do not now possess and to mark the 
same by appropriate monuments, and also, that the manages 
ment and perpetual keep of the same be placed in the hand- 
of a Government Department or Commission ; also that copies 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. xxvii 

of this resolution be sent to the Right Honourable R. L. Bor- 
den, and Honourable Messrs. White, Foster, Hazen and Col. 
Hughes." 

At the January Meeting his Honor Judge Savary gave the 
following appreciation of the late David Russell Jack The 
Judge expressed his regret for the loss to the literature and 
history of the Maritime Provinces by the passing away of Mr. 
Jack in the midst of his career of usefulness which was tinged in 
his mind with the sense of a personal bereavement, for he was 
one of his most esteemed and valued correspondents. "Mr. 
Jack's knowledge of the history and genealogy of the Mari- 
time Provinces was wonderful, and he was always delighted to 
communicate his knowledge to others. He would spare no 
pains to give enquirers any information they asked of him. 
As a proof of his generosity and public spirit in this respect 
may be cited the fact, that although not a rich man he carried 
on his valuable Magazine "Acadiensis" ten years at a loss of 
$200 a year. If in the trite old adage poeta nascitur, non fit, 
the word poeta applies to the historian as well as to the poet 
in the English sense of the term. Mr. Jack was a striking 
example of a man possessing an "historical instinct," for he 
wrote his history of the City of St. John when he was only 19 
years old. He was engaged at the time of his death on a his- 
tory of the Loyalists of New Brunswick which no doubt would 
have been a most valuable book." 



The Council wishes to put on record that the portrait ap- 
pearing under the name of Governor Charles Lawrence, Vol. 
XVI, Folio 11, which had been published by the Society in good 
faith, is now believed to be the portrait of Dr. Adam Ferguson. 

The Council desires to state that the Society does not hold 
itself responsible for the views expressed by the writers of pap- 
ers or for the authenticity of the portraits furnished. 



xxviii NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Members Elected at the November Meeting. 

McCIare, Charles Herbert, Architect, Cambridge Mass. 

MacKenzie, Alexander, Halifax. 

Schwartz, William E., Halifax. 

Salter, Frank, Halifax. 

Logan, Daniel, Commercial Editor Star-Bulletin, Honolulu. 

Morse, Rev. Wm. Inglis, B. D., Lynn, Mass. 

McLeod, Prof. Clement Henry, (Professor of Geodesy) McGill 

University, Montreal. 
Moffatt, Thos. Inglis Dunlap, Halifax. 
Pottinger, David, Moncton, N. B. 
Mylius, L. J., Winnipeg. 

Lockhart, Rev. Arthur John, (Pastor Felix) Winterport, Me. 
Pope, Miss Georgina, Halifax. 
Minard, Asa Raymond, Toronto. 
Townsend, Rev. Wm. Thos., B. A., Carcross, B. C. 
Crane, Lt. Colonel J. Noble, Halifax. 
Willson, Beckles, "Clifton", Windsor. 
Newcombe, Edmund Leslie, K. C., Deputy Minister of Justice, 

Ottawa. 

Nicholson, Chas. Butler, M. A., "Detroit Free Press." 
Richardson, Harry A., General Manager, Bank of Nova Scotia, 

Toronto. 

Primrose, Alex., M. D., Toronto. 

Masters, John F., Supt. Dominion Atlantic. Railway, Boston. 
Egan, Lt. Col. Thos J., Halifax. 
Longard, Clarence, Halifax. 
Blackadar, Henry Douglas, Halifax. 
Lugar, Mrs. Wm. R., Halifax. 
Laurie, Miss, Oakfield, N. S. 
Anderson, Mrs., 3 North Bland Street. 
James, Rev. Willis, G. B. A., Calgary. 
Harris, Rev. George D., Fall River, Mass. 
MacKenzie, Archdeacon Chas., Gallipolis, Ohio. 
Thome, S. J., North Sydney Herald. 
Wylde, Chas. Fenwick, M. D., Montreal. 
Morrow, Mrs. Marion S., Halifax. 
Elliot, Mrs. F. E., Halifax. 
Ryan, Mrs. Frank W., Halifax. 
Ross, Howard Salter, D. C. L., Montreal. 
Fenerty, Lloyd Hamilton, Calgary. 
MacDonald, Henry Kirkwood, M. D., Halifax. 
MacKenzie, Wm. F., J. P., New Glasgow. 
Cutler, Robert Mollison, Halifax. 
Moberley, Thomas Ed., Toronto. 

Starratt, Prof. Frank A., Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y. 
Sponagle, Lt.-Col., M. D., Middleton, N. S. 

Hare, Henry Mather, M. D., Harrington Harbor, Cote Nord, Q. 
Webster, Henry Duntley, M. D., Kentville. 
Tremaine, Dunsier Lambton, Halifax. 
Wiswell, William H., Halifax. 
Russell, Bernard W., Halifax. 

McCarthy, Professor Joseph B., Windsor, N. S. 
Rand, Benjamin, Ph. D., Harvard Philosophical Library. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESvS. XXIX 

Cutler, Mrs. Robert M., Halifax. 
Wilson, Edwin Alonzo, Halifax. 
Starr, Chas. C., Halifax. 
Schaffner, I. B., Halifax. 
MacLean, Dr., North Sydney. 
MacDonald, Capt. Donald, Sydney. 
Gray, F. W., C. E., Sydney. 

Members Elected December Meeting. 

Holmes, Hon. Simon H., Halifax. 
Warman, Charles, Liverpool. 
Dickson, Dr. M. S., Dartmouth. 
Whitman, Frank C., Annapolis Royal. 
Fortier, Loftus Morton, Annapolis Royal. 
Clark, Willard G., Bear River. 
Betton, J. Edgar, Toronto. 
Warner, Frederick Alex., Halifax. 
Sare, R. G., Halifax. 
Bowser, W. H., Halifax. 
Covey, Mrs. Lorenzo E., Halifax. 
Young, Mrs. Frank, Dartmouth. 

Members Elected January Meeting. 

Thompson, Alfred M. P., Dawson City. 
Finn, William D., M. D., Halifax. 

Fraser, Rev. D. Stiles, D. D., Musquodoboit Harbor. 
Richardson, Rev. Marshall Sterling, Truro. 
Buckley, Avery F., M. D., Halifax. 
Sterling, John William, M. D., Montreal. 
Sedgewick, Rev. Thomas, D. D., Tatamagouche. 
Roper, Henry, Halifax. 

Members Elected February Meeting. 

Smith, Charles, R., K. C., Amherst. 

Starr, Mrs. F. N. C., 112 College Street, Toronto. 

Fairbanks, Edward Binney, Campbellton, N. B. 

Swaine, James Malcolm, Assistant Entomologist, Ottawa. 

Smithers, Canon Allan, W., Fredericton, N. B. 

Whitman, O. H., Canso, N. S. 

Fielding, Mrs. Jean U., Editor Windsor Tribune, Windsor, N. S. 

Slayter, Major James M., R. G. A., Halifax. 

Heward, Captain Stephen, A. R. C. A., Halifax. 

Wier, Hedley Vicars, Halifax. 

Uniacke, Lieut-Col. Crofton J., 4 Allhambra Road, Southsea, Eng. 

McLeod, John D., Barrister, Pictou. 

Phillips, Arthur Lang, 38 Cedar St.,, Halifax. 

Macdonald, Alvin F., Editor, The Morning Chronicle, Halifax. 

Outram, Captain Edmund, "Alsatian," Liverpool, Eng. 

Grierson, Rev. Robert, M. D., Seoul, Corea. 

Farrish, Henry E., Esq., M. D., Liverpool, N. S. 

Archibald, W. C., Wolfville. 

Studd, W. H., Halifax. 



XXX NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Members Elected March Meeting. 

Ross, Edwin Byron, Vancouver, B. C. 

Shreve, Rev. Canon Richmond, D. D., Sherbrooke, Que. 

Wilson, J. T., Halifax. 

McLeod, John R., Halifax. 

Bligh, Harris Harding, Halifax. 

Henderson, Donald H., Two Rivers, Washington, U. S. 

Clarke, Frederick John, Halifax. 

Chambers, Robert E. C., New Glasgow. 

Smith, Dr. Freeman P., Mill Village, Queen's County, N. S. 

Walker, E. M., Dartmouth. 

Owen, Hon. W. H., Bridgewater. 

Corresponding Member. 

Eaton, Arthur Hamilton Wentworth, D. C. L., Boston. 
Members Elected April Meeting. 

Hensley, Mrs. George, Halifax. 

Stairs, Miss Anna, Bland Street, Halifax. 

Kennedy, Professor W. M. P., M. A. F. R., Hist S. (Eng.), Pro- 

fesspr of Modern History, University of St. Francis Xavier, 

Antigonish. 

Stewart, W. B., Digby, N. S. 

Thompson, The Very Rev. Alexander, D. D., Glace Bay. 
Whitman, William, Boston, Mass (Life Member). 
Wallace, Rev. Gates Chas. Symonds, D. D., Westmount, Montreal. 
Harrington, Gordon Sydney, Mayor of Glace Bay. 
Webster, David Esq., M. D., 24 East 48th Street, New York. 
Shand, F. A., Sec., Windsor Furniture Company, Windsor. 
Sedgewick, Major F. R., late Royal Field Artillery, Granville Ferry. 
Cox, George Hastings, M. D., New Glasgow. 
Hariison, Laurie Longley, M. D., Halifax. 
Archibald, Chas. C., Bear River. 
Ross, A. David, Amherst. 
Friel, James Barrister, Dorchester, N. B. 

As Corresponding Membe. . 

Greenwood, Charles, Esq., F. C. I. S., Registrar, The Manorial 
Society, 1 Mitre Court Buildings, Temple, London Eng. 

Members Elected at May Meeting. 

Guest, William Taylor, 841 Chempagnear Avenue, Montreal. 
Powell, Alderman William Robert, Halifax. 
Hewitt, G. Trafford, Halifax. 

Pearson, Mrs. Benjamin Franklin, "Emscote," Halifax. 
Thomson, Arthur, Esq., M. B., C. M., (Edin.), D. P. H., (Can- 
tab), Whytegates, Stratford-on-Avon, England. 
Lockerby Mr. R. Archibald, Halifax. 
Dyer, Mr. Arthur F., Halifax. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. xxxi 

HISTORIC TABLETS 

There have been many interesting and impressive ceremon- 
ies in connection with the work of the Society in marking the 
historic sites of the Province. At H. M. Naval Yard Halifax 
there was a large contingent of men drawn up from the 
"Cumberland," under command of Lt. Cowan. Captain 
Doughty of the "Melpomene," Captain Aubrey Smith of the 
"Cumberland," Captain MacDonald of the "Niobe," Major 
Clark of the "Marines," Lord George Seymour of the "Melpo- 
mene," and Lt. Ravenshaw with other naval officers were 
present. The army was represented by Colonel Rutherford 
and Captain Gibsone. There was a representative gathering 
of citizens. Archdeacon Armitage presided. 

Captain Martin, head of the Naval Yard, gave an eloquent 
and most interesting speech. He recalled the fact that as a 
midshipman on the "Shannon," Sir Provo Wallis visited the 
ship and presented them with a memento of the famous "Shan- 
non" of 1813 fame. The old Admiral was always a great ad- 
vocate of good gunnery and of the constant need of practice. 
It was then that he used the famous saying: "If you have the 
guns use them, and use them properly." He was indeed the 
"Father of the British Fleet." 

Captain Martin unveiled the Tablet which reads as fol- 
lows : 

Near this spot in 

H. M. Naval Yard, was born, 

Sir Provo William Parry Wallis, K. C. B., 

1791-1892. 

Who served with great distinction for 88 years in the Navy: first 

won fame on board the "Shannon" in her famous action with 

the "Chesapeake," and brought the Prize to Halifax, 1813: 

rose to the rank of Admiral of the Fleet; and long bore 

the great honour of being "The Father of the 

British Fleet." 

The Nova Scotia Historical Society. 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Archdeacon Armitage called upon Colonel Rutherford, 
officer commanding the Maritime Provinces to unveil the Tab- 
let to General Beckwith. Colonel Rutherford spoke most 
warmly of the distinguished services of the Halifax boy who 
rose to the rank of a Major-General of the British Army. 
Beckwith was every inch a soldier. His crowning honours were 
won on the fateful field of Waterloo, and he has since been 
associated with the great name of Wellington. Beckwith 
was not only a soldier, but having lost his leg at Waterloo, he 
gave up his life to missionary service in the Alps. 

The Tablet Colonel Rutherford unveiled reads as follows: 

Near this Spot in 
H. M. Naval Yard was born 

Major General 
John Charles Beckwith. 
1789-1862. 

Knight of the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus; 

who rendered Distinguished Service in the 

Peninsular War, and on the 

famous field of Waterloo. 

The Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

The massed bands of the R. C. R. Regiment and of the 
"Cumberland," under band-master Ryan struck up "God save 
the King," Rule Britannia," and brought the function to a 
close by playing "O Canada," a tribute to two of our most dis- 
tinguished Canadians. It is of interest that Prince Albert 
was at this Station during the function. 

The following Historic Tablets have been placed to mark 
historic objects and sites: the house of Mrs. S. E. Moren, 310 
Pleasant Street, the site of the residence of Bishop Charles 
Inglis, afterwards the residence of Professor Hagarty. 

The tablet reads: 

The site of the Bishop Inglis House, 
and the birthplace of Sir John Eardley Wilmot Inglis, K. C. B., 

1814-1862. 
"The Hero of Lucknow." 

The Nova Scotia Historical Society. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. xxxiii 

Archdeacon Armitage presided. The tablet was unveiled by 
the Hon. Colonel Sam. Hughes, Minister of Militia. 

There were present, the Lieutenant-Governor, Gen. Sir 
Ian Hamilton, G. C. B., D. S. O., Colonel Rutherford, Col. 
Humphrey, Major Maddocks, military secretary ; Colonel Victor 
Williams, A. S. C., Lt. Col. Vidito, Lt. Col. Oxley, Dr. McKay, 
Superintendent of Education; Dr. David Allison, J. C. Mac- 
kintosh, W. C. Milner, of the Dominion Archives, and a num- 
ber of leading citizens. Archdeacon Armitage presented 
Mrs. A. MacMechan and Mrs. Powell as representing the Im- 
perial Order of the Daughters of the Empire, the order hav- 
ing contributed to the object of erecting historic tablets. 

The memorial tablet unveiled by General Sir Ian Hamilton, 
G. C. B., D. S. Q., Inspector General of the Overseas Forces, 
in the Province Building grounds contained the following in- 
scription : 

Tradition saith 
That this cannon was used 
On board H. M. S. Shannon 

In the historic sea fight 
Between the Chesapeake and the Shannon 

June 1st, 1813. 

It was used as the noon and evening gun. 
1882-1905. 

The Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

The Canadian Bioscope Company secured films of the two 
scenes, which have been widely shown throughout Canada, 
and the British Isles. 



A worthy memorial tablet has been set up in St. George's 
Church, Halifax, immediately over Colonel DesBarres' grave 
in the crypt. The tablet, at the president's request, was 
unveiled by Mr. James S. Macdonald, who also delivered an 



xxxiv NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

excellent address embracing the varied and prolonged career 
of Governor DesBarres. 

This Tablet Commemorates 

Col. Joseph Frederick Wallet DesBarres, Cartographer, Engineer, 
Administrator, who served in this Garrison as Captain of the 

Royal American Regiment of Foot, 1756. 
Won distinction at Louisburg, 1758, Aide-de-Camp to Gen. Wolfe 

at Quebec, 1759. 

Surveyor-General of the North Atlantic Coast, Preceptor of 
Captain Cook, the Circumnavigator. 

Author of the Atlantic Neptune. 

Founder of Sydney, C. B.; Lt.-Governor of Cape Breton and of 
Prince Edward Island, buried beneath this church, 

Nov. 1st, 1824. 
At the reputed age of 103 years. 

The Nova Scotia Historical Society. 



His Honour Judge Savary unveiled a tablet on the old 
Fort at Annapolis Royal. 

This Tablet Commemorates 

Two distinguished sons of Annapolis Royal, Admiral Phillips Cosby, 
1727-1808; and Admiral William Wolseley, 1756-1842 whose fa- 
thers were officers serving in this Fort, and their mothers 
descendents of William Winniett, the first permanent 
British resident. 

The Nova Scotia Historical Society. 



Sir Robert Borden Prime Minister of Canada, unveiled 
a tablet to the memory of Samuel G. W. Archibald, the distin- 
guished Nova Scotian who in the earlier years of the nineteenth 
century played such an important part in the government of 
the Province. 

There was a large gathering in the Assembly chamber, 
the tablet, which is of cast bronze with a medallion, being placed 
on the east side of the room. 

Among those present were Sir Robert Borden and Lady 
Borden, Archdeacon Armitage, Sir Sandford Fleming, K. C. 
M. G.; The Hon. Mr. Justice Longley, The Hon. Mr. Justice 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. XXXV 

Graham, Hon. E. H. Armstrong, Hon. G. E. Faulkner, Hon. 
R. McGregor, C. E. Tanner, M. P. P., Mayor Bligh, Rev. 
Dr. Forrest, G. E. Franklyn and others. 

Archdeacon Armitage presided, and speeches were made 
by Sir Robert Borden and Dr. David Allison. 

The inscription is as follows: 

This Tablet Commemorates 

The Public Services of a distinguished Nova Scotian, The Hon. 

Samuel George William Archibald, born at Truro, 1777, died 

1846, Orator, Jurist, Statesman, Speaker of the House of 

Assembly, Attorney-General, and Master of the Rolls 

of the Province of Nova Scolia and Chief Justice of 

the Province of Prince Edward Island. 

The Nova Scotia Historical Society. 



The Programme for the season was as follows: 

November: Paper on Charles Inglis, First Bishop of Nova 
Scotia, by Archdeacon Armitage, M. A., Ph. D. 

December: Paper "The Settlement of Guysboro' and 
Hallowell Grant," by A. C. Jost, Esq., M. D. 

January: Paper "A Brief History of the Town of Bridge- 
town, illustrating the changes which have taken place in the 
manners, customs and habits of the rural population of Nova 
Scotia during the Century just closed; with a Sketch of the 
career of Colonel Poyntz, a Peninsula Veteran," by John Ir- 
vin, Esq., K. C. 

February: Paper "Wolfe's Men and Nova Scotia/' 
by Buckles Willson. 

March: "Jonathan Belcher" by Hon. Sir Charles Towns- 
hend, D. C. L. 

April: Paper "The Earl of Halifax," by A. M. Payne. 
May: Paper " Artists in Nova Scotia," by Harry Piers. 



xxxvi NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

OBITUARY. 
The Honorable William Ross, P. C., 1825-1912. 

The Hon. William Ross was one of our foremost public men, 
having served his country with conspicuous devotion in the 
Provincial legislature, 1859-67, in the Dominion Parliament, 
first as a private member, 1867-74, 1900-4; as Minister of 
Militia and Defence, 1873-4; and as a Senator 1905-12. The 
late Senator Ross was a keen student of provincial history and 
brought to our meetings the wealth of his long experience. 



The Hon. John Neville Armstrong, K. C., M. C. L., 

1854-1913. 

The Hon. John Neville Armstrong, was a man of large 
and of distinguished public service. He was a wise counsellor 
and possessed of fine executive ability. His interest in his- 
torical matters was intelligent and constant, and his knowledge 
of the history of Cape Breton extensive. 



The Hon. John Valentine Ellis, 1835-1913. 

The Hon. Senator Ellis, was one of the first to accept Life 
Membership in our Society. An able Journalist, a gifted wri- 
ter and man of affairs, he left his mark on the history of New 
Brunswick and the Dominion. 



The Hon. Adam C. Bell, 1847-19. 

The Hon. Senator Bell, was one of the most distinguished 
Pictonians of his day, who served the Province and Dominion 
with great fidelity, as a member of the Legislative Assembly, 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. xxxvii 

(1878-1887) and House of Commons (1896-1904); as Provin- 
cial Secretary, 1882; and as Senator 1911-12. His interest in 
historical matters was deep and abiding. 



Brigadier General Charles William Drury. 
(1856-1913). 

General Drury, while in command of the Maritime Provin- 
ces, took a deep interest in the work of our Society, and stood 
always ready to advance our interests. He was strongly in 
favour of marking our historic sites. 





John W. Gorham. 

The name of John W. Gorham linked the Halifax of to-day 
v'f with the historic past, for the progenitor of the family was the 
famous Colonel/^Gorham who played such an important part 
in the early history of the Province, as head of the "Indian 
Rangers" in 1747, as member of the first Council in 1749, and 

for many years after in the settlement of Halifax. 

/ lU 




11 
The Yen. James Albert Kaulbachi D. D. 

(1839-1913). 

Archdeacon Kaulbach was a distinguished son of Lunen- 
burg County, whose unfailing courtesy and blameless life, 
marked him out as a man of light and leading. He took a 
special interest in the history of Lunenburg. 




xxxviii NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The Hon. James McDonald. 
(1828*1912). 

The Hon. James McDonald was long a foremost leader of 
the bar, sat for Pictou in the local legislative, 1859-67; in the 
House of Commons, 1872-4 and 1878-81; Minister of Justice, 
1878-81; was appointed Chief Justice of Nova Scotia, 1881, 
retired 1904. He was a man of fine attainments and sterling 
character, and was characterized by Sir John Macdonald in 
1873, as "the best man in the House of Commons." 



Frank Davison. 

Frank Davison was one of our foremost captains of industry 
and might well be called a "lumber King." He came of a 
family long associated with the development of the Province; 
and did yeoman service himself. He was especially valued as 
a member of the Royal Conservation Commission (1909). 



James Simon Macdonald. 
(1837-1914). 

The following resolution on motion of Hon. Mr. Justice 
Longley, seconded by Sir Charles Townshend, was ordered to 
be spread on the Minutes of the Society. 

The death of J. S. MacDonald, Esq., is more than an or- 
dinary event to this Historical Society. His positions in life 
were variable, but to this Historical Society he was always one 
commanding force and he contributed more to the historical 
transactions of the Society than any other member. 

Four years ago the Society chose Mr. MacDonald for its 
President and during his entire year he worked steadily and 
consistently for the upbuilding of the Society and the promul- 
gation of fine historical work. 



PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. XXX x 

Although at his death he was seventy-eight years of age, 
Mr. McDonald wore few marks of old age or decrepitude. 
He was bright and interested in the promotion of historical 
work. His death came as a surprise to himself as well as to 
others. He has passed away as all the rest of us will some day 
go and he leaves behind him valuable work, which will endure 
for a long time to come. He made a collection of books and 
papers which are of great value. 



Monsignor Thomas J. Daly, M. A. 
(1839-1914.) 

The passing away of the Right Reverend Thomas J. Daly, 
M. A., Vicar-General of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of 
Halifax, who departed this life Sunday, 27th September, 1914, 
removes the last survivor of the Society whose names appear 
in the Act of Incorporation of 1879. The unfailing courtesy 
of the late Monsignor Daly endeared him to the members of 
the Society, as they did to all who came in contact with him. 
The community is the poorer for the loss of one who was in 
the truest sense of the words "a Christian gentleman." 



The attention of the Council of the Society having been 
called to a criticism of Parr's portrait, published in our Collec- 
tions, Vol. XIV (1909) p. 14; a statement was prepared for 
publication by the late Jas. S. Macdonald. 

It is claimed that the portrait is not one of Parr, but is a 
copy of a portrait of Nelson, in possession of Sir W. Biddulph 
Parker, Bart. Blackbrook House, Faraham, Hants, sketched 
by John Whichelo, September, 1805. This picture appears in 
Mahan's Life of Nelson, Vol. II, p. 364. 



xl NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



THE PORTRAIT OF GOVERNOR PARR. 

When Lt. Gen. John Parr held the office of Governor of 
Nova Scotia between the year 1782 until his death in 1791, 
he was on most intimate terms with a number of the wealthy 
Scottish merchants of Halifax, among them he was specially 
friendly with Alex. Brymer and Matthew Richardson, two 
leading men, who had amassed large fortunes not only on pur- 
chases in the Admiralty Court but on the immense contracts 
they made for needed supplies with the Government during the 
war years, which marked the latter part of the 18th century in 
Halifax. From the day of Parr's landing here the two gentle- 
men mentioned were special friends of his and with Bulkeley 
formed an inner circle for advice which Parr often availed him- 
self of. Brymer for many years occupied the position of Pay- 
master of the Forces in Nova Scotia and was respected by all 
for his integrity, his success in business and also for his generous 
hospitality, a strong factor in that generation. His close friend 
Matthew Richardson was also a successful man, and at times 
when weighty operations had to be handled, a partner upon 
whom he could depend, as he was noted for his foresight and 
sagacity, and his genial management of his rivals when among 
the quicksands of the Admiralty Court. After Parr's death 
in 1791, Brymer retired from business and subsequently re- 
moved to London, and in 1796 he married Gov. Parr's eldest 
daughter, Catherine, a youthful widow of Capt. Dobson, an 
officer in Parr's old regiment, the 20th. Brymer was rich, 
entertained generously and his position as agent of the Province 
in London, and having occupied in former years the position 
of Paymaster of the Forces in Halifax, which had brought him 
in close contact with the leading officials stationed there, were 
factors which no doubt influenced the young widow in closing 
with her old admirer. 

Richardson visited London several times and made Brymer's 
house his home, and then became acquainted with Col. Ramsay, 



' PRESIDENT'S ADDRESS. ' xli 

afterwards Earl Dalhousie and Lt. Governor of Nova Scotia, 
which subsequently resulted in a close intimacy, very similar 
to that of his friend Brymer, during Parr's term of Governor of 
our Province. 

When in Halifax as Commander of the Forces and Lieut.- 
Governor of Nova Scotia, Dalhousie was looked upon as a 
silent partner in Richardson's business as large dealings almost at 
once began with the Jardines, the great agents of the East India 
Company, on Dalhousie's arrival. Joined to this, his many 
visitsrto Studley ? Richardsjon's Jbome, accompanied by his Aide- 
'HcT-Camp, Capt. Bazalgette and the evident pleasure he evinced 
in meeting Richardson, proclaimed his confidence in his 
friend. During 1817 the Earl and Richardson became per- 
petual members of the North British Society of Halifax, the 
Earl stipulating that Richardson must also be elected to the 
Perpetual list; they each paid their fee, 10 and attended the 
same meeting of the Institution and each thanked the members 
for the honor conferred on them by their countrymen. 

Before leaving Halifax in 181.8, Dalhousie presented to 
Richardson a minature portrait of the late Governor John Parr 
as a memento of his old friend Brymer's father-in-law. This 
portrait now brought into question is a miniature in vellum, 
framed in an old time setting; it remained in possession of 
Matthew Richardson until his death, when with all his property 
it passed into the hands of his eldest son the late well known 
Wm. M. Richardson, a foremost West India merchant here for 
many years. About the close of the late American Civil War, 
Mr. Richardson unfortunately lost Studley in a land boom 
started in Halifax by a Col. Hornsby which resulted disastrous- 
ly to so many of our citizens. Mr. Richardson subsequently 
removed from the old homestead and resided until his death 
very close to his old property. I knew him well and he would 
often call at my office and talk over old times in Halifax. As 
he grew old he appeared anxious about some of his relics and 
one morning he brought this Parr minature with him and asked 



xlii NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

me to take care of it as he felt anxious about its safety and so 
few had evinced any interest in the preservation of such trea- 
sures. I have had the portrait for over thirty years and when 
completing a paper on the life of Gov. John Parr, I opened up a 
correspondence with his great grandson Hallam Parr and by his 
request I had the miniature copied and sent him a proof. In 
his reply of thanks, he speaks of the strong family features of 
the copy and the likeness so well shown of himself, his father 
and grandfather. The paper was subsequently published by 
the N. S. Historical Society and with the portrait forms part 
of Vol. XIV of transactions of the Institution. 

James S. MacDonald. 
July, 1914. 




Lieut. -General William Amherst. 

(From the painting in the possession of Earl Amherst.) 




Colonel Jno. Scott. 

(From a miniature in the possession ofjlthe late 
Brandon Thomas, Esq.) 



WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 



WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 

By BECKLES WILLSON, Windsor, N. S. 
Read before the N. S. Historical Society, 6th February, 1914. 

In the year 1738 when that youthful ex-subaltern of the 
King's Own Horse, William Pitt, was angering the Walpole 
ministry by his intrepid speeches in the House of Commons and 
the preposterous tale of "Jenkin's Ear" was inciting England to 
war against Spain, there dwelt in the Kentish village of Wester- 
ham a family of the name of Wolfe. The head of this family, 
Lieut. Col. Edward Wolfe, was then in his fifty-third year: he 
had served with Marlborough and albeit a sterling soldier, the 
long peace had cut off any chance of further promotion, flis 
abundant leisure was spent in cultivating the society of his family 
and neighbours. Occasionally he went over to Ireland to visit 
certain of his friends and kindred who had emigrated thither dur- 
ing the Cromwellian regime; or they came on visits to this Kent- 
ish village of Westerham. Col. Wolfe's family consisted of his 
wife, formerly a Miss Thompson of Long Marston in Yorkshire, 
and two surviving sons, James and Edward. Although not 
yet at this time twelve years old, the elder of the two had al- 
ready decided to embrace a military career and was admired by 
his schoolfellows for his spirit and love of manly sports. Four 
miles away at Riverhead, lived a family named Amherst; 
and here also were two sons, Jeffrey and William, destined 
for the army, and both naturally on terms of great intimacy 
with the Wolfes. Jeffrey had begun life as a page of the Duke 
of Dorset, whose mansion of Knole House near by the Wolfes 
used to visit. It was there they frequently met a youthful 
scion of the house, a collegian of Trinity College, Dublin, 
George Sackville, who knew Ireland well, and for whom a com- 
mission in the army had lately been purchased. This colloca- 
tion of names is not without its significance, because the fortunes 



2 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of James Wolfe became very intimately associated with those of 
Jeffrey and William Amherst and Lord George Sackville, both 
of whom were in turn associated with Nova Scotia and are to- 
day commemorated on the map of our Province. 

There is yet another name, John Lawrence, to whom Wolfe 
was indebted for his first instruction in reading, writing and 
arithmetic; a graduate of Oxford, and one of the Lawrences of 
Hampshire. This Lawrence had been educated for the Church, 
but for some reason or other had never accepted a charge; 
but, having been promised by the local squire, John Warde, of 
Squerryes Court a certain number of pupils, he married, moved 
to Westerham and there set up a school. All traces of that 
school have vanished, with the exception of the school-bell, 
which I found last year in the possession of a lady in the ad- 
joining town of Sevenoaks: the bell which summoned James 
Wolfe and his brother Edward together with George Warde, the 
future cavalry leader of his day, to their appointed lessons. 
It was impossible but that Lawrence's young pupils should hear 
something of a young relative of their tutor, a Lieutenant 
Charles Lawrence, then serving in Col. Montague's Regiment in 
America and the West Indies. I have not been able to ascertain 
the exact degree of relationship which existed between these 
two; but Mr. Wright hazards the opinion that Charles Law- 
rence was the Rev. John Lawrence's youngei brother. At 
any rate it is~ established that this John Lawrence was born at 
Portsmouth, and that John was a family name with the Hamp- 
shire Lawrences; the father of the future governor of Nova 
Scotia was named John and a great uncle who was killed 
in a sea-fight with the Dutch was also a John Lawrence. 

More than a dozen years after he had left Mr. Lawrence's 
school, we find Wolfe writing to his friend Capt. William 
Rickson, then stationed in Nova Scotia: 

"Perhaps I am talking at random, but it is conformable 
to the idea I have of this Colonel Lawrence, whose name 
we often see in the papers. I suppose him to be amongst the 






WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 3 

first officers of the expedition, high-minded himself, and a 
judge of it in others; his ready march to the enemy marks 
the first, and his being the head of your undertaking gives 
one an opinion of his judgment. If 'tis to his advantage, I 
desire you to let me have his character at full length." 

This relationship of Wolfe's tutor and his fiiends and com- 
rades in arms to the events of Nova Scotia history extends in so 
many directions, is so remarkable and has hitherto been so 
little observed that I think you will comprehend why I have 
chosen it as the subject of this paper to-night. 

Young Wolfe, at the age of sixteen, was astonishing the 
army in Flanders, by his precocity and indefatigable zeal. 
On June 27th, 1743, the French and British armies faced each 
other on the field of Dettingen. It was Wolfe's baptism of file 
and by a singular coincidence he also had as comrades in action 
on that memorable day, who were also having their first taste 
of bloody war, not only his friends, the Amhersts but Ensign 
Robert Monckton and Lieutenant George Townshend,his first 
and second brigadiers sixteen years later at Quebec. Amongst 
his regimental intimates were also two brothers, with whose 
family the Wolfes, both in England and Ireland, had long been 
acquainted, Guy and Thomas Carleton and the William Rick- 
son already mentioned. These three, although by some years 
his senior, recogni/ed Wolfe's genius and regarded the inspired 
youth with devotion. They attached themselves to his for- 
tunes and were, as will be seen in the sequel, repaid by his inter- 
est whenever he had any opportunity of exerting it. Other men 
came to join the circle as time went on, a little band which his- 
tory may well denominate Wolfe's men. There was, for in- 
stance, in the 20th Regiment of Foot commanded by Col. 
George Sackville to which Wolfe, (a Captain at seventeen and a 
Major at nineteen) came to be transferred, a young subaltern, 
John Parr, who became one of his own captains and ultimately 
his successor in the Lieutenant Colonelcy to whom he addressed 
many affectionate letters, and who died, Lieutenant-Governor 



4 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of this Province, whose crowning fortress Wolfe's hand aided to 
wrest from the French. 

It was in 1749, that Major Wolfe, then aged 22 years, 
joined Lord George Sackville's Regiment, then actually com- 
manded also by another old friend of his, Lieut. Col. Edward 
Cornwallis. 

In the Warde Collection of Wolfe letters to his parents 
now temporarily deposited, at my suggestion, in the British 
Museum, pending the minority of the present head of the Warde 
family, there is one, dated the 25th of March, 1749, in which 
Wolfe writes thus to his mother : 

"Col. Cornwallis does certainly go to Nova Scotia (or New 
Scotland) to be absent two years; all his share of duty will 
fall upon me; six or seven campaigns and an age in Scotland! 
I shall be sick of my office: the very bloom of life nipped in this 
northern climate. I am determined" he adds, "to make some 
use of my stay here, at least; two hours every day are given up 
to application. In the morning I have a tutor to instruct me in 
mathematics and in the afternoon another comes to assist me to 
regain my lost Latin." 

Naturally the impending departure of Cornwallis for 
Nova Scotia turned the eyes of all the officers of the Twentieth 
Regiment to that country. All were curious to learn something 
about it and the intentions of the Ministry in despatching him 
on this mission. In the college at Glasgow were several books 
and pamphlets relating to Nova Scotia, and from these Wolfe 
would derive such knowledge of the geography and character- 
istics of the country as were then available. 

At this time, his friend, Rickson, was serving in Las- 
celles' regiment (the 47th Foot,* which afterwards distin- 
guished itself at Halifax and Quebec) then stationed in Ireland. 

*A highly interesting and valuable document giving particulars of Las- 
celles' Regiment and the military expedition at the founding of Halifax is 
in the possession of my friend Mr. J. B. Kenny. 



WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 5 

This young man was eight years Wolfe's senior, they had been 
subalterns together in "Duroure's," and had fought in Flanders 
together, once when Rickson was wounded at Fontenoy, 
Wolfe wrote home to his parents informing them of that fact. 
One gathers that a greater degree of intimacy existed between 
Rickson and the future hero of Louisburg than even between 
Wolfe and Carleton or Warde. 

Capt. Richard Bulkeley was an Irishman, nine years Wolfe's 
senior, born and reared in Dublin where Wolfe's uncle Walter 
was a retired major about town. When Captain Wolfe was 
fighting in Flanders and moving back and forth between that 
country and England, Captain Bulkeley was a King's Messenger 
bearing despatches to and from the seat of hostilities. Early 
in 1749, Capt. Rickson and his fellow captain, Bulkeley were 
both in Dublin and to the former and both were at Lucas's 
Hotel. To the former Wolfe wrote under date of April 2nd, 
1749: 

"Cornwallis is preparing all things for Nova Scotia; his 
absence will ever bother me; my stay must be ever-lasting; 
and 'thou knowest Hal, how I hate compulsion!' I'd rather be a 
Major upon half -pay, by my soul! These are all new men to 
me and many of them but of low mettle. Besides, I am by no 
means ambitious of command when that command obliges me to 
reside far from my own, surrounded either with flatterers or 
spies and in a country not at all to my taste. Would to God 
you had a company in this Regiment, that I might at least find 
some comfort in your conversation. Cornwallis asks to have 
Loftus with him. The Duke laughed at the request and refused 
him." 

When this letter was penned from the headquarters of 
the Twentieth Regiment at Glasgow young Wolfe feared that 
his friend and Lieut. Colonel Cornwallis's acceptance of the 
post of Governor of Nova Scotia would mean that a new lieu- 
tenant-colonel would be put over his head in the regiment. 
"In this great demand for employment, Lord George (Sack- 



6 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ville)'s interest, or even the Duke's own, will hardly be suf- 
ficent to keep out a new man." A good deal, of course, de- 
pended on whether Lieut. Col. Cornwallis remained in Nova 
Scotia. Soon it appeared that Wolfe's fears for his promotion 
were groundless; his friend Sackville was transferred to Ire- 
land and a new Colonel-in-chief of the Twentieth in the per- 
son of Lord Bury, son of Lord Albemarle, appeared on the 
scene. On the heels of this, and doubtless owing to Sackville's 
influence Wolfe, at the age of 23 was granted the much coveted 
Lieut. Colonelcy. There was a general shake-up of the regi- 
ment and it was not at all certain that some of the other cap- 
tains and lieutenants would not join Cornwallis. Captain 
Thomas Gray and Lieutenant Hinchelwood had already gone 
out and a little later Rickson to whom Wolfe had written 
"would to God you had a company in this regiment," announced 
that he, too, was off to Nova Scotia. Cornwallis had likewise 
prevailed on Capt. Bulkeley to accompany him. 

Thenceforth, Wolfe's interest in and knowledge of the 
Acadian peninsula were greatly increased by the letters from 
his friend Rickson. Wolfe's eye detected Rickson's merit; 
unfortunately the young captain lacked influence and I be- 
lieve, like many another officer, like the Carletons and Isaac 
Barre, nearly everything that came to him he owed to Wolfe. 
Seven years later, we find Wolfe interceding for a place in 
Scotland for his friend. Otherwise Rickson's two years in Nova 
Scotia would hardly have been so barren, if indeed, we can call 
barren the great service he rendered of avant-courier and gen- 
eral intelligencer to the hero of Louisbourg and Quebec. Rick- 
son appears to have been disappointed in his expectations of 
being in Cornwallis's personal service, preference being given 
to Mr. Cotterell. 

Thus Wolfe wrote: "The disappointment you speak of 
affects me greatly, and the more, as I have been told that you 
lived with Cornwallis, and, consequently, had some employ- 
ment near him that must be creditable and profitable, which 



WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 7 

I imagined you filled with all the integrity, diligence, and 
skill that I know you possessed of. I cannot otherwise account 
for the preference given to Mr. Cotterell, than that there has 
been an early promise, or some prevailing recommendations 
from England that Cornwallis could not resist. However, 
if I was governor, methinks I should choose about my person 
some experience and military ability, as requisite in the affairs 
of a new colony, situated as yours is, as any branch of know- 
ledge whatever." 

I have been unable to ascertain precisely the nature of 
Rickson's services in Nova Scotia, except that he was employed 
with Lawrence at Forts Edward and Cumberland. 

Wolfe, at this time was engaged in pushing forward other 
friends. Thus on March 19, 1751, he writes Rickson, then 
probably at Fort Edward : 

"The young gentleman who delivers my letters has served 
in the regiment with me. Want of precaution and not want of 
honesty has obliged him to leave it. You'll learn his story from 
Cornwallis. I desire you to countenance and assist him a little 
and I hope you may not think any services that you may do 
him thrown away." 

The name of this subaltern, was Porter. He had got 
himself into an awkward scrape, in which a lady was concerned, 
yet, we have Wolfe's own words, "he left his regiment with the 
approbation of all his brethren and with the reputation of hon- 
esty and upright behaviour." 

As a result of Wolfe's intercession, Cornwallis found em- 
ployment for Lieut. Porter, in Halifax and at a later period, 
I find from the records that he is serving as Army Paymaster 
in Cape Breton. 

Another young officer whom Wolfe befriended at this time 
was Lieutenant Scott, the son of an old friend and neighbour 
of the Wolfe family. Wolfe and he had been schoolfellows at 



8 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Greenwich, and although Scott was a sterling officer somehow 
he did not rise. There is a letter of Wolfe's about him as early 
as May 31st, 1750, showing how he had urged his promotion 
upon the Duke of Cumberland, through his friend Jeffrey Am- 
herst. Scott was induced to come to Nova Scotia ; he became 
accustomed to Indian warfare and when Wolfe came out in 
'58, was put by him in charge of a battalion of Rangers, and 
Light Infantry. Scott, as we shall see, greatly distinguished 
himself at Louisburg. 

I must also mention another of Wolfe's men par excel- 
lence, Alexander Murray, who was commanding at Fort Ed- 
ward, now Windsor, in 1754, and who had since gone home to 
England. There are several letters extant from Wolfe to 
Murray. Wolfe stood godfather to Murray's infant boy, who 
was christened, James Wolfe, and became the ancestor of a 
long line of Wolfe Murrays, culminating in the present Sir 
James Wolfe Murray. 

I am indebted to an unpublished paper by the late Dr. 
Henry Youle Hind for some interesting particulars concern- 
ing Murray. During his stay at Fort Edward he wrote numer- 
ous letters from "The Hill" as he termed the Fort, to his wife 
in Halifax, which gave interesting particulars of the life there. 
On July 31st, 1755, about a month before the Acadian Ex- 
pulsion, he writes: 

"I can say nothing of the people here; they are in as great 
anxiety as I am about their fate; they are poor, unlucky, 
obstinate, blind to their own interests and insensible of every 
benefit bestowed on them by an indulgent government." 

After Louisbourg Murray was with Wolfe at Quebec, leav- 
ing his wife and children at the former fortress. On the day 
of the battle he despatched this brief letter to Mrs. Murray. 
Its existence, as well as that of the longer description of the 
same event a week later, was unknown to me when I published 
my Life and Letters of Wolfe : 




Lt.-Col. Alexander Murray. 

(From the oil painting in possession of Lieut. -General J. Wolfe Murray.) 



WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 

Field of Battle above or rather behind Quebec, Sept. 
1759. 

My Dear Wife : This day we forced the landing above 
Quebec. We got a shore by surprise as at Kennington Cove. 
When we had been about two hours ashore, the French Regulars 
and Canadians about 12,000 attacked us in a set battle, when we 
beat them in about an hour. Our loss is great as poor Wolfe is 
killed, Montcalm wounded, Coman, Pinkorne and Niven 
wounded. I escaped unhurt according to my usual good luck, 
by the blessing of God. Adieu, my dear, believe me, always 
truly yours always. A. Murray. 

In his further letter Murray says that after Wolfe's order 
for general fire, 

"there was no restraining the men; the Grenadiers ran in 
with their bayonets and a general rout ensued. Several of my 
grenadiers' bayonets were bent and their muzzles dipt in gore; 
but so soon as the action was over there was no slaughter. 
Never was there a greater victory. Our loss is great, as poor 
General Wolfe was killed on the right with my people. I have 
stolen this time to tell you this story from sleep, for I am now re- 
gulating officer to Brigadier Murray as I was to Brigadier Whit- 
more at Louisbourg." 

As commander of the 48th Murray later took part in the cap- 
tuie of Martinique by Rodney and died there on the 19th 
March, 1762. 

There is a letter extant from a Colonel Eraser, to Lieut-Col. 
Murray about his promotion. He tells him how he is "indebt- 
ed particularly to honest Wolfe, whose warmth of heart makes 
him as amiable as his bravery does respectable." Notable in- 
deed is the number of meritorious men whom Wolfe brought 
into notice. There too was the famous Colonel Isaac Barr, 
who subsequently acknowledged, "For want of friends I had 
lingered a subaltern officer eleven years, when Mr. Wolfe's 
opinion of me rescued me from that obsecurity." There is 



10 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

(as Wright says) something very pathetic in the expression of 
this political gladiator's grateful remembrance of his "only 
protector and friend," his "zealous and sole advocate," his 
late General. "All were swift to follow whom all loved." 

"You are happy in a governor," Wolfe writes to Rickson,* 
"and he'll be happy to have one near him that can be so ser- 
viceable to him as you have it in your power to be. I daresay 
you art on good terms together and mutual aid will confirm 
your former friendship. He will require from you industry and 
assiduity; and in return you may expect his confidence and 
trust. I look upon his situation as requiring one of his very way 
of thinking, before all things else; for to settle a new colony, jus- 
tice, humanity and disinterestedness are the high requisites; the 
rest follows from the excellent nature of our Government 
which extends itself in full force to its remotest dependency. 

"I am very anxious about the success of this undertak- 
ing and do most sincerely wish that it may have a prosperous 
issue. I think it is vastly worth your while to apply yourself to 
business, you that are so well acquainted with it; and without 
any compliment, I may venture to assert that Cornwallis has 
few more capable to do him and the public considerable justice 
than himself." 

"I beg you will tell me at large the condition of your affairs, 
and what kind of order there is in your community ; the notions 
that prevail; the methods of administering justice; the dis- 
tribution of lands, and their cultivation; the nations that com- 
pose the colony, and who are the most numerous; if under mili- 
tary government, how long that is to continue; and what sect 
in religious affairs is the most prevailing. If ever you advise 
upon this subject, remember to be moderate. I suppose the 
Governor, has some sort of council, and should be glad to know 
what it is composed of. The southern colonies will be con- 
cerned in this settlement and have probably sent some able men 
to assist you with their advice, and with a proper plan of ad- 
ministration. Tell me likewise what climate you live in, and 

*Oct. 1750. 



WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 11 

what soil you have to do with; whether the country is mount- 
tainous and woody, or plain; if well watered." 

A little later he writes to fcickson: 

"I hope to hear in your next letter that (Halifax) it is con- 
siderably improved in strength. You gentlemen, too with your 
parapet three or four feet thick that a heavy shower would dis- 
solve. You ought to increase it, and put yourselves into a 
state of security. You appear to be the barrier and bulwark 
of our settlements on the land and should be lodged in a suffi- 
cient fortrees and with an eye to enterprise. I understand by 
your account that the post you occupy is at a very small distance 
from the end of the bay; and should be glad to know how far 
that is from the nearest part of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, or 
from what in the map appears to be a lake, or harbour communi- 
cating with that gulf. 

"I rejoice much that you commanded that detachment with 
which your Lieutenant-Colonel (Lawrence) marched; the 
Indians might have had courage, in that case you would have 
overcome them in battle under the eye of your chief; as it was, 
he says, you well disposed to fight." 

He also tells Rickson that his interest in Nova Scotia was 
such that he actually sat in the gallery of the House of Commons 
while the debate on Nova Scotian affairs was on. 

"Great sums of money were proposed for you, and granted 
readily enough, but nothing said of any increase of troops. 
Mr. Pelham spoke very faintly upon the subject; wished 
gentlemen would well weigh the importance of these undertak- 
ings before they offered them for public approbation and seemed 
to intimate that it might probably produce a quarrel with our 
everlasting and irreconcilable adversary. 

"This I took to be a bad prognostic; a minister cool in 
so great an affair, it is enough to freeze up the whole! But per- 
haps there might be a concealed manoeuvre under these ap- 



12 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

pearances, ae, in case of accidents, 'I am not to blame,' 'I was 
forced to carry it on,' and so forth ; in the meantime I hope they 
are vigorous in supporting our claims. The country is in all 
shapes better than we imagined it, and the climate less severe; 
the extent of our territory, perhaps won't take a vast deal 
of time to clear; the woods you speak of are, I suppose, to the 
west of Sheganecto, and within the limits that the French 
ascribe for themselves and usurp. 

"Yours is now the direct as well as the most insignificant 
and unpleasant branch of military operations; no room for 
courage and skill to exert itself, no hope of ending it by a de- 
cisive blow, and a perpetual danger of assassination; these 
circumstances discourage the firmest minds. Brave men, when 
they see the least room for conquest, think it easy, and generally 
make it so but they grow impatient with perpetual disadvan- 
tages. I should imagine that two or three independent High- 
land companies might be of use; they are hardy, intrepid, 
accustomed to a rough country." 

Here again is suggested an important issue, one which has 
its bearing, not only on the capture of Louisbourg and Quebec, 
but on the Highland settlement of this Province of 1773. 

Wolfe during his years of service in Scotland had been struck 
by the possible advantage of employing the fine fighting 
qualities of the Highlanders in behalf of, instead of against 
their actual sovereign. Hitherto, the idea seems never to have 
occurred to anyone at the War Off ice as practicable. In May, 
1756, as we know, a plan for conducting the war in America 
was submitted to the Commander in Chief, theDukeof Cumber- 
land. It showed the feasibility of raising two battalions in the 
Highlands for American service, provided that grants of land at 
the close of the war were made. The paper, which was anony- 
mous, was sent to Pitt, the bearer thereof being the Earl of Albe- 
marle. Now, this Earl of Albemarle was none other than Lord 
Bury, Colonel of the Twentieth Regiment, of which James 
Wolfe was the actual Commander! It is not to be supposed 



WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 13 

that the plan was Bury's because everything he knew of the 
Highlanders and their disposition and qualities he derived from 
his second in command. During the whole period that the 
Twentieth was quartered in the North, Bury paid it but two 
brief visits. On the 31st January, 1751, he writes: 

"My Colonel (Lord Bury) and I have every exact correspond- 
ence. He is extremely bent upon procuring all the knowledge 
of regimental affairs that the distance between us will allow of, 
in order, I suppose, to make such alterations and amendments 
as seem requisite, and to be the better prepared against he 
comes amongst us. I answer his Jetters very punctually and 
endeavour all in my power to satisfy him in such particulars as 
are properly within my sphere; confining however my judg- 
ment of men and things to what is purely military and belonging 
to my office. He can give you weekly intelligence as far as the 
assurance of a letter can go, whenever you are so good as to 
make inquiry after me." 

I came to the settled conviction therefore, some years ago, 
that the scheme was Wolfe's, that he had transmitted it to his 
Colonel, who showed it first to Cumberland and afterwards to 
the Prime Minister. Pitt's eye saw its merit at a glance and in 
the words of Sir Walter Scott appended in a Note to Redgaunlet : 

"The Highland Regiments were first employed by the 
celebrated Earl of Chatham, who assumed to himself no small 
degree of praise for having called forth to the support of the 
country and the Government the valour which had been too 
often directed against both." 

Moreover, in my opinion, it was this very paper of Wolfe 
which first directed the attention of the great Minister to the 
rising young soldier, the Lieut. Colonel of the Twentieth, and 
resulted shortly afterwards in the appointment to serve in the 
Rochefort expedition, the precursor of Louisburg and Quebec. 
Be this as it may, we know that amongst the martial Highland- 
ers who founded Pictou were many of the men who had compos- 



14 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ed these Highland battalions, while here and there was a Fraser 
or a Cameron or a MacDonald who had actually served with 
Wolfe at Louisburg or Quebec or against him at Falkirk and 
Culloden.* 

Years passed on: Wolfe had been serving with his regi- 
ment in Scotland, at Dover, at Exeter. He had gone to Paris 
to perfect his French, been presented to Madame de Pompador: 
Cornwallis and Rickson had returned from Nova Scotia. 
The Rochefort episode had shown Wolfe's mettle and now, at 
last, in the early spring of 1785, he and his friend Amherst had 
been sent out by Pitt to capture Louisbourg. He had asked for 
Guy Carleton; but the King had refused; but he had got 
Thomas Carleton and Murray and Scott and Barre and a new 
man, named Des Barres to serve with him. 

On Des Barres a paper has already been read by Canon Ver- 
non before this Society. It will suffice to state that Joseph Fred- 
erick Wallet DesBarres was born at Paris of Hugenot parents in 
1722. In 1758 he was present at the second siege of Louisburg, 
when he so distinguished himself by his bravery and engineering 
skill that General Wolfe made special mention of him to the 
King, as a result of which signal honor he was ordered to ac- 
company that general as engineer on the famous expedition 
against Quebec. When Wolfe received his death wound upon 
the heights of Abraham, Des Barres is said to have been just 
reporting to him an order he had executed. He continued to 
serve in Canada for two succeeding years, and in 1761 went to 
Nova Scotia to prepare plans and estimates for fortifying the 
harbor of Halifax. Des Barges in 1784 became Governor of 
the Island of Cape Breton, ff 

It will now be seen how it was that Brigadier General Wolfe 
when he stepped ashore from the Princess Amelia at Halifax 
on the 9th of May 1758 had a pretty exact idea of the fort and 

*From Halifax May 12th 1758, Wolfe wrote to Sackville: "The High- 
landers are very useful, serviceable soldiery, and commanded by the most 
manly corps of officers I ever saw." 




Wolfe's Commission as Brigadier-General in North America, 23rd January, 1758. 

From the original in the possession of John Warde, Esq., Squcrryes Court, Westerham, Kent, Eng.) 



WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 



15 



settlement which his friend and comrade-in-arms, Cornwallis, 
had founded nine years before. 

Amongst the young officers whom he may have encountered 
on shore was Captain John Knox of the 43rd Regiment, who has 
left us a description of the town as it then was : 

"The town of Halifax is large: the streets (which are not 
paved) are tolerably regular, and of a good breadth ; but their 
houses, upon a nearer view are mean, and do not display any 
great knowledge of architecture, much less of traffic, in those 
who erected them; which in general, together with a capacious 
church, are of wood, and covered with the same. 

"This edifice is remarkable for two particulars: in the first 
place, it is the only English church, chapel, or house, dedicated 
to Divine worship throughout this whole province; and, in the 
next, it differs in situation from churches in general, standing 
due North and South. 

"The gardens (Knox goes on to say) and the country are now 
in great beauty; if an European was to visit us at this season, 
who had never wintered in America, it would be almost impos- 
sible to persuade him to credit the extreme length and severity 
of our winters, and he would be inclined to think all he had 
heard and read of this climate was fabulous; it is really aston- 
ishing to behold the length of our grass, and the forwardness of 
the fruit-trees, as well as of vegetation in general, in the short 
space of a very few days." 

It was perhaps in the officers' quarters in Hollis Street the 
site of which has been marked by an Historical Society tablet 
that Wolfe sat down two days later and wrote a long letter to 
his friend Sackville. 

"We found" he writes "Amherst's Regiment in the harbour 
in fine order and healthy. Eraser's and Brigadier Lawrence's 
battalions were here and both in good condition." Although 
he praised the Highlanders, Wolfe does not appear to have 



16 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

been impressed by the American Rangers. "About 500 
Rangers are come, which to appearance are little better than 
canaille." 

However, it was soon arranged that his friend Scott was 
to be put in charge of a joint body of Light Foot and Rangers 
and Wolfe was more content. This body ultimately became a 
battalion of that Royal American Regiment upon whom 
Wolfe himself conferred the motto "Celer et Audax." 

How did Wolfe spend the next fortnight of his sojourn in 
Halifax before the squadron sailed for Cape Breton? He cer- 
tainly wrote a great many letters and he passed a great deal of 
time in examining the condition and discipline of the troops. 
The state of things that met his eye was distressing enough to a 
man whose standards were as high as Wolfe's. He wrote 
Sackville that he found some of the regiments had three or four 
hundred men eaten up with scurvy. 

"There is not an ounce of fresh beef or mutton contracted for 
even for the sick and wounded, which besides the inhumanity 
is both impolitic and absurd. Mr. Boscawen indeed, has taken 
the best precautions in his power by ordering 600 head of live 
cattle for the fleet and army the moment he arrived." Then 
he goes on to say, "The curious part of this barbarity is that 
the scoundrels of contractors can afford the fresh meat in 
many places and circumstances as cheap as salt. I think our 
stock for the siege full little and none of the medicines for them 
arrived. No horses or oxen for the artillery, et cetera." 

I should not be surprised if Wolfe's criticisms were 
hardly taken in good part by Mr. Joshua M auger and others! 

One or two other passages in this recently-discovered letter 
deserve quoting : 

"Too much money and too much rum necessarily affect the 
discipline of an army. We have glaring evidence of their ill 
consequence every moment. Sergeants drunk upon duty, two 
sentries upon their posts and the rest wallowing in the dirt." 




Rare Silver Louisbourg Medal, 1758. 

(From the original in possession of Deckles Willson, Esq.) 



WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 17 

Wolfe saw instantly that warfare in Nova Scotia, as 
on the African veldt, a century and a half later was a 
different thing from warfare in Europe. He told Sackville 

(May 24, 1758) that, 

"Our clothes, our arms, our accoutrements, nay, even our 
shoes and stockings are all improper for this country." Then 
he adds, "Lord Howe is so well convinced of it that he has taken 
away all the men's breeches." 

Exactly what he meant by this I am at a loss to determine. 
Either it was a particularly warm spring in Halifax or he wished 
to assimilate the outward aspect of all his troops to the rough 
rugged and unbreeched Highlanders! 

It was during this stay in Halifax that Wolfe probably 
gave that famous dinner to his friends at the Great Pontac 
Hotel, at which the reckoning for wine has somewhat astonished 
subsequent and less seasoned companies. We can picture in 
our mind's eye, that martial gathering, and the tall, youthful, 
keen-eyed, redhaired Brigadier, their host. You must live 
with James Wolfe, so to speak, for years before you get a proper 
idea of the outward man. You must dismiss from your mind 
most of the portraits, perhaps all of the portraits you are fami- 
liar with. There is in Mr. McCord's collection in Montreal an 
unpretentious, faint little water-colour sketch, perhaps by 
George Townshend. It shows, as none of the others do, ex- 
cept perhaps the Schaak profile, just what kind of face Wolfe 
was endowed with and just what kind of dauntless, shrewd, 
half-humorous spirit animated it. His physiognomy was 
something like his second cousin Oliver Goldsmith's, but it was 
lit up by a flashing blue eye; and whereas the author of 
"The Deserted Village" was short and squat in figure Wolfe 
was very tall and wiry, with a long neck and somewhat sloping 
shoulders. 

In the dining room of the great Pontac Hotel, at the board 

would be seated Lawrence, the relation of his old tutor John 
2 



18 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Lawrence, of Westerham; Monckton, full of his adventures 
amongst the French and Indians at Annapolis and Fort Cum- 
berland, Alexander Murray, young Lord Dundonald, and 
Lieutenant Des Barres. Jeffrey Amherst did not arrive in the 
"Dublin" until the 28th of May; and then it was that the 
whole fleet with 12,000 men set sail for Louisbourg. 

I do not propose to deal with this memorable siege, except 
to point out one really serious misconception affecting some of 
those who have written on the subject. One thing emerges 
as clear as daylight the lion's share of that business fell to 
Wolfe and the chief honour was accorded him, too, by the 
public on his return to England. 

It is commonly stated that the spot at which Wolfe landed 
was within Coromandiere or Kennington Cove, when of course 
the attempt to land within the Cove was repulsed, the landfall 
taking place just round the point marking the eastern extremity 
of Col. St. Julien's battery. 

With regard to this landing it is stated by Parkman, (whom 
I quote because he is the authority perhaps most widely con- 
sulted,) that the English landing party at Kennington Cove 
were allowed to come within close range unmolested. "Then the 
batteries opened and a deadly storm of grape and musketry 
was poured upon the boats. It was clear in an instant that to 
advance further would be destruction, and Wolfe waved his 
hand as a signal to sheer off. Whereupon two subalterns in 
charge of three other boats to the right, mistaking the signal, 
or wilfully misinterpreting it, made directly for the shore be- 
fore them." 

Now Knox received a detailed description from a fellow 
officer at Louisbourg which runs thus: 

The weather continued obstinate until the 'morning of the 
eighth, when we were again ordered into the boats, the swell 
being abated, and the wind more moderate; the frigates at 







Sir Jeffrey Amherst, Commander-in- Chief of H. M. Forces in North 
America, 1758 to 1764. Born 1717, died 1797. 

(From a mezzotint by J. Watson, from King Louis Philippe's collection, after 
the portrait by Reynolds.) 



WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 19 

the same time edged in shore, to attack the enemy's in- 
trenchments, and to cover the landing. After the ships had 
been some time engaged, a signal was made for the troops to 
put off, and they rowed up and down, making feints, as if 
intending to land in different places, and thereby divert the 
enemy's attention from any one particular part of their 
coast : this in a great measure answered our wishes, and Briga- 
dier Wolfe (whose flag-staff was broke by a swivel shot) 
pushed ashore, with his detachment, under a furious fire, and 
landed upon the left of the enemy's works, then briskly 
engaged, and routed them; the remainder of the army followed 
the example without loss of time, landing almost up to their 
waists in water. The ardour of the troops, in this enterprise, 
is not to be conceived nor parallelled; many boats were 
destroyed, and several brave fellows drowned; yet our whole 
loss at landing, I am well assured, did not exceed one hun- 
dred and ten men of all ranks, killed, wounded, and drowned. 
The enemy fled with great precipitation, and Brigadier Wolfe 
pursued them almost to the gates of the town with the light 
infantry, rangers, Eraser's Highlanders, and the grenadiers 
of the 1st, 15th, 17th, and 22nd regiments. 

Again, I cannot understand why the account given by Pichon 
is not more implicitly credited by those who would seek to rob 
Wolfe of the credit for the landing. 

Le Major Scott fit dans cette occasion une des plus belles 
actions qu' on puisse faire. Le General Wolfe, qui etait oc- 
cupe du soin de faire rembarquer les troupes, et d'eloigner les 
batteaux, lui fit signe de gagner les rockers ou 1' on avait envoy, 
deja cent hommes. Ce Major marche aussit6t avec les 
troupes quil commandait; mais sa chaloupe etait arriv6 la 
premiere, et s'etant ecrasedans le moment quil metpiedaterre, 
il grimpa les rochers tout seul. II esperait trouver les cent 
hommes qui 1* avaient precedes aux prises avec les n6tres; mais 
n'en ayant trouve que dix, il ne laissa pas, avec un si petit 
nombre, de gagner le haut rocher. 



20 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Certainly, it was considered in the army that the honours of 
Louisbourg were with Wolfe and that view was echoed in mili- 
tary circles in England, Knox puts it in this fashion: 

Mr. Amherst has displayed the General in all his proceed- 
ings, and our four Brigadiers are justly intitled to great praise: 
Mr. Wolfe being the youngest in rank, the most active part of 
the service fell to his lot; he is an excellent Officer, of great val- 
our, which has conspicuously appeared in the whole course of 
this undertaking. The troops behaved as British troops should 
do, and have undergone the fatigues of this conquest cheerfully 
and with great steadiness; the light infantry, who are incon- 
ceivably useful, did honour to themselves and to that General 
who first saw the necessity of forming these corps." 

Knox relates how one day a sloop anived from Boston, 
and, as soon as she came near to the wharf, the troops and 
town's people eagerly ran down to inquire for news; every soul 
was now impatient, yet shy of asking; at length the vessel being 
come near enough to bespoken to Knox called out "What news 
from Louisbourg? to which the master simply replied, and with 
some gravity, "Nothing strange." This answer, which was so 
coldly delivered threw us all into great consternation, and we 
looked at each other without being able to speak; some of us 
even turned away, with an intent to return to the fort. At 
length one of our soldiers, not yet satisfied, called out with some 
warmth "Damn you, Pumkin, is not Louisbourg taken yet? 
The poor New-England man then answered "taken! ay, 
above a month ago, and I have been there since: but, if you 
have never heard it before, I have got a good parcel of letters for 
you now." If our apprehensions were great at first, words are 
insufficient to express our transports of joy at this speech, 
the latter part of which we hardly waited for; but instantly all 
hats flew off, and we made the neighboring woods resound with 
our cheers and hazzas, for almost half an hour. The Master of 
the sloop was amazed beyond expression, and declared he 
thought we had heard of the success of our arms to the eastward 
before, and had sought to banter him. 




Entry in Wolfe's' Journal, made at Louisbourg, 13th 23rd May, 1759. 

(In Captain Bell's handwriting. Now in possession of F. T. Sabin, Esq.) 



WOLFE'S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 21 

In the following year, Wolfe came back to Halifax and 
to Louisbourg. There is a great deal of interesting data con- 
cerning his sojourn which might well be given, but to do so 
would swell this paper beyond its assigned proportions. 

I often think of that tall figure wandering about in the 
Cape Breton swamp "gathering strawberries and other wild 
fruits," with one of which he has stained a letter to his mother 
perhaps has enclosed a leaf as a proof of the fertility of the 
region. 

The frigate Sutherland bearing the body of the dead con- 
queror of Quebec passed north of Louisbourg, on its way to 
England in October, 1759. 

In 1775, when the American Revolution broke out, Wolfe 
had been fifteen years in his grave. The spirit with which 
he had animated the Army had slumbered during the long 
North regime and the professional ability of the officers had 
sunk to the low level of the Howes, Gages and Burgoyne. 

It was then that Wolfe's friend Guy Carleton whose employ- 
ment he had forced on the government was chosen to hold Quebec 
for the Empire. It was Carleton who first maintained and 
protected and afterwards despatched the Loyalists from New 
York who came to Nova Scotia after the war. When they land- 
ed here they were received by another old friend Col. John 
Parr of the XXth regiment, then Governor of this Province. 

Of Guy Carleton and his brother Thomas it may be said 
that they were, par excellence, Wolfe's men: and while the 
former's direct personal connection with Nova Scotia was 
slight, yet a perusal of his official correspondence with Parr, 
when the latter shared the Governorship of the original Prov- 
ince with Thomas Carleton, evinces the debt which Nova 
Scotia owes to Lord Dorchester; nor is it always now remem- 
bered that Dorchester's official title designated him Gover- 
nor of Nova Scotia. 



[A HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Thomas Carleton and Parr were old friends. The former's 
first letter to Lord Sydney, Secretary of State, on his arrival 
at Halifax, after 58 days passage, dated October 30th, 1784, 
describes his cordial reception by Parr. What reminiscences 
of Wolfe they must have indulged in! Parr had just written to 
Sir Guy Carleton that he had named one of the townships 
Carleton in honour of him and a little later came another, Guys- 
borough in honour of Sir Guy. And Thomas Carleton, with 
little knowledge as yet of the bickerings and jealousies in store 
for him, also had rejoiced that the chief town of his Governor- 
ship should have been christened Parr Town and that another 
was Parrsboro. If by this time the third Lieutenant Governor, 
Colonel Des Barres had arrived in Halifax he whom Wolfe 
had introduced into the army, perhaps over the walnuts and the 
wine the trio could recall the additional surprising fact that 
both the Secretaries of State under whose orders they now 
acted were Wolfe's particular friends and cronies, for Lord 
Shelburne was none other than that "Fitz" (Fitzmaurice) 
referred to by Wolfe in his letters, who afterwards nobly inter- 
ceded with the War Office on behalf of Wolfe's mother in her ap- 
plication for her son's pay; while Lord Sydney, the Colonial 
Secretary, was that youthful Tommy Townshend who came to 
Wolfe to ask his advice about entering the army. Think of it 
the son of a powerful peer and the nephew of a Minister coming 
to a simple Lieutenant Colonel of twenty-nine humbly to en- 
quire how he should succeed in his profession! And Wolfe 
wrote him a letter which deserves to be read by every young 
British officer today, after more than a century and a half of 
military doctrine and discipline. 

Is it nothing to us today that the towns of Sydney and Shel- 
burne, commemorate those two young friends of Wolfe on the 
map? But unless we can induce the good citizens of Wolfvilie 
to alter the spelling of their town James Wolfe himself is, I 
believe, wholly without eponymous honour in this Province. 

It went a good deal against Parr's inclinations to sink his 
Governorship in a Lieutenant Governorship. On June 6th, 




Thomas Carleton, 
Governs of New Brunswick, 1784-1803. 

(From a nrmaturt; in the possession of Lord 
Pembroke.) 




WOLFE S MEN AND NOVA SCOTIA. 23 

1786, we find him writing to Lord Sydney "as a friend," ex- 
pressing his humiliation and asking for some mark of the King's 
favour to raise him in the eyes of the people "of the world." 
Parr had a hard time of it with the Halifax clique of those days, 
and it needed all his strength of character to endure and com- 
bat it. He, himself wrote, (May 5th 1788) with a wealth of 
vituperation : 

"I am surrounded by a number of fanatical, diabolical, 
unprincipled, expecting, disappointed, deceitful, lying scoun- 
drels, who exist upon Party of their own creating, eternally 
finding fault with and complaining against their superiors 
in office." Happily, he was able to add, "We have some 
worthy, deserving characters, to them I pay every attention." 
Bulkeley and Finucane were among these. 

Parr died in harness, as Lawrence and Finucane had done, 
on November 25th, 1791, and lies buried here in St. Paul's 
church. 

With a touch almost of melodrama, it so chanced that 
when Parr died, Wolfe's and Cornwallis's old regiment, the 
Twentieth, which he also had commanded, the regiment that 
had sent several of its officers out in the budding time of 
the colony, was stationed at Halifax Citadel. It attended his 
funeral and fired a volley beside his grave.* 

Parr's descendants still cherish the memory of Wolfe and 
the precious letters which the hero of Louisbourg addressed 
to their ancestor. The head of the family today is Major 
Clements Parr, late of the Oxfordshire Light Infantry. 

To Nova Scotians it must purely appear a notable thing 
that Wolfe and the young men upon whom he exerted the 
most direct personal influence should play so prominent a 



"One of Parr's daughters married Capt. Dobson of the 20th. She after- 
wards married Hon. Alexander Brymer, formerly paymaster of the Halifax 
forces. 



24 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



part in the conquest and upbuilding of this Province. It is 
an association which lends an additional lustre to our annals. 
Long after Wolfe had perished in battle at Quebec, and been 
laid to that rest his ardent spirit had never known in life, so 
great was the prestige of his name that his personal intimates 
men like the Carletons, Parr, Des Barres, and Barr, who had 
languished for a generation in obscurity, were summoned into 
light and given profitable employment in the governance and 
upbuilding of our country; and the names of many of them 
are today enshrined in the story and on the map of this 
Province. 




The Hon. Jonathan Belcher, 

Born 1710, Died 1776. 
First Chief Justice of Nova Scotia, 1754-1776. 

(After a painting by J. S. Copley.) 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 25 



JONATHAN BELCHER, 

First Chief Justice of Nova Scotia, 
Born July 1710 Died March 29, 1776. 

By the HON. SIR CHARLES J. TOWNSHEND, Chief Justice of 

Nova Scotia. 

Read March, 1914. 

The times in which Chief Justice Belcher lived and did his 
work, were stirring ones, covering as they did the fiercest 
combat waged by England to drive the French from North 
America, the expulsion of the Acadians, and the wars of the 
American Revolution or rebellion. In all these momentous 
events, Halifax, owing to its geographical position, was largely 
involved. The great naval and military armaments formed for 
the conquest of Louisbourg and Quebec were for weeks,anchored 
in the Harbour. Wolfe, the great Commander, and other dis- 
tinguished officers, resided in the Town, and must have been 
well known to Belcher. Winslow, Monckton and Lawrence 
were his every day associates. With these and others, from his 
position as President of the Council, he must have participated 
in the measures for carrying out such great undertakings. 
Over a century and a half has passed since the Honorable Ed- 
ward Cornwallis with some three thousand intending settlers 
entered Chebucto Harbour, and founded the City of Halifax. 
The shores must, at that time, have been clothed with virgin 
forest to the waters edge. The first great work before them 
was to cut out of, the primeval wilderness places whereon to build 
their habitations, and forts to protect themselves against the 
hostile Indians who infested the surrounding country. 

Under instructions contained in the Royal Commission to 
him as first Governor, many and important duties necessary 
to the wellfare and good government of the Colony were 
specified. One of the most urgent was the establishment of 



26 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Courts of Justice for the preservation of peace and good order 
in the community. Accordingly, shoitly after his Council 
were sworn into office, an ordinance was passed constituting 
the Council a General Court for the trial of all cases civil, 
and criminal. Soon afterwards the so-called County Courts 
and Inferior Courts of Common Pleas were called into being, 
and these Courts, composed principally of laymen, represented 
the Judicial system of the province for the first five years 
after the settlement at Halifax. By that time it was realized 
that a better, more efficient, and learned Court of Justice was 
necessary. The Governor and Council had their time fully 
occupied with other serious and pressing matters requiring 
their undivided attention ; such as the hostility and encroach- 
ments of the French then in possession of Louisbourg and 
Quebec, and parts of what is now New Brunswick; the ever 
present danger of the savage Indians, and the unsatisfactory 
position of the French Acadians. It is probable also that as 
conditions became more settled, difficulties and disputes 
between .the inhabitants became more frequent and more 
intricate, and they found themselves incompetent, and unable 
to adjust their rights and differences. All these considera- 
tions, no doubt, were the moving causes which led them in 
the interests of the Colony to take measures for the establish- 
ment of a Supreme Court. 

The Imperial Government which made all Judicial ap- 
pointments at that time, made a happy choice in the selection 
of Jonathan Belcher, Esq., of Boston, Massachusetts, to be the 
first Chief Justice of the Province of Nova Scotia. Massachu- 
setts was then, it will be remembered, a Colony of the Brit- 
tish Empire, and Belcher of course a British subject. 

As in the case of so many of our illustrious forefathers, 
the material for a biographical sketch of this great Judge 
and Administrator are scanty. Newspapers, in which his 
acts and proceedings might have been chronicled from day 
to day, were non-existent at that period of our history. 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 27 

By searching the public records and consulting the archives 
of the Province, a fair, although far from complete, idea may 
be formed of the character and work of this distinguished man, 
who played such a prominent part in the early history of 
Nova Scotia. 

Fortunately in his case a complete record of his family, 
his parentage, and descendents exist. He was appointed 
Chief Justice of Nova Scotia in 1754, and arrived in Halifax 
in the early part of October of that year. He was then 
forty-five years of age, in the prime of life, with about twenty 
years' experience at the Bar. Immediately after his arrival 
he was made a Member of Council as all the Chief Justices 
were until the era of Responsible Government. Jonathan 
Belcher came of quite a distinguished family in Colonial 
annals. From the New England Historical and Genealogi- 
cal Register, Vol. 60, published in 1906, I take the follow- 
ing account of his family history. 

Andrew Belcher born about 1615, was son of Thomas 
Belcher, of London, and grandson of Robert Belcher Weaver 
of Kingsroad, Wiltshire, England. He first appears in New 
England in 1659 and settled in Cambridge. Although there 
was but one male who married in each generation of his de- 
scendents, this family attained great distinction. His son 
Andrew Belcher was a Royal Councillor, and the greatest 
merchant of his day in New England. His grandson, Jonathan 
Belcher, was Royal Governor of Massachusetts; and also of New 
Jersey. His great grandson, Jonathan Belcher, was Chief Justice 
and Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, and his great-great 
grandson, Andiew Belcher, was a Royal Councillor of Nova 
Scotia, whose children settled in England, of whom a son, Sir 
Edward Belcher, K. C. B. was a distinguished naval officer, 
attaining the rank of Rear Admiral in the British Navy. A 
few of his descendents remain in England, but the name is ex- 
tinct in the United States. In a previous Vol. 27, p. 242, will 
be found some further particulars which are of interest. "He 



28 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

was the second son of the Governor, born in 1711. Studied 
law and was one of the early settlers of Chebucto, now Halifax. 
Eliot says of him, "He was a man of excellent habits, prudent, 
upright, and of great political integrity. His prejudices were 
much in favor of New England." 

He married April 8, 1756, at Kings Chapel, Boston, Abigail, 
daughter of Jeremiah Allen. Their children all born at Hal- 
ifax, were Jonathan, and Albert who died in infancy. Mary 
who married Dr. Thomas Lindell Jennison, Abigail, Jona- 
than and William, who died in Childhood, and Andrew, born 
July 22nd, 1763. He died March 29, 1776, and was fortunate- 
ly spared the necessity of choosing between his native country, 
and that of his adoption. Andrew Belcher the only repre- 
sentative of the male line was a member of the Council of Nova 
Scotia. Sir Edward Belcher, K. C. B. Rear Admiral, R. N., was 
his son, a well known naval officer whose services in every quar- 
ter of the woild will be found recorded in Journals of the time." 

Andrew Belcher son of the Chief Justice and father of the 
distinguished Admiral had several sons and daughters. One of 
the daughters married a former well-known clergyman of this 
city, the Rev. Wm. Cogswell, Curate of St. Paul's, and on 
his death married Major John Claridge Burmester, also well 
known here, and no doubt there are persons now living who 
were well acquainted with both of them. 'Andrew Belcher's eld- 
est son Alexander Brymner had two sons and several daughters. 
The eldest son became a clergyman, The Rev. Brymner Bel- 
cher, and of his family the Rev. Gilbert Edward Belcher, 
Rector of Chaldon, Surrey, England, is the eldest male re- 
presentative of the Chief Justice now living. We have thus a 
a complete record of his family history extending back to 
Andrew Belcher, the first of the name who settled in New Eng- 
land about 1652, covering seven generations in the male line, a 
fact in itself noteworthy. 

These particulars I have given in some detail to correct a 
misapprehension which exists in some quarters that families 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 29 

of the same name living in the province are descendants or 
connections of the Chief Justice. 

This is an obvious mistake as pointed out by Eaton in, 
his history of Kings County p. 560, in which he gives the lineage 
of the Belchers residing there and says, "The Hon. Jonathan 
Belcher of Halifax, Lieutenant Governor, and Chief Justice, 
was a descendent of Andrew Belcher of Boston, whose grand- 
father Robert Belcher was of Kingsroad, Wiltshire, England, 
and between the two families there is no known connection." 

We get some additional information as to the early career 
of the Chief Justice from a note in Mr. Akins' valuable col 
lection of the Nova Scotia Archives, in which he says, "He 
graduated at Harvard, Cambridge, and was educated for the 
profession of the law. He afterwards went to England to com- 
plete his studies, where he became a member of the Society 
of the Middle Temple." 

From these references we gain some notion of the training, 
and character of the man destined to be such a worthy builder 
of the fortunes of Nova Scotia. His birth, his education, and 
his abilities were well calculated, as we shall presently see, to 
serve the Province in the formation of its institutions. Let 
us for a few moments take a brief survey of the situation at the 
time he was appointed. At the date of his coming to our shores 
Cornwallis had resigned, and departed. Governor Hopson had 
succeeded him, but was then absent and never returned. 

Lieut. Governor Charles Lawrence was in charge, and about 
the same time was made Governor, a position which he filled 
with eminent ability until 1760, when he died. Lawrence 
was a strong and energetic man, and apt to impose his will 
on those who sat at the Council board. It was not long before 
Belcher came into collision with him; and carried his point 
with the Imperial Authorities. Apart from this he must have 
been, indeed it is known by the records he was, of invaluable 
assistance, and support to the Governor. These were perilous 



30 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

times for the comparatively few English settlers in the Province. 
The great struggle for mastery in America was then brewing, 
and shortly afterwards broke out between the English and the 
French, and Halifax was a danger point, giving great cause 
of anxiety to those entrusted with its government. Lawrence 
was constantly engaged with military matters for the protection 
of the Province, and it must have been a great satisfaction, 
and relief to him to have had in the Council, such an able 
adviser in the general affairs of the country. 

Halifax, on his arrival in 1754, must have been a rough 
and unattractive place. The bulk of the inhabitants were 
uncultivated and illiterate, composed as they were of dis- 
charged sailors, soldiers, and artisans with a sprinkling of 
officers and others of a higher grade socially. There could 
have been no substantial public buildings, and from all accounts 
of the time the houses were little better than shanties for 
temporary protection from the weather. To an educated man, 
from the city of Boston, it must have been a depressing scene, 
and we can but admire his courage in devoting himself to the 
work.* 

It is now time to record the ceremonies which took place 
at the inauguration of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia with 
Chief Justice Belcher assuming his office. A description of 
the interesting, and dignified proceedings on that occasion 
has been frequently given, it seems appropriate to a sketch 
of Belcher's life to include all that took place, which I have ex- 
tracted from Vol. 2 p. 250 of Murdoch's History of Nova Scotia. 

"On Monday, 14th October, Jonathan Belcher, the newly 
appointed Chief Justice of the Province, was (by H. M. Manda- 
mus) sworn in as a member of the Council, after which the 
Council adjourned to the Court House, where, after proclama- 
tion made for silence, the King's Commission, appointing Char- 

*Since writing the foregoing a letter has been placed in my hands which 
shows that Belcher did not come to Nova Scotia direct from Boston, but 
was practicing as a barrister in Ireland. 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 31 

ies Lawrence, Lieutenant Governor, was read in public. He 
was sworn in, and took the chair. The Council addressed 
him in congratulation, and he made a suitable reply. A com- 
mission by letters patent for the Chief Justice was prepared, 
and on the 21st October (Monday), it was read in Council, 
and the Chief Justice took the usual oaths and oath of office. 
On the first day of Michalmas term, Chief Justice Belcher 
walked in procession from the Governor's house to the Pontac, 
a tavern. He was accompanied by the Lieutenant Governor, 
Lawrence, the member of the Council, and the gentlemen of 
of the Bar in their robes. They were preceeded by the pro- 
vost marshal, the Judge's tipstaff, and other civil officers. 
At the long room of the Pontac, an elegant breakfast was 
provided. The Chief Justice in his scarlet robe was there 
received and complimented in the politest manner by a great 
number of gentlemen and ladies and officers of the Army. 
Breakfast being over, they proceeded, with the commission 
carried before them, to the church (St. Paul's), where the 
Rev. Mr. Breynton preached from this text: "'I am one of 
those that are peaceable and faithful in Israel." A suitable 
anthem was sung. After this they proceeded to the Court 
House, handsomely fitted up for the occasion. The Chief 
Justice took his seat under a canopy, with the Lieutenant 
Governor on his right hand. The clerk of the Crown then pre- 
sented the commission to Mr. Belcher, which he returned. Pro- 
clamation for silence was made. Belcher gave some directions 
for the conduct of practitioners. The Grand Jury were sworn, 
and the, Chief Justice delivered his charge to them. After this 
the Court adjourned, and his Honour the Chief Justice, ac- 
companied and attended as before, went back to the Governor's 
house. Such was the first opening of the Supreme Court of 
Nova Scotia. 

A few days after the Chief Justice went up in his robes of 
office, attended by the Bar, the Grand Jury, and officers 
of his court, and addressed the Lieutenant Governor in his own 
and their names, congratulating him on his appointment, to 



32 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



which he replied, assuring them of his support of the law, which 
he said was "the firm and solid basis of civil society, the guard- 
ian of liberty, the protector of the innocent, the terror of the 
guilty, and the scourge of the wicked." 

The display of pomp and ceremony on this important oc- 
casion reveals the high sense he had of the power and dignity 
of the office of Chief Justice, and his determination at the out- 
set to impress on the public feelings of respect, and reverence. 

He presided in that Court for a term of twenty-two years, 
and from the few notes which have come down to us, proved 
himself to be an able, vigorous, and learned judge. Not a 
vestige of any of his decisions remains. There is a note of a 
Criminal trial before him which is worth recording. On Dec- 
ember 9, 1758, Peter Marquis de Conte and Gravina having 
in Michalmas term been convicted of an assault with intent 
to commit a rape on the body of an infant under ten years 
was adjudged by the Court to walk in the custody of the Sheriff, 
and Constables between the hours of seven and twelve, this 
day, from the North to the South side of the Parade, and from 
thence to the gaol, having a paper on his breast with 
his crime therein inscribed, and also to be close confined there- 
after for three months, and fined in thirty pounds, and remain 
in gaol until the same is paid. I do not know anything of this 
Marquis de Conte, but it seems to me considering the offence, 
this punishment was none too severe. 

I have not been able .to find the authority under which 
the first part of the punishment was awarded, and which* Gover- 
nor Lawrence in mercy as we are told, remitted. He was the 
sole Judge of the Supreme Court until 1764. The House 
of Assembly met in October 1763, and on March 3rd a pro- 
posal was made to have two judges in the Supreme Court 
associated with the Chief Justice "as it is conceived His Ma- 
jesty's subjects ought not to rest satisfied with the judgment 
of one person only, and on the 24th the House addressed the 
Governor to that effect with a view to this Court being held 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 33 

in every county, and further that so important a Court 
should not consist of one man, however capable and upright." 

The Governor and Council compiled with this request, 
and John Collier and Charles Morris were appointed in 1764. 
As we shall presently see the Chief Justice took good care so 
to draft their Commissions that his absolute power remained 
unaffected. 

Haliburton in his History of Nova Scotia, Vol. 1, p. 164 ,says, 
"The practice in the Supreme and Inferior Courts con- 
tinued the same until the Convention of the House of Assembly 
in 1758, when the practice of the Common Pleas was changed 
by a temporary Act of the Legislature, and a new mode was 
prescribed, compounded partly from the practice of Massa- 
chusetts, and partly from the practice of England. Thus con- 
stituted the Courts continued and practised until 1764 when a 
change took place in the Supreme Court. Upon an address 
of the House of Assembly Governor Wilnot added two assistant 
Judges, and appointed two members of the Council to fill 
their situations. The powers granted to the Assistant Judges 
by their Commissions, (which were drafted by the Chief Jus- 
tice) were so qualified and limited that the intent of the As- 
sembly was altogether frustrated. Not having power to try a 
a case, but in conjunction with the Chief Justice, or even to 
open or adjourn the Court without his presence, and concur- 
rence. 

It is evident from the course adopted, and carried out by 
the Chief Justice in this regard that he possessed a strong, 
not to say, arbitrary will, and was quite determined to be sole 
master in his own Court. It can hardly be doubted that no 
Barrister nor even brother Judge would venture to question 
his rulings in any case. One instance is to be found however 
in which presumedly he felt some doubt, and referred the ques- 
tion to the law officers in England. Two persons were con- 
victed before him of counterfeiting Spanish dollars, and pis- 

tareens under an English Statute, making it a criminal of- 
3 



34 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

fence. The law officers transmitted their opinion that the 
Statute making it an offence, did not extend to the Colonies. 
Murdoch Vol. 1, p. 37. 

It may be that there were other occasions on which he 
did not rely on his own opinion, of which there is no record 
available, but there is enough to show that although a man 
of independent judgment he was not above seeking advice 
when he had reasonable doubt. 

From the records of the Council an incident in the course 
of his judicial career is well worthy of mention both on account 
of the high position of the parties as well as the subequent 
action It is referred to by Murdoch in Vol 11, p. 508 

"On May 4 (1763) in Council present the Governo- &Messrs. 
Belcher, Bulkeley & others, the Chief Justice Belcher stated that 
in the week before Joseph Frederick Wallett DesBarres one of 
the Justices of the Peace had grossly insulted and abused him 
in a forced conversation, directly threatened him with an af- 
fidavit imputing prejudice and partialty in his cause now re- 
maining in the Court for judgment. Belcher claimed pro- 
tection and that suitors might be deterred from the high pre- 
sumption of conferring with any Judge relating to their cause. 

The Governor and Council determined that DesBarres' of- 
fence was of the most heinous nature and required the most 
public acknowledgment of the crime. 

Mr. Bulkeley, the Secretary accordingly wrote to DesBarres 
who replied from Windsor May 9th, stating that he was con- 
scious that he had not said anything with any intent to abuse 
or insult Mr. Belcher in the capacity of Chief Justice, nor 
in that of a man. He was sorry Mr. Belcher thought he meant 
to insinuate any doubt of his integrity and justice while he 
DesBarres had often expressed a high opinion of Belcher. 

The Council pronounced this apology evasive but thought 
it sufficiently vindicated the Chief Justice's character. 



CHEIF JUSTICE BELCHER. 35 

To a Judge or a lawyer the first thought that naturally 
occurs is why did the Chief Justice appeal to the Governor and 
Council when by virtue of his office he possessed a much more 
effective and summary way of punishing the offender. For the 
benefit of laymen I may point out that to speak to a judge on 
the subject of a case being tried befoie him, especially in the 
terms DesBarres is alleged to have used is a high contempt, and 
the judge has it in his power to summon the person before him in 
Court, and have him fined and imprisoned. Belcher as we have 
seen was not the man to shrink from excercising all the authority 
he possessed The only explanation I can suggest is that Colonel 
Desbarres was at that day a person of high Military and pol- 
itical standing in the Province and that even such a bold and 
determined judge as Belcher undoubtedly was, hesitated to 
to tackle him in the ordinary way single handed. [He may 
have feared difficulty in enf6rcing proceedings in contempt 
against such an important personage and that the surest and 
best way was to take the course he did.] 

Although from all that is known of him, it would seem he 
was a man of strong will, and possibly of despotic temperament, 
against that it must be remembered that in the rude, and 
unsettled state of the Province, and the constant peril, and 
danger surrounding the country first from the French and 
Indians and the Acadians, and afterwards from the outbreak 
of the American Revolution, a strong and fearless man in 
office was required. 

Murdoch who lived and wrote nearer to his day and pro- 
bably was familiar with tradition respecting him says, Vol. 
1, p. 59 fo his Epitome of the laws of Nova Scotia "He was 
highly qualified by education and talent for that office. He 
was a native of Massachusetts and to his exertions it may be 
presumed it was owing that the Government, and Tribunals 
of the Colony began to assume rapidly an appearance of order, 
and method, and his Legislative exertions contributed much 
to procure for us the simple and elegant structure of laws which 
long experience has rendered an object of public attachment." 



36 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

It is regrettable that some specimen of his judgments, 
and opinions in the legal controversies before him have not been 
preserved. There are however some compensations for this 
loss in the universal testimony of his contemporaries and those 
writers who lived near his time of his great abilities, learn- 
ing and integrity and of his devotion to the interests of the 
Province. In the preface to the Laws of Nova Scotia as re- 
vised, and published by Richard John Uniacke in 1815 he 
says, "Finding that one Edition of the Acts of the Province 
up to the sixth year of his present Majesty's reign was pub- 
lished by the late Chief Justice Belcher with notes of law cases, 
and marginal references to British Acts of Parliament, I con- 
sidered it proper to republish the same notes, and references 
in this work, not only as a mark of respect to the high and 
learned character of Mr. Belcher, who was Chief Justice of the 
Province but also as affording to the people of the Province 
a convincing proof that our predecessors anxiously endeavored 
as nearly as local circumstances would permit to copy the laws 
of the Mother Country and to form our establishment agreeably 
to the British Constitution. 

Mr. Uniacke was formerly Attorney General of the Province, 
and one of the most prominent men in public affairs in the early 
part of the last century, and to some extent in the century be- 
fore. He lived near the time of Belcher and must have been 
well acquainted with many who knew him personally, and pro- 
bably practised before him, so that his comments are parti- 
cularly valuable, Richard Bulkeley, Secretary of the Province, 
gives the following particulars of the Laws of Nova Scotia 
prepared by Belcher in a prefatory note. "This Edition of the 
Laws of the Province as prepared and collated with the Records 
by John Dupont Esq., with the Revisal, and marginal refer* 
ences to acts of Parliament, and authorities in law by Mr. 
Chief Justice Belcher was begun by order of the General 
Assembly on the special recommendation of the Hon. Lieu- 
tenant Governor, Francklin; and continued, and perfected with 
the approbation and by order of His Excellency the Gover- 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 37 

nor the Right Honorable Lord William Campbell." This 
Edition was published 13th May, 1767, during Belcher's life 
time and was evidently collated from his own copy of the 
Laws then extant with his notes therein. 

In a similar strain Mr. Aikins says, "Chief Justice Belcher 
arranged and revised the Laws as they appeared in our first 
Statute Book, and rendered good assistance to Governor 
Lawrence in founding the settlements at Horton, Falmouth 
and Cornwallis." 

Belcher himself presents to His Excellency the Right 
Honorable Lord William Campbell the Statutes so revised, 
and prepared with this inscription. 

"This Edition of the Laws of the Province of Nova Scotia 
perfected by your Lordship's patronage is most humbly in- 
scribed with all due respect. 

Your Lordship's most devoted and obedient servant, Jona- 
than Belcher. 

What is written in the preceding pages practically ex- 
hausts all that is known respecting the Judicial career of 
Chief Justice Belcher. In passing it may be interesting to 
note that the first Court House in Halifax stood at the corner 
of Buckingham and Argyle Streets, in which the Chief Justice 
held his Courts. This Society, a year or more ago, placed a 
tablet commemorating this fact. It was destroyed by fire in 
1783. We are also informed by Mr. Akins that he resided in 
Argyle St. north of the Methodist Chapel, and occupied after- 
wards by the Rev. William Black. The exact location, I 
presume, would now be difficult to fix. 

There was however another and very important side to 
his life to which some allusions have already been made, and 
to which I now turn. He was not only Chief Justice, but was 
also a member of the Council, President of the Council and 
Lieutenant Governor or Administrator of the Government of 



38 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Nova Scotia for nearly four years between the death of Law- 
rence in October 1760, and the coming of the next Governor. 
Not long after his arrival in the Province and taking his 
seat at the Council Board he raised the question of the legal- 
ity of the ordinances, and proceedings of the Council.. Law- 
rence and his predecessors in office with the approbation of 
the Council had passed large numbers of laws, or as they were 
styled ordinances, for the government of the settlement. 
They had furthermore put these ordinances in force as a Court, 
and adjudicated on the rights and controversies of the settlers 
so far as these ordinances applied to them. They had even 
tried, convicted, and hanged one man under such authority. 
All these acts, and proceedings were in good faith, believed 
by them to be authorized by the Governor's Commission, and 
the Royal Instructions. Belcher took exception to such 
a construction, and contended that laws could only be made 
by the representatives of the people duly elected, and urged 
upon the Council the necessity of calling a Representative 
Assembly for that purpose. Lawrence and presumably other 
members of the Council were opposed to that view. Finally 
the whole matter was referred to the Home Authorities. On 
April 29, 1755, the Crown officers in England gave their 
opinions in which they stated they had read over the Governor's 
Commission, and instructions and the observations of Chief 
Justice Belcher thereon, and that they were of opinion that 
the Governor's Council alone were not authorized by his 
Majesty to make laws for the public peace, welfare, and good 
protection of the Province, and the people and inhabitants 
thereof, that until an Assembly can be called his Majesty has 
ordered that the Government of the Infant Colony shall be 
pursuant to his Commission, and instructions, and such fur- 
ther directions as he could give under his sign Manual in order 
in Council. The position taken by Belcher was thus entirely 
upheld, and directions were sent to Lawrence forthwith to 
take steps for calling together a representative Assembly. 
Lawrence as is well known did not at once comply with the 
instructions fearing as he himself reported that the men who 



CHEIF JUSTICE BELCHER. 39 

would compose such an Assembly might thwart and other- 
wise embarrass him in the conduct of the serious and difficult 
work he had in hand in providing for the Government and 
protection of the Country. He also justly pointed out that 
except in Halifax there were few or no people to elect repre- 
sentatives. The Home Government declined to accept these 
reasons, and in 1758 sent him peremptory orders to call an 
Assembly. This no doubt presented a serious and difficult 
undertaking in the then state of the Province when the in- 
habitants outside of the town of Halifax were few, and no 
electoral districts existed. Happily for him and the Province 
the right man sat beside him in the Council. The Chief 
Justice undertook this onerous work, and prepared the ne- 
cessary scheme for carrying into effect the representative 
Assembly which with some modification was accepted by 
the Council. 

This was his first great political achievement, and is well 
worthy of all praise. He next devoted his energies to prepar- 
ing the necessary legislation to be passed when the Assembly 
met, for it must have been evident to him that a body of such 
inexperienced men, called together for the first time, would 
be wholly incompetent for such a task. As Mr. Akins informs 
us, p. 315, Archives. "The early enactments of the Legislature 
which formed the groundwork of the Statute law of Nova 
Scotia were prepared by him." It would not be profitable, nor 
of much inteieet, to describe these enactments further than to 
remark that the result proves they were all of a sound, ne- 
cessary and useful character. Anyone who will consult our 
early Statutes will agree in the justice of the many encomiums 
passed upon them. This was the second gieat boon he con- 
ferred on the Province in his political capacity. It mmt not 
be forgotten that in his legislative role as member of the Coun- 
cil, which then constituted the second Chamber, all the Acts 
of the Assembly would come before him, so no doubt he super- 
vised and shaped them into the Statutes as we now have them. 
But his solicitude for the public welfare did not stop here. As 



40 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

we know by the extracts from Mr. Uniacke's edition of the 
Statutes and other sources he laboriously annotated the laws 
which were passed with references to the English Statutes on 
similar subjects with marginal notes of cases decided in Eng- 
land, explaining and interpreting their scope and meaning. 
The value of such annotations, especially at that early date, 
cannot be overestimated, and the comments on them indicate 
how greatly they were appreciated. The remaining phase 
of his life which requires some notice was in his admin- 
istration of fhe government of the Province. Lawrence 
died suddenly in October, 1760, and Chief Justice Belcher 
as President of the Council became Administrator. A 
year later he was appointed Lieutenant Governor, and con- 
tinued to govern the Province until the arrival of Governor 
Wilmot who was sworn into office 31 May, 1764. As recorded 
by Murdoch, on the death of Lawrence occurring, the Council 
assembled (Sunday October 19th) Present, the Hon. Jonathan 
Belcher, Esquire, the President, Benjamin Green, John Col- 
lier, Richard Bulkeley, and Joseph Geirish, Councillors. A 
proclamation was agreed on to be signed by Mr. Belcher to 
notify the public that he assumed command of the Province, 
its Government devolving on him by the death of Mi . Lawrence 
and requiring all officers to continue, etc. Murdoch, Vol. 2, 
p. 199. 

It is not desirable, nor would it be of much interest to follow 
in detail his Governmental acts. A study of the proceedings 
of the Governor and Council during the period shows the same 
masterful spirit, and energetic action in matters of state as he 
exhibited in his judicial sphere. The chief subjects which oc- 
cupied the attention of the Council were the laying out of the 
Township, and districts of the Province and preparing them for 
settlers who, by that time, were coming from the older Provin- 
ces, and from the Old Country. The Acadians who had been 
deported were in numbers finding their way back to the Pro- 
vince, and numbers who had concealed themselves, and es- 
caped deportation were now coming out of their hiding places, 



CHEIF JUSTICE BELCHER. 4] 

and giving much trouble, and it became a very difficult ques- 
tion how to deal with them. The Home Authorities, and the 
Imperial Generals appear to have favored allowing them to 
make homes in certain parts of the Province. To this method 
Belcher was strongly opposed, contending that they would be 
a constant source of danger. " President Belcher, Murdoch 
says apprehended mischief from the Acadians remaining in 
Restigouche and that vicinity in privateering against English 
trade, and interfering with the new settlements projected at 
Chignecto. Want and terror only, he thought had produced 
submission on the part of any of the Acadians." It should be 
added that the House of Assembly were of the same opinion 
and passed an address to the Governor asking that steps be 
taken for their removal, "Since they are convinced that they 
never will become good subjects while left in the Province." 

Chief Justice Belcher has sometimes been criticised for the 
course he adopted in dealing with the French Acadians. I am 
not referring to the original expulsion in the time of Laurence, 
but to the later period when he was Lieut. Governor Many of 
the Acadians at the date of the general expulsion had escaped 
deportation, and concealed themselves and some of those de- 
ported had begun to return to the Province. As was natural 
they combined with the Indians and were actively hostile to 
the new settlers who had been induced to come to the province. 
This was a serious matter, particularly dangerous to the in- 
habitants as war between England and France was raging, and 
Newfoundland had been actually captured by the French. 
The Acadians were led to believe that the province would be 
retaken by the French and that they would have their lands 
again. Under these circumstances it became the duty of the 
Lieut. Governor and Council to use great vigilance. In all 
that he wrote and did he was simply carrying out the decisions 
of the Council, and the wishes of the Assembly, although there 
can be no doubt he fully sympathized in their views. Anyone 
who will read the extensive correspondence between Belcher 
and the home authorities and General Amherst then Com- 



42 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

mander-in-Chief in North America will be easily convinced that 
they had ample reason to be alarmed. Belcher in his action 
and correspondence was particularly solicitous about the effect 
these marauding bands would have on the new settlers whom it 
was all important to protect ultimately as we all know the 
Acadian or such of them as desired were permitted to settle in 
certain parts of the Province, and have become loyal and 
industrious subjects. 

The settlement of the Province was the principal and press- 
ing business which occupied the Governor and Council. Large 
numbers, induced by the liberal terms offered in Lawrence's 
proclamations were applying for grants, and arriving in the 
Country from New England, and also immigrants from the 
north of Ireland. About this time one Colonel Alexander Mc- 
Nutt was interesting himself greatly in bringing people out to 
settle in Nova Scotia. He appears to have-placed innumerable 
schemes and projects before the Government and the Lords of 
Trade with that view, and as a matter of fact was the means of 
introducing many settlers. But the expense was great and led 
to trouble between McNutt and Governor Belcher, and be- 
tween Belcher and members of the Councul. This led Major 
Collier, Morrison, Newton, and Francklin in a letter to the Lords 
of Trade to observe. 

"We cannot help remarking that this unsteady and irresolute 
kind of conduct which indeed tinctures the whole of the Lieu- 
tenant Governor's administration must necessarily give the new 
inhabitants an unfavorable impression." These Councillors 
were very inimical to Belcher who was striving to re- 
duce the expenses of these arrivals and we must therefore re- 
ceive their statement in regard to Belcher with great caution. 
As remarked by Archdeacon Raymond, Vol. 5, Royal Society, 
page 77, "The British Government had already spent half a 
millions pounds sterling in the establishment of Nova Scotia, 
and was disposed to retrench. Belcher had been repeatedly 
censured for the large expenditures consequent upon the immi- 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 43 

gration policy instituted by Governor Lawrence. Whatever 
may have been his faults, the Lieutenant Governor does not 
appear to have been guilty of peculation. A man of hasty 
temper, and a Tory of the olden time, there is nevertheless 
nothing to show that he was selfseeking and that he profited by 
his position. Had such been his character he could hardly have 
filled for more than twenty-five years the office of Chief Justice 
of Nova Scotia. Yet he was a man of high temper, and strong 
will is evident from one or two episodes which have come down 
to us. "On the 19th November, 1762, the majoiity of the 
Council agreed that it was not desirable that such settlers (that 
is who became immediately a burden to the Government) 
should be brought into the Province. The Lieutenant Govern- 
or therefore declared that he should construe their resolutions 
as condemnatory of Colonel McNutt's proceedings, that he had 
already made a representation to the Ministry in England 
against the schemes of McNutt, and would do so again. One of 
the Council ventured to suggest that the resolution declaring it 
inexpedient to admit settlers who were liable at the outset to 
require assistance, should serve as a basis of a request of Council 
that the Lieutenant Governor should apply to the Lords of 
Trade for a fund to assist indigent settlers at their first coming 
into the Province. To this Belcher replied that he would 
save the Council the trouble of giving him any such advice 
by assuring them that he would not comply with it." 

On another occasion "In December at a meeting of Governor 
and Council (after he had ceased to fill the office) the language 
used by the late Lieutenant Governor Belcher was complained 
of in a memorial from Mr. Francklin. Belcher had stated that 
the letter of Francklin did not contain a word of truth, and was 
a libel on the Government and directed the Clerk of Council 
to record his remarks. The Council heard both Francklin 
and Belcher and read a letter from the Lords of Trade of 3 
December, 1762, after which they decided that there was suffi- 
cient authority for Mr. Francklin's letter and that it was found- 
ed on truth." 



44 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

I have given these extracts not because of any importance 
or interest in themselves, but as throwing some light on the 
temper and disposition of the man. He evidently had the cour- 
age of his convictions, and was disposed to carry on the affairs 
of Government with a high hand. If he could treat fellow 
members of the Council in this cavalier manner, one wonders 
how the barristers and litigants fared in the Court where he 
was absolute master. 

Passing them from this subject with the remark that during 
his regime much substantial work was done in the survey of the 
Province, and in locating ssttlers, the only other matter deserv- 
ing special notice is that war broke out between England and 
Spain in which the French joined. In consequence active pre- 
parations for the defence of Halifax had to be made. Councils 
of war were held at Government House, and measures adopted 
for its protection, and on Tuesday, July 13th, in Council 
Lieutenant Governor Belcher declared martial law to be in force. 
Also he laid a embargo on all shipping in Halifax harbor for 
ten days. It would appear from the steps he took in con- 
junction with the naval and military authorities that he showed 
himself quite equal to the occasion. 

It will be a matter of interest and no doubt gratifying to the 
advocates of a prohibitory liquor law to note that Chief Justice 
Belcher was among the first, if not the first, to place himself on 
record in favor of the prohibition of the importation and sale of 
spirituous liquors. On Monday 25th of April 1763 he then be- 
ing Lieut. Governor opened the session of the Legislature and 
among other things in his speech from the throne he says 
"As to the revenue we relie upon the consumption of noxious 
manufactures which it is the very object of the laws to restrain 
nor would it be an unpolitical wish that we could wholly pro- 
hibit." The Assembly evidently did not share his sentiments. 
In their reply to his speech they say that they cannot think of 
any other tax more suitable than that on spirituous liquors 
which notwithstanding the wholesome laws for suppressing de- 






CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 45 

bauchery will we fear yet be consumed by the profligate in im- 
moderate quantities. 

There were of course many other matters of a political 
character which Chief Justice Belcher dealt with while in charge 
of the Government of the Province and in which so far as we 
can judge from the records he displayed his usual vigor and 
sound sense. To such it is unnecessary to make further allus- 
sions. Enough has been given to enable us to form a fairly 
correct idea of what manner of man he was and to what extent 
we are indebted to him for his watchful oversight over our 
early Provincial affairs. 

In writing the story of Belcher's life reference to the part 
he took in the expulsion of the Acadians must necessarily be 
made. As already stated at his coming to the Province their 
position and conduct was one of the most difficult and embar- 
rassing questions with which the Government had to deal. 
He of course from his high office was one of the most influential 
members of the Council. There can be no doubt that he enter- 
tained strong views as to the necessity for removing them from 
the Province as appears from the records, and official corres- 
pondence. At a meeting of the Governor and Council on July 
25th 1755 these views were expressed in a very able memoran- 
dum read before the Council in which he pointed out the serious 
danger to which the English population was constantly ex- 
posed by their continuance in the Country, and includes his 
observations in these words "I think myself for these reasons 
and from the highest necessity which is lex lemporis to the inter- 
ests of his Majesty in the Province humbly to advise that all the 
French inhabitants may be removed from the Provinces." At 
that meeting the final decision wap taken to expel and deport the 
Acadians. 

It is not my intention here to enter into that burning con- 
troversy as to the justice or necessity for the removal of these 
unfortunate people. Chief Justice Belcher must bear his share 
of responsibility for that drastic measure whether justifiable 



46 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

or not. It is a question on which probably there never will be 
unanimity. As this episode in our Provincial history 
was of primary importance on which there has always been 
great differences of opinions, and volumes of prose, and poetry 
have been written on the subject, it is only fair to Belcher's 
memory that a statement in full of the reason for his advice to 
the Governor and Council should be given here. 

1755, July 28th. 

The Question now depending before the Governor and 
Council as to the Residence or removal of the French Inhabitants 
from the Province of Nova Scotia, is of the highest moment to 
the Honour of the Crown and the settlement of the Colony, and 
as such a juncture as the present may never occur for consider- 
ing this question to any effect, I esteem it my duty to offer my 
reasons against receiving any of the French Inhabitants take 
the oaths and for their not being permitted to remain in the 
Province. 

1. By their conduct from the Treaty of Utrecht to this date 
they have appeared in no other light than that of rebels to His 
Majesty, whose subjects they became by virtue of the cession 
of the Province and the inhabitants of it under that Treaty. 

2. That it will be contrary to the letter and spirit of His 
Majesty's Instruction to Governor Cornwallis, and in my hum- 
ble apprehension would incur the displeasure of the Crown and 
the Parliament. 

3. That it will defeat the intent of the Expedition to Beau 
Sejour. 

4. That it will put a total stop to the progress of the 
Settlement and disappoint the expectations for the vast ex- 
pence of Great Britian in the Province. 

5. That when they retu-n to their perfidy and treacheries 
as they unquestionably will, and with more rancour than before, 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 47 

on the removal of the Fleet and Troops, the Province will be in 
no condition to drive them out of their possessions. 

1. As to their conduct since the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. 
Tho it was stipulated that they should remain on their lands on 
condition of their taking the Oaths, within a year from the 
date of the Treaty, they not only refused yet to take the Oath, 
but continued in acts of hostility against the British Garrison, 
and in conjunction with the Indians in that very year killed a 
party of English consisting of eighty men, and for the space of 
three years from the Treaty committed many other acts of 
hostility. 

In 1725 when General Philipps sent a force to require them 
to take the Oaths, they for some time refused but at last con- 
sented upon condition that they should not be obliged to bear 
arms against the King of France, upon this condition some 
swore allegiance, but many others refused, and they have since 
presumed to style themselves neutrals tho' they are the sub- 
jects of His Majesty. 

By their instigation the Settlement at the Coal Mines at 
Chignectou by a company of English gentlemen at an expense 
of #3000 was broken up by the Indians, and by order of the 
Inhabitants they drove off the settlers, burnt their houses 
and storehouses, robbed them of their stock and goods which 
were shared between the Indians and the Inhabitants. 

In 1724 they spirited up and joined with the Indians in 
destroying the English Fishery and killed above 100 fishermen, 
a few English and French were taken for this act, and hanged 
afterwards in Boston. 

In 1744 under Le Loutre 300 Indians supported by these 
neutral French, marched thro' all their districts, and lodged 
within a quarter of a mile of that garrison, and no inhabitants 
gave any intelligence to the Government. 

They in like manner supported and maintained in the same 
year M. Duvivier who had near surprised the garrison and 



48 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

only one inhabitant gave intelligence which put them on their 
guard and prevented it. 

In 1746 they maintained 1700 Canadians in their districts 
the whole summer waiting for the arrival of Duke D'Anville's 
Fleet, and when part of the Forces came before the Fort, they 
assisted them, and made all their fascines, and were to have 
joined in the attempt, being all armed by the French. 

The winter following when the English with about 500 
Troops were canton'd at Minas, by advice of the situation of 
the English Troops given by the French inhabitants to the 
French Troops, they drew them to attack the English, and 
even brought the French Officers ins the English Quarters be- 
fore the attack was made, and they joined the French in the 
attack, whereby 70 of His Majesty's Subjects lost their lives, 
above two- thirds of whom were sick persons and were murdered 
by the French Inhabitants. This was attested by some of the 
soldiers who escaped. They were afterwards before the capi- 
tulation in arms, and kept guard over the English Prisoners, 
and treated them with more severity, than the French King's 
subjects themselves did. 

They frequently afterwards received and maintained 
different parties of the French during the continuance of the 
war. 

When the English first made the Settlement at Halifax, 
and ever since they have spirted up the Indians to commit 
hostilities against the English, always maintaining, supporting 
and giving intelligence to them, where they might distress the 
Settlement to the best advantage, it having been always noted 
that before any Indian attempts, a number of the French 
inhabitants have been found hovering about these places. 

They have constantly since the Settlement obstinately 
refused to take the Oath of Allegiance, and have induced many 
of our Foreign settlers to desert over to the French, and have 
always supplied the French Troops who have intruded upon 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 49 

this Province with Provisions, giving them a constant intelli- 
gence of all the motions of the English, and have thereby forced 
the English to live in Garrison Towns, and they were unable to 
cultivate and improve lands at any distance, which has been the 
principal cause of the great expense to the British Nation, and 
a means of more than half the inhabitants who came here with 
an intent to settle, quitting the Province and settling in other 
Plantations, where they might get their bread without resign- 
ing their lives. 

From such a series of facts for more than 40 years, it 
was evident that the French Inhabitants are so far from being 
disposed to become good subjects that they are more and more 
discovering their inveterate enmity to the English and their af- 
fection to the French, of which we have recent instances in 
their insolence to Captain Murray hiding the best of their arms 
and surrendering only their useless muskets, and in their pre- 
sent absolute refusal to take the Oaths of Allegiance. 

Under these circumstances I think it cannot consist with 
the Honour of the Government, or the safety and prosperity 
of the Province, to permit any of the inhabitants now to take 
the Oaths. 

/ It will be contrary to the letter and spirit of His Ma- 
jesty's instructions. 

The instruction took its rise from the Governor's repre- 
sentation of the hostilities of the French inhabitants and from 
the recitals of the instruction it was plainly intended to secure 
a better obedience of the French, and to strengthen the hands 
of the Government against them, and when they have declared 
as they have implicitly, by refusing to take the Oaths, that 
they will not be subject to His Majesty, the instruction by the 
proposal from the Governor and Council for taking the Oaths 
and their refusal, will be literally observed by their removal 
from the Province, nor can there be any confidence in their 

fidelity after an absolute refusal of allegiance to the Crowa 

4 



50 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

and for this reason persons are declared recusants if they 
refuse on a summons to take the Oaths at the session and can 
never after such refusal be permitted to take them as by once 
disavowing their allegiance their future professions of Fidelity 
ought to receive no credit. 

The Instruction was sent at a time when the Government 
was not in a capacity to assert its rights against the French 
forfeiting inhabitants, and it IP hardly to be doubted that if 
the present circumstances of the Province were known to the 
Crown that the instruction if it is now in force would be 
annulled. 

Governor Cornwallis, according to this Instruction 
summoned the French Inhabitants to swear allegiance, and as 
they refused, the Instruction seems to be no longer in Force, 
and that therefore the Government now have no power to tender 
the Oaths, as the French inhabitants had by their non-com- 
pliance with the condition of the Treaty of Utrecht forfeited 
their possessions to the Crown. 

I would put the case. That His Majesty had required the 
answer of the French inhabitants to be transmitted to the Sec- 
retary of State, to be subject to His Majesty's future pleasure, 
and the present answer of all the French inhabitants should 
be accordingly transmitted "That they would not take the Oath 
unless they were permitted not to bear arms against the 
King of France and that otherwise they desired six months to 
remove themselves and their effects to Canada and that they 
openly desired to serve the French King that they might have 
Priests, it is to be presumed that instead of examining the in- 
struction, orders and possibly a force would be immediately 
sent for banishing such insolent and dangerous inhabitants 
from the Province. 

As to the consequences of permitting them to take the Oaths 
after their refusal. 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 51 

3. It must defeat the intention of the Expedition to 
Beau Sejour. 

The advantages from the success of that Expedition, are 
the weakening the power of the Indians and curbing the in- 
solence of the French Inhabitants, but if after our late reduc- 
tion of the French Forts, and while the Troops are in their 
borders and the British Fleet in our harbour, and even in the 
presence of His Majesty's Admirals and to the highest contempt 
of the Governor and Council, they presume to refuse allegiance 
to His Majesty, and shall yet be received and trusted as subjects, 
we seem to give up all the advantages designed by the Victory. 

and 

If this be their language while the Fleet and Troops are 
with us, I know not what will be their style, and the event of 
their insolence and Hostilities when they aie gone. 

4. It may retard the progress of the settlement and 
possibly be a means of breaking it up. 

The proportion of French to English inhabitants is deemed 
to be as follows: 

At Annapolis 200 Families at 5 in each Family is 1000 

Minas, 300 at 5 1500 

Piziquid, 300 1500 

Chignectou, 800 4000 



8000 

600 English Families at 5 3000 

Balance of the French against the English Inhabitants 5000 

Besides the French at Lunenburgh and the Lunenburghers 
themselves who are more disposed to the French than to the 
English. 

Such a superiority of numbers and of persons who have avow- 
ed that they will not be subject to the King will not only dis- 



; : > r IA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

tress the present settlers but deter others from coming as 
adventurers into the Province, for if they should take the 
oaths, it is well known, that they will not be influenced by 
them after a Dispensation. 

5. As no Expedient can be found for removing them out 
of the Province when the present Armament is withdrawn, as 
will be inevitably requisite, for they will, unquestionably re- 
sume their perfidy and treacheries and with more arts and ran- 
cour than before. 

And as the residence of the French Inhabitants in the Pro- 
vince attached to France occasions all the Schemes of the 
French King, and his attempts for acquiring the Province. 

I think myself obliged for these reasons and from the highest 
necessity which is lex temporis, to the interests of His Majesty 
in the Province, humbly to advise that all the French inhabi- 
tants may be removed from the Province. 

(Signed) Jonathan Belcher. 

Halifax, 28th July, 1755. 

I think it is a fair deduction from all we know ot him that 
he was a man of pure and elevated character; that he devoted 
himself to the land of his adoption with fceal and energy and that 
to his great learning and determination we are largely, perhaps 
principally indebted for our constitutional rights and the law 
and order which have prevailed in Nova Scotia from the first. 
He died at Halifax, 30th March, 1776, at the age of 65, leaving 
as has been stated one son, Andrew Belcher, who became 
member of the Council, and one daughter. He was buried 
beneath St. Paul's Church on the 31st March, as appears 
from the entry in St. Paul's register. To his daughter the 
House of Assembly voted a pension of 50.00. This unusual 
act of generosity on the part of the Assembly is indicative of the 
high esteem in which he was held throughout the province, and 
further that as a public servant no use of his high position was 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 53 

made to enrich himself, as was too often the case in those days. 
The proud legacy left to his descendants was that of a high and 
honorable character, fearless and upright in the discharge of 
his manifold duties, marked with untiring industry and con- 
spicuous ability. Nova Scotians do not seem to have worthily 
appreciated the great services he rendered to the province, at 
least no public mark or monument has been raised to his mem- 
ory, not even a "portrait of him hangs in our Legislative Halls. 
While there are many fine portraits of some of his successors 
not to be ranked with him, there is none of Belcher. This is an 
omission not creditable to the Province and let me indulge the 
hope that in the near future it will be rectified. Possibly it 
has been due to the fact that it was unknown whether any 
portrait of him was in existence. Search for some years has 
been made by myself and others, and at last I am glad to say 
our search has been rewarded. The Rev. Edward Gilbert 
Belcher, already alluded to, informs me that he has in his pos- 
session an oil portrait of his distinguished ancestor by Copley. 
If the oiiginal cannot ba obtained I have no doubt he would per- 
mit a copy to be made which should be placed amongst other 
portraits of those men who have spent their lives in the service 
of our country.* 

In the course of my search for material to prepare this 
sketch of his life I visited the Registry of Probate and found 
some few facts which may be of interest. It appears that he 
made no last will, dying intestate. By an entry in the registry 
I find that administration to his estate was granted to John 
Kirby on 13th April, 1776. The inventory of his estate shows 
that he owned some real estate, that is to say a house on Argyle 
Street, lands at Sheet Harbor, and a farm at Windsor, known 
as the Belvidere Farm. This last must have been of considerable 
value, as it was rented for 70.00 per annum, and sold after his 



*Since this was written the Rev. Gilbert L. Belcher, Henry Belcher, and 
another brother have presented to the Province a fine copy in oil of the 
portrait of the Chief Justice, the receipt of which the Governor-in-Council 
have gratefully acknowledged. 



54 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

death for 1748.00. By the accounts on file it seems that all his 
lands were heavily encumbered, and with his personal property 
combined no more than discharged his debts and obligations 
leaving nothing for his children. In glancing over the list of per- 
sonal assets I observe that he was the owner of quite a lot of valu- 
able silver, and other table appointments such as gentlemen 
in his lofty position would naturally possess; from all of which we 
can fairly presume that at his hospitable board many of the 
notable men who lived in and visited Halifax were worthily en- 
tertained. His library was full of the standard legal works and 
reports of the times, showing as we have already seen that he- 
kept himself well abreast of all the learning of his profession. 
Evidently he was to some extent interested in shipping to his 
great loss, as I notice one of his heaviest liabilities was a charge 
of 457 for the Brig Polly. There are some other items 
amongst these papers but not sufficiently interesting or import- 
ant to dwell upon here. All tend to show that he had not 
amassed wealth during his strenuous career as Chief Justice and 
Lieut. -Governor of the Province. 

The Supreme Court of Nova Scotia has had eleven Chief 
Justices, excluding Charles Morris, who was appointed tempor- 
arily by the Governor on the death of Belcher. The Honor- 
able Bryan Finucane succeeded him in 1778 and of him we 
know little or nothing, except that he was an Irishman. Of the 
intervening Chief Justices to the time of Sir Brenton Halli- 
burton, very little of their lives and careers has been preserved. 
The four Chief Justices since are well known to the present 
generation. In connection with this sketch of our first Chief 
Justice it may be of interest to give their names, and dates of 
appointment. I have already mentioned Chief Justice Finucane 
appointed in 1778. The Honorable Isaac Deschamps appoint- 
ed in 1785. The Honorable Jeremiah Pemberton, appointed in 
1788. The Honorable Sir Thomas Andrew Strange, appointed 
in 1790. The Honorable Sampson Blowers, appointed in 
1797. The Honorable Sir Brenton Halliburton, appointed in 
1833. The Honourable Sir William Young appointed in 1860 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 55 

The Honorable James McDonald, appointed in 1881. The 
Honorable Sir Robert L. Weatherbee, appointed in 1905, and 
the Honorable Sir Charles Townshead, appointed in 1907. 
I may add that the Honorable Charles Morris is not included, 
as he never held an Imperial appointment, but was named 
temporarily by the Governor in Council as first Justice until 
a successor to Belcher was appointed. 

In looking over this list I think it can be fairly said that so 
far as our knowledge extends, Chief Justice Belcher deserves 
to hold the first place as an able and accomplished Judge. 
While it is true we possess none of his Judicial opinions by which 
to test his legal acumen and knowledge,yet I think we can de- 
duce from his acts, and writings sufficient to justify us in award- 
ing to him the high place accorded to him by his cotemporaries 
and later generations. That he had an imperious temper, and 
was impatient of opposition hardly admits of a doubt, but 
those were days where a firm hand, and strong will were very 
necessary. In estimating his character and career it is but 
just to his memory to bear in mind that he filled an important 
and responsible position in troublous times. When everything 
was new, and unorganized, and when the community was beset 
with many foes within and without that under such condi- 
tions he bore himself uprightly, and did his duty as Judge, 
Legislator and Governor with dignity, and success, fearing no 
man. As probably the best educated man in the community 
he no doubt felt that he was entitled to speak with authority, 
and the high office he filled so worthily gave weight to the 
opinions he so vigorously expressed. 

From this brief and imperfect presentation of his life 
and career it may be fairly claimed that it is due to the memory 
of Jonathan Belcher our first Chief Justice -- that his name 
should be inscribed on the roll of eminent Nova Scotians, who 
in the past have well served their country, and that the useful 
part he took in the formation of our institutions should have 
a permanent place in the historical records of the Province. 



56 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



By REV. ARTHUR WENTWORTH HAMILTON EATON, D.C.L. 

Chief Justice Jonathan Belcher, second son of Governor 
Jonathan and hi^ wife Mary (Partridge) Belcher, was born 
in Boston, July 23, 1710, and graduated at Harvard College 
in 1728. He died in Halifax, March 29, 1776, aged nearly sixty- 
six. He married in King's Chapel, Boston, April 8, 1756 (he 
being in his forty-seventh year) , Abigail Allen of Boston, born 
probably in 1727, daughter of Jeremiah and Abigail (Waldo) 
Allen, and sister of Jeremiah Allen, who was for some years 
sheriff of Suffolk County, Massachusetts. Mrs. Belcher died ac- 
cording to her tombe tone in St. Paul's burying-ground, October 
9, 1771, "aged 44 years." On her tombstone, which bears the 
arms that were probably used by her husband, are inscribed 
also the names of hzr children, Jonathan (1st.) Gilbert Jona- 
than; Abigail; William Jeremiah, (the last is said in his inscrip- 
tion to have died on the day he was born) . Whatever sermon 
may have been preached in St. Paul's Church, Halifax, on the 
occasion of Mrs Belcher's death, there was delivered at Halifax, 
probably in St. Mathew's Church, October 20, 1771, by the Rev. 
John Secombe A. M., Congregational minister at Chester, 
Nova Scotia, "A sermon occasioned by the death of the Honor- 
able Abigail Belcher, Late Consort of Jonathan Belcher, Esq., 
late Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief and His 
Majesty's present Chief Justice of his Province of Nova Scotia." 
This sermon, of which copies are extant, was printed in Boston 
in 1772, with an Epistle by Mather Byles, D. D., of Boston 
the elder Mather Byles. 

Chief Justice Jonathan Belcher's children, all born in 
Halifax and baptized by Rev. Dr. John Breynton, Rector of 
St. Paul's Church, are: 

I. Jonathan, Jr., born January 22, 1757; died August 26, 
1757. 

II. Gilbert Jonathan, born May 17, 1759, died August 31, 
1763. 



CHIEF JUSTICE BELCHER. 57 

III. Mary Emilia Elizabeth, born June 3, 1760, married 
August 24, 1790, to Timothy Lindell Jennison, M. D., born in 
Milford, Mass July 15, 1761, graduated at Harvard College in 
1782, long a physician in Cambridge, Mass., and a member of 
the Mass. Medical Society. 

IV. Abigail, born November 12, 1761, died September 6, 
1766. 

V. Hon. Andrew, born July 22, 1763, the only child of Chief 
Justice Belcher to perpetuate the Belcher name, he was a mer- 
chant in Halifax, but married in Boston in 1792 Mary Ann or 
(Marianne von. Geyer),a daughter of Frederick William and 
and Susanna (Ingraham) von Geyer (whose mansion in Sum- 
mer Street, Boston was long a conspicuous centre of fashion 
and wit.) Andrew Belcher was appointed a member of the 
Nova Scotia Council, June 16, 1801. He died at Boulogne, 
November 17, 1841. Of his eleven children, Sir Edward Bel- 
cher, K.C.B., Rear Admiral, R. N., rendered England important 
naval service in every quarter of the world. A brother of Sir 
Edward Belcher was Rev. Andrew Herbert Belcher, a clergy- 
man; a sister, Catherine, was married to Charles Maryatt, 
M. P., and had among other children, Captain Frederick Mar- 
ry att, the novelist; and another sister, Eleanor, was married, 
first to the Rev. Wm. Cogswell of Halifax, second to Major 
John Claridge Burmester of the British Army. 

VI. Jonathan, Jr., born August 14, 1765 died June 29, 
1772. 

VII. William Jeremiah, born May 7, 1770, died May 8. 
1770. 



DOCKYARD REMINISCENCES. 59 



DOCKYARD REMINISCENCES. 

An Account of the Action between the "Chesapeake," 

and the "Shannon," gleaned from Statements 

made by Eye-witnesses. 

By CHARLES ROCHE, Halifax. 

The Halifax Dockyard in 1813 was an extensive establish- 
ment; sixteen hundred men were employed; ships were built 
there, the "Halifax," "Indian," "Emelous," and others, and 
many smaller craft. The land defences consisted mainly of 
Martello Towers, one on George's Island, another at Fort 
Clarence, York Redoubt, Sherbrooke Tower in Point Pleasant 
Park, Camperdown, Mauger's Beach and Sambro, now the 
bases of lighthouses; a battery at Point Pleasant, another at 
the Lumber Yard ; a chain across the N. W. Arm. The follow- 
ing buoys were in Halifax Harbour, Litchfield Rock, depth of 
water 15 feet, colour of buoy white; shoal between George's 
Island and Cornwallis Island, 30 feet of water, red buoy; 
Mars Rock between Chedabucto and Litchfield, 21 feet, buoy 
white; Point Pleasant Shoal, S. E. part of it, 22 feet, buoy white. 

The Dockyard stkff comprised J. E. Inglefield, Commis- 
sioner; Elias Marshall, Master Shipwright; Mr. P. F. Wallis, 
Clerk to Commissioner; D. E. Dawes, Storekeeper; Mr. Alex- 
ander Anderson, Chief Clerk; John Ross, Clerk to Master 
Shipwright; George Patterson, Master Attendant; Mr. Will- 
iam Hughes, Foreman of Shipwrights; Mr. Casper Rhodes, 
Foreman of Mast Makers; Mr. John Brush, Foreman of 
Smiths; Mr. William Lee, Foreman of House Carpenters; 
Mr. Duncan Clarke, Surgeon; Mr. Thomas Matthews, Gate ' 
Porter, Boatswain, Mr. David Ridgeway. 



60 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The loss of so many ships and the loss of so much property 
at the beginning of the war by the merchants, caused wide- 
spread dissatisfaction and grief. "England with 1000 pennants 
in her Navy, and yet unable to protect her commerce or capture 
a dozen of American men-o'-war." In Halifax the grief and 
astonishment was wide-spread. On no one did it fall with more 
chagrin than Capt. Broke of the "Shannon." The escape of 
the "Constitution," the loss of the "Guerriere" when under his 
command, preyed on his mind. To his friend, Mr. William 
Minns he would often unburden himself when they resorted to 
the Exchange Coffee House. He had 85 bluejackets he could 
depend upon and he had the promise of 65 volunteers from the 
Dockyard. He wanted good men who were afraid of nothing. 
His officers would stand by him ; no ship in the service had bet- 
ter. So loud did Minns and he become in their discussions that 
the boys would call out in the street when he was passing "Look 
at that redhead Captain; he is sure to take a Yankee frigate." 
Capt. Sir Hyde Parker of the "Tenedos" was as rash as Broke. 
They claimed that they would not hesitate to attack the "Pre- 
sident" or "United States." The "Majestic," Capt. Hayes, 
of 57 guns, was a match for any of these ships, but never had 
the luck to fall in with any of them till near the close of the war. 

The "Shannon" was fitted out in the Halifax Dockyard for 
her last and most memorable cruise on the North American 
coast. Many of her men who sailed in her then, lived in Hali- 
fax many long years after, and some never returned but slept 
in the bed of old Ocean. 

A cooper in the Dockyard invented a sort of keg of hard 
wood hooped with iron and filled with bullets. These were 
discharged from the carronades on the spar-deck and caused 
great havoc on the crowded decks of the "Chesapeake." 

Some years after, Col. Broke, the brother of the "Shannon's" 
Captain, gave a dinner to all the survivors of the crew then re- 
siding in Halifax. Among these were Jacob West, Robert 
Weston, James Rivers, Charles Hughes, William Oxford (pilot 



DOCKYARD REMINISCENCES. 61 

of the Shannon") Charles Abel, John Jackson, William Fen ton, 
James Bulger, George Gaton and Arthur Steele. 

The "Shannon" was a different looking ship from the "Tene- 
dos," "Nympthe," "Larne" and "Statira," the other 38-gun 
frigates. Her builders, Thomas and Joseph Brindley, whose 
yard was at Chatham, built two-deck ships for the Navy and 
the East India Company. They built very few frigates; there- 
fore, the "Shannon" at a distance had the look of an East 
Indiaman. Notwithstanding her fullness she was a good sailer, 
well timbered and planked with British oak. 

In the last days of May she was cruising off Boston with the 
"Tenedos." The weather was thick and the "President" and 
"Congress" came out of that port without being discovered by 
the British ships. This left the "Chesapeake" alone in the 
harbour. Broke, now in virtue of his superior command, or- 
dered the "Tenedos" to Shelburne for wood and water. No 
sooner was this ship out of sight than he sent a challenge to 
Captain Lawrence, naming the number of his crew and guns, 
Lawrence was just as rash and impetuous as Broke and his 
easy victory over the unfortunate "Peacock," when in com- 
mand of the "Hornet," a far superior vessel, had given him 
undue confidence. 

On the first day of June, the "Shannon" at 10 a. m., stood 
into Boston Harbour just outside of the range of the guns of 
Fort Warren and Fort Independence. She was prepared for 
action, chain braces rove, top gallant and royals furled tight 
and small, but the yards across. She was under her three top- 
sails and jib, her mizzen in throat brails, colours hoisted, the 
crew at quarters, magazine open, lockers full of shot, everything 
ready for action. On standing over the east side, the "Chesa- 
peake," was discovered at anchor. The day wore on; the crew 
were piped to dinner (the last to many). Dinner was just con- 
cluded when the watch on deck hailed "She's getting under 
way." Instantly the crew were ordered back to quarters; 
the men began to strip off their shirts; some wound their silk 



SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

handkerchiefs around their necks, some around their knees, some 
around the head. Wallis took command of the after main 
deck guns, Falkiner the forward main deck, the Captain and 
Watt on the spar deck with the boatswain, Stevens; Meehan, 
the gunner, to the magazine, Surgeon Jack to the cockpit with 
his assistants. "We could see by the rapidity with which the 
American's sails were loosed and then set, and the many men 
on the yards that her crew was numerous." The day was fine 
and bright, the wind west and light. The sun shone on her 
snowy canvas of cotton, her bright copper, her painted sides. 
When under way her studding sail booms were rigged out and 
sails set. She carried three great American ensigns, one at the 
main yardarm. At her foremast head a large white flag in- 
scribed "Free Trade and Sailors' Rights." When we saw she 
was coming out, the "Shannon's" head was turned to sea, the 
ship not making more than three knots, the "Chesapeake" mak- 
ing three feet to our one. A number of small craft accompanied 
her, which led our Captain to think there might be an attempt 
made to carry the "Shannon" by boarding. We kept on our 
course till well out in a line with Cape Ann. The "Chesapeake" 
now fired a lee gun to notify us that she would not go any fur- 
ther to sea. The "Shannon" then hove to. She was a strong 
contrast to the other ship, with her hempen sails, her foul cop- 
per, weather-beaten sides and rusty old blue ensign. While 
the "Chesapeake" was shortening sail and sending down her 
royal yards preparatory to action, Capt. Broke, standing on the 
break of the quarter deck, now addressed his crew who had been 
called aft: "Shannons," you know that through various causes 
the Americans have triumphed over us. This will not daunt 
you because you know the truth that disparity of force was the 
chief reason. But they have said more, and published in the 
newspapers that the British have forgotten how to fight. You 
will let them know to-day there are Englishmen in the "Shan- 
non" who still know how to fight. Don't try to dismast her; 
fire into her quarters, main deck into main deck, quarter deck 
into quarter deck. When you board her, don't strike for the 
the head for they wear steel caps, but thrust them through the 



DOCKYARD REMINISCENCES. 63 

body. Don't cheer. Go quietly to your quarters. I know 
you will all do your duty, for you have the blood of hundreds of 
your countrymen to avenge." Silence ensued, till some of the 
"Guerrieres" called out for revenge, although not many of them 
had taken part in the action which had ended in her going to the 
bottom, but had been sent in with prizes, and afterwards join- 
ed the "Shannon." Jacob West, one of them, called out 
"Can't we have three ensigns like her," pointing over his shoul- 
der to theGhesapeake," now approaching. "No," said Broke. 
"We were always an unassuming ship; you know what hap- 
pened another ship which flew three ensigns." 

The "Chesapeake" was now closing fast, the wind had de- 
creased and we had bare steerage way. She was coming at an 
angle of impunity on the starboard quarter of the "Shannon." 
Everything was so still we could hear the water rippling at her 
bows and the voices of the officers giving orders. We could see 
her booms and boats full of small arm men, as well as her top. 
We had only 330 men, including 23 men taken out of the ship 
"Duck" of Waterford. The "Chesapeake" had one hundred 
more men. Orders were given to fire gun by gun as they bore 
on her ports, the after maindeck first, then the quarter deck 
gun above it. It was uncertain what Lawrence's tactics were, 
until all uncertainty was removed by the "Chesapeake" round- 
ing so as to bring her alongside the "Shannon." In the same 
manner he had brought the "Hornet" alongside the "Peacock." 
"Peacock" her, my lads, "Peacock" her," he had called 
out to his men. 

This was a fatal error on Lawrence's part, for in the light 
wind it took a long time for his ship to come around. "She 
bares, sir," said William Mindham, the captain of the gun. 
"Fire," said Wallis. Overhead the quarterdeck guns were 
being fired before you could take time to tell it. The broad- 
side was fired, not a second between the report of each gun. 
Shrieks were heard from both ships, for the shot was bounding 
along our decks with fatal effect. The American riflemen were 



64 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

pouring in their bullets from deck and tops, to which our 
marines and Dockyard volunteers sent back bullet for bullet. 
Lawrence, who was standing on a carronade slide on the side 
next our ship giving orders, was shot in the stomach and carried 
below, his white clothes dripping blood; while Ludlow, the 
first Lieutenant, was shot in the head and carried below also. 
It was said afterwards that Lawrence repeated the words of 
brave Admiral Carter, at LaHogue, "Don't give up the ship; 
fight her as long as she will swim." 

Both ships kept up a constant fire of great guns and small 
arms, but the "Shannon's" fire had swept the spar deck of the 
"Chesapeake." Out of 150 men stationed on that deck, 100 
had been struck down and the rails and bulwarks of pitch pine 
had been shattered to pieces, the splinters inflicting fearful 
wounds. A shot had shattered the "Chesapeake's" wheel and 
another had cut her jib sheet. These disasters had caused her 
head to come up in the wind. She then took a stern board and 
came down upon the "Shannon," her larboard quarter striking 
the "Shannon" about the fifth gun on her maindeck. As soon 
as the ships came in contact, boatswain Stevens and his gang 
lashed the ships together. The brave boatswain was badly 
wounded by the pikes of the Americans, but jumping to the 
deck, he said to Captain Broke, "Now is your time; her deck 
is almost deserted." Broke called out "Boarders away! follow 
me who can." Amongst those who followed Broke, was James 
Bulger, who had been taken out of the "Duck" of Waterford 
and sent to the work at the guns. Captain Broke and the 
first Lieutenant Watt boarded with about 60 bluejackets and 
marines. With these were some Dockyard men, among them 
a very powerful young man, who was the first to break through 
the Americans, who were drawn upon the quarter deck close 
to the mizzenmast. About a dozen big men in front had on 
steel caps and were armed with boarding pikes. Behind these 
were about 25 men, some armed with muskets and some armed 
with cutlasses and pistols. Most of the boarders had cutlasses 
only; few had firearms. 



DOCKYARD REMINISCENCES. 65 

The boarders could not at first force the pikemen back, and 
a Mr. Livermore, said to be the Chaplain, pointed a pistol at 
the Captain, but the pistol missed fire and the Captain slashed 
his face across with his sword, and he fell against the mizzen- 
mast. The young volunteer with a handspike struck two of the 
pikesmen, on which the bluejackets with their cutlasses slash- 
ed at the Americans, and Sergeant Molyneux with a party of 
marines, charged them in the flank with bayonets. Then all 
parties were hurled off the quarterdeck and down the ladders 
upon the spar deck. Lieut. Falkiner, with the maindeck boar- 
ders, now joined. Some of the Americans climbed over the bul- 
warks and gained the maindeck, but most of them were hurled 
down the main hatch. Capt. Broke with a party of seamen and 
marines now rushed along the gangways to the forecastle for a 
party of Americans were trying to drop the foresail, for a 
breeze had filled the "Chesapeake's "sails. The lashings part- 
ed and the ships separated. 

Falkiner took possession of the waist and put a marine 
named William Hill on sentry over the hatch. The Americans 
on the deck below fired up the hatch and killed Hill. The 
"Shannon" marines then fired down among the Americans. 
But Falkiner stopped them and called to the men below that 
if they did not give up the man who shot the marine, he would 
bring them all up and shoot them one by one. This threat was 
not carried out, for just then a commotion aft drew the attention 
of all hands. Lieut. Watt had brought a white ensign on 
board under his coat. He with a small party had gone aft 
to lower the "Chesapeake" ensign, which was still fluttering at 
the gaff end. He hauled it down with a run and it fell over the 
taffrail. He called out to Rexworthy, the signal man, to be 
lively and bend on quickly. Rexworthy in his eagerness pul- 
led on the wrong half yard and hoisted the American flag again. 
The people on the "Shannon," thinking the boarders were over- 
powered, for the ships were some distance apart, fired a gun 
loaded with grapeshot upon the crowd on the quarter deck, and 
Watt, who was more than six feet high, was shot through 
5 



66 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the head. Some others were killed or wounded, but Rex- 
worthy, who was stooping down, escaped and hoisted the white 
ensign again, this time above the others. 

Some Americans in the forecastle, seeing the American 
flag going up again, renewed the fight. They attacked Capt. 
Broke and wounded him in the head. He was carried aft with 
his head bound up, bringing a boy middy by the arm, whom he 
had rescued from midshipman Smith, who was a blood thirsty 
young rascal and who had driven the young Yankee out of the 
fore-top. They slid down the "Chesapeake V backstay and 
landed on the deck, Smith on top. The men who wounded 
Broke were not Americans but British deserters, who would have 
been hanged or flogged around the fleet, as five others who 
taken were after we arrived at Halifax. 

The Captain being desperately wounded and the first Lieut- 
enant killed, Lieut. Wallis took command of the "Shannon" 
and Falkiner of the prize. The prisoners were handcuffed 
with their own irons which they had provided for us. Both 
ships stood off the shore and then hove to. The moon shone 
bright and revealed a horrible sight ; the decks, the bulwarks 
torn, hammocks and pieces of rope all stained with blood, 
while there could be heard the groans and cries of the wounded 
below in the cockpits. The rigging was knotted, the braces 
now rove; and then the mangled dead were collected, sewn up 
each in his hammock with two round shot at his feet. They 
were laid in a row in the lee scuppers. The ships were close 
together. The burial service was read in both ships, and at 
the words "we commit his body to the deep to be turned into 
corruption, looking for the resurrection of the body when the 
sea shall give up her dead," the white forms were one by one 
lowered into the sea, a plunge and all was over: and, as the 
old song says, "the billows rolled as they rolled before." 

The losses in this action were "Shannon," 26 killed, 56 woun- 
ded; "Chesapeake," 70 killed, 100 wounded. 



DOCKYARD REMINISCENCES. 67 

Next day we shaped our course for Halifax. We sighted 
two ships at which were reported to be the " President" and 
"Congress," but turned out to be the "Sceptre," 74, and "Loi- 
re," frigate. Wallis signalled not to detain him, as both ships 
were full of wounded men. Both ships then gave us three 
cheers and bore away. Nothing happened till the 4th of June, 
when Capt. Lawrence died ; our Capt. Broke was not expected 
to live to get to Halifax, and Mr. Ludlow, first Lieut, of the 
"Chesapeake," who was lying in poor Watt's bed, was not much 
better and died a fortnight after we got in o!n Sunday the 6th. 

There was great cheering from the wharves and vessels; 
the ships' bands played "Rule Britannia" and "Britons Strike 
Home," and yard arms were manned. But we were not allow- 
ed to cheer on account of the many wounded on board, although 
they could hear the cheering on shore plain enough. On Mon- 
day great crowds came into the Dockyard to see the body of 
Captain Lawrence, who was laid out on the "Chesapeake's" 
captain's table. The great American ensign which flew at her 
yard arm, was wrapped around him; his own people made his 
shroud. He had an Admiral's funeral; six Captains bore his 
pall. All the officers and warrant officers and many of the men 
of the "Chesapeake," were at the funeral. Lieuts. Wallis and 
Falkiner and 50 men of the "Shannon" were present. It 
was remarked that the men of the "Shannon" were smaller 
and less powerful looking than the "Chesapeake's" men. Mr. 
Ludlow's funeral about a fortnight afterwards was also very 
fine; he was buried beside his Captain but both were after- 
wards taken to New York and buried in Trinity Church Yard. 
The brave boatswain Stevens' funeral was as fine as either of 
the others; all Halifax seemed to have turned out to do him 
honour, for it was generally thought it was owing to him that 
the action was so soon decided. He was buried in St. Paul's 
Church Yard, behind where the Welsford and Parker Monu- 
ment now stands; and it is a disgrace to his countrymen that 
he has not a better monument. Some of the "Shannon's" 
wounded afterwards died and were buried in the Naval Church 
Yard. 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 69 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON- 

By MRS. CHARLES ARCHIBALD, Halifax, N. S. 
(Read before the N. S. Historical Society, Jan. 21st, 1898.) 

Before entering upon the subject matter of my paper, which 
deals with the Scottish settlers in Cape Breton, it may be well 
to take a brief retrospective glance at the previous history of 
the country in which they found a home. 

From a very early period, the Island of Cape Breton has 
been the scene of romance, adventure and military prowess. 
As early as the 10th century according to the Icelandic Saga 
it was visited by Norse rovers; while, in 1347, we hear of a ves- 
sel being wrecked upon the coast of Iceland while returning 
with a cargo of wood from "Markland," (woodland or forest- 
land) which, by many historians, is supposed to be the ancient 
designation of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton. As Cape Bre- 
ton is the nearest country to Iceland which produces any wood, 
we may reasonably suppose that this theory is correct. Dr. 
Bouwnot, in his most interesting descriptive and historical 
monograph on the Island, inclines to this belief, although he re- 
fers also to the theory of Professor Gustav Storm, that Cape 
Breton was the northern extremity of that mysterious "Vin- 
land," to which the bold adventurer, Lief. Ericsson, came at 
last in his wanderings, and where he made a temporary settle- 
ment. 

There is every reason to believe that the bays and harbors 
of the Island were well known to the Basque and Breton fisher- 
men from a very remote period. The name of "Baccalaos,". 
(the Basque for cod) is found in the earliest maps of the 16th 
century, and it is not improbable that the Cabots may have 
heard from some such source as these adventurous fishermen of 



70 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the lands beyond the sea; indeed the much-disputed location 
of the land-fall of Cabot, is by many considered to have been 
beyond a doubt the High-land of northern Cape Breton. 

The discoveries of Cabot opened the way for many other 
expeditions, and we learn that the first attempt to establish 
a settlement in this part of the country was made at Canso by 
Baron de Lery in 1518. The names of Verrezano, Roberval, 
Cartier, and Sir Humphrey Gilbert next appear on the scene. 
But their attempts to establish permanent settlements on the 
long coast line stretching from Labrador to Florida all failed 
signally, and up to the year 1600, 103 years after the discovery 
of the continent of North America by the Cabots, "not a single 
European," says Brown in his History of Cape Breton, "was 
then known to be living within these limits, save a few miser- 
able outcasts left by the inhuman De la Roche on the desolate 
Island of Sable." 

During the 17th century, when the struggle for pre-eminence 
between France and England was so fierce, and the issue so 
uncertain, it was a question whether Acadie was to be French 
or English; but, as every student of history knows, after the 
decisive battles of Ramillies, Blenheim, and Oudenarde, the 
Treaty of Utrecht ceded Acadie to England, and Cape Breton 
from this time forward became an important factor in the af- 
fairs of New France. On the cession of Newfoundland to the 
English in 1713 the French inhabitants there removed to Cape 
Breton. The name of the island was changed to He Royale, 
and Louisbourg, then called English Harbor, was chosen as its 
capital. 

Of the romantic history of Louisbourg, the Dunkirk of 
America, of its two sieges and its gallant defence and the glori- 
ous victory by which under the expedition of Wolfe and Bosca- 
wen it was finally taken for England in 1758, all here present 
are doubtless familiar; and we do not propose to speak of it 
within the limits of this paper further than to relate some in- 
cidents which will serve to show the condition of the country 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 71 

at the time when the Scottish immigration began. That the 
Island of Cape Breton was regarded as a valuable possession of 
France there can be no doubt; certainly, no stronger proof of 
this can be adduced than the fact that, when in the year 1761, 
negotiations for peace were entered upon with Great Britain, 
the French Minister, Due de Choiseul, offered to cede the whole 
of Canada to England upon certain conditions, of which the 
most important was the restitution of Cape Breton. This 
being refused, the negotiations were broken off. The treaty of 
Paris at the close of the Seven years' war finally ceded to the 
British the whole of the territory now including the present 
Dominion of Canada, France losing all her possessions on the 
continent of North America except the colony of Louisiana and 
obtaining in return only the miserable islands of St. Pierre and 
Miquelon. 

Peace being once more restored, inducements to settle in 
Canada and Nova Scotia were offered by the British govern- 
ment. To officers and soldiers who had been engaged in the 
late war, free grants of land were given as a reward for their 
services, and to mark the sense of gratitude entertained by the 
government for the services of the navy in the conquest of Cape 
Breton similar grants were offered to such reduced officers as 
had served on board ship at the time of the capture of Louis- 
bourg. But that these grants did not extend to Cape Breton 
is certain, from reasons mentioned in a letter addressed by the 
Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations to Governor 
Wilmot in November, 1763, in which the great importance of 
the island with reference to the cod-fishery is dwelt upon, and 
Governor Wilmot is instructed to order an accurate survey 
made both of Prince Edward Island (then called St. John's) 
and Cape Breton; reporting in the meantime the extent of 
their resources, soil, etc., etc., and of the establishments which 
might be necessary for uniting them to Nova Scotia. Until 
this survey was completed he was ordered to make no grants 
on either of the islands, and to discourage every attempt to 
establish any business that might in its nature and consequences 



72 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

operate as a monopoly. This policy very naturally retarded 
the settlement of the Island for several years. The survey, 
however, made known many of the natural resources of the 
country, and about this time we hear of the valuable coal 
fields of Cape Breton first attracting the notice of speculators, 
several competitors having applied for leave to develop this im- 
portant industry. (See Brown, P. 363) 

The late Rev. Alex. Farquharson, of Sydney, a well known 
Presbyterian minister, to the great kindness of whose widow I 
am indebted for the perusal of his valuable manuscripts, from 
which I propose to quote freely in the course of this paper, writes 
of this period that it was the policy of Great Britain to pre- 
serve the island for naval purposes, and he cites a letter from 
the report of Charles Morris in 1774 to Governor Legge com- 
paring it with other provinces. After describing the advan- 
tages of the former from its superior timber, rich coal mines, 
etc., it concludes thus: 

"I am therefore of the opinion that the whole island of Cape 
Breton should be reserved for the purpose of preserving to 
H. M.'s use timber for shipbuilding and other purposes, this 
island being the nearest tract of land to England where such 
quantities of timber are to be procured and having many ex- 
cellent harbors for the exportation thereof." 

Governor Parr, nine years after this, was unable to grant the 
request of the considerable number of refugees at New York to 
form a settlement on the island of Cape Breton, owing to re- 
straint by Royal instructions from granting any land on that 
island without asking His Majesty's pleasure on the application. 
This accounts for the small number of settlers on the island 
for so many years after British possession. According to the 
census taken in 1774, its population was only 1011 whites and 
230 Indians. Of the whites, 502 were .of French descent. 
This policy was persisted in until after the separation of Cape 
Breton from Nova Scotia in 1784 and its establishment as a 
separate colony under Governor DesBarres, who fixed the site 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 73 

of the capital at Spanish River, which name he changed to 
Sydney in honor of the Secretary of State. 

As soon then as it became known that grants of land would 
be issued, as in other provinces, many persons directed their 
attention towards the island, among whom were 140 persons 
styling themselves "associated loyalists" some of whom set- 
tled near St. Peter's, others at Baddeck and Louisbourg, but the 
greater part at Sydney. They were followed by hundreds of 
others. Thus at the opening of the 19th century the popu- 
lation of the entire island was estimated at 2513, 801 of whom 
inhabited the Sydney district, while 192 were at Louisbourg and 
1520 at Arichat and the northwest shore. Many of these lat- 
ter were of French descent. The population being thus scanty, 
there was ample room left for the hordes of hardy Highlanders 
who now first began to arrive from Scotland, some via Pictou 
and P. E. Island, about the opening of the century. 

Two causes led to this influx of the Scotch. Some, no 
doubt, were influenced to brave the dangers and discomforts 
of a foreign country by the representations of those of their re- 
latives who fought under Wolfe at Louisbourg in the Highland 
regiments which he himself was instrumental in forming. No 
less than ten thousand of these brave, hardy soldiers, by his 
wise and prudent counsel, were added to the British Army. 

"On the return of peace in 1763" we are told by the late Mr. 
Richard Brown of Sydney Mines (whose history of Cape Bre- 
ton, now very rare, is both reliable and interesting) "a great 
number of troops were disbanded, among the rest many of the 
Highlanders, who with that prudence and foresight peculiar 
to their countrymen, had noted with observant eyes the ferti- 
lity of the Province in which they served, in every respect so 
much superior to the bleak and barren Highlands of their native 
land, and determined to make it their future home. Those 
who settled in Canada, Nova Scotia and St. John's Island up 
to the year 1773 sent home to their friends such glowing ac- 
counts of their new homes that the latter prepared to join them 



74 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

as soon as possible." As an additional impetus to this wave 
of immigration, it happened that at that time many of the 
Highland chieftains who had discovered that the raising of 
cattle and sheep would afford them greater profits than the 
leasing of their lands to unprofitable tenants, were dispossess- 
ing the latter of their farms and holdings, and thousands left, 
whether willingly or not, from every district in the Highlands, 
to join their friends in the colonies. 

Says Brown, quoting from "A Summer in Skye" by Alex- 
ander Smith : 

"In the course of the twenty or thirty years following 1773 
whole baronies were turned into sheep farms, and hundreds of 
families were driven across the Atlantic to look for a home in the 
backwoods of America. Many of those who had friends in 
the colonies and knew what they had to expect, emigrated with 
great alacrity, but thousands who had no such desire, felt the 
greatest repugnance to leave the land of their fathers, the 
familiar hills and the 'green slopes of Lochaber,' and were 
heartbroken at the idea of being separated from them by a 
thousand leagues of raging sea. 

"It is all well enough to say now that the Duke of Suther- 
land and other great Scottish landlords who banished men from 
their estates to form deer forests have conferred a lasting bene- 
fit upon the tenants by driving them across the Atlantic, 
where they found more comfortable homes than they ever pos- 
sessed in their native land ; but the banished had little consola- 
tion in reflecting that their houses were unroofed before their 
eyes and they were made to go on board ships bound for Can- 
ada, even although the passage money was paid. An obscure 
sense of wrong was kindled in heart and brain. It is just pos- 
sible that what was for the landlord's interest might be for 
others also in the long run, but they felt that the landlord had 
looked after his own interest in the first place. He wished them 
away and he got them away: whether they would succeed in 
Canada was a matter of dubiety." (Brown, Hist, of C. B.,p. 
423) 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 75 

The first shipload of these unfortunates arrived at Pictou, 
Nova Scotia, in 1773 on the "Hector," having on board 220 
immigrants. She was followed during the next eight or ten 
years by others in rapid succession. 

Patterson, in his history of Pictou, thus speaks of the im- 
portance of the arrival of this pioneer emigrant ship to these 
Lower Provinces: 

"With her passengers" he writes "may be said to have com- 
menced the really effective settlement of Pictou. But this was 
not all: the 'Hector' was the first emigrant vessel from Scot- 
land to these lower Provinces. That stream of Scottish im- 
migration which, in after years, flowed not only over the 
County of Pictou but over much of the Eastern part of the 
Province, Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island, portions of 
New Brunswick and even the Upper Provinces, began with this 
voyage, and even in a large measure originated with it; for it 
was from the representations of those on board to their friends 
that others followed, and so the stream deepened and widened 
in succeeding years. We venture to say that there is no ele- 
ment in the population of these Lower Provinces upon which 
their social, moral and religious condition depended more than 
upon the Scottish immigrants; and of these, that band upon 
the 'Hector' were the pioneers and vanguards." (History of 
Pictou, p. 82) 

Up to 1791 most if not all of those who had arrived were 
Scottish Presbyterians, but two ships which arrived in that year 
having Roman Catholics on board, they were persuaded by the 
Reverend Father McEachren, of St. John's (P. E. I.) to leave 
Pictou and settle along the Gulf shore towards Antigonish. 
Some of these persons dissatisfied probably w r ith the poor nature 
of the soil, crossed over to Cape Breton and settled upon its 
north-western shores at several places between the Strait of 
Canso and the Margaree or Marguerite River, where they 
found a more congenial soil and greater facilities for prosecut- 



76 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ing the seal fishery, in which they had been engaged in the 
Western islands of Scotland. 

Although there were of course no roads or highways at that 
time from the sea coast to the Bras D'or, some of the settlers 
were successful in finding their way to the fruitful sheltered 
shores of the Lake, where its many bays and creeks offered 
such desirable places for settlement that the emigration agents 
who had furnished ships for conveying the people hitherto to 
Pictou or Canso were induced to send their vessels direct to 
the Bras D'or Lakes. 

From an extract from the Nova Scotia Archives and taken 
from the Minutes of Council held at Sydney, August 16, 1802, 
we find that the first ship of this route had just arrived there, 
and that she had on board 104 heads of families, 95 children 
above 12 years of age and 100 children under that age. 

The Governor having laid before the Council for their con- 
sideration the policy of encouraging good and loyal settlers, and 
at the same time, the strong claims of these poor people to 
government aid, in view of the lateness of the season, recom- 
mended that some measures be at once taken for their support. 
The Council subsequently voted a small sum of money as a 
loan, to enable them to subsist until they could be provided for. 

From this time until 1828 the influx of immigration con- 
tinued, reaching its highest point in 1817. The number of 
these Highland settlers is stated to have exceeded 25,000 souls, 
and necessarily gave to the character of the population its 
preeminently Scottish complexion, which, no doubt, it will 
continue to retain to the end of time. 

The larger portion of the contingent settled in the part of 
the country around Sydney and in the districts of Mira and 
Catalone, and the lower end of the Bras D'or Lakes. 

We have now to consider what was the nature of this new 
country to which these hardy pioneers had come, before relat- 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. ' 77 

ing some of the trials and dangers to which they were exposed. 
With the exception of a few localities the greater part of the 
island was totally unsettled. Around the shores of the great 
inland sea stretched a vast solitude of trackless forests. No sign 
of human habitation met the eye, save here and there, the curl- 
ing smoke from the wigwam of the red man; and the stillness 
was only broken by the wild cry of the water fowl and the shriek 
of the sea gull. True, the waters teemed with fish, and the vir- 
gin soil, once cleared, yielded wonderfully productive crops; 
but before them lay weeks and months of weary labor, and of 
lonely winter days, when cold and hunger must be endured. 

Rev. Mr. Farquharson thus picturesquely describes the 
principal features of the Island : 

"Of the many interesting features which it possesses, the 
Bras D'or Lake may be considered the most striking. Starting 
at the entrance at Big Bras D'or it stretches along with the 
rugged heights on the West and Boulardarie on the East for 
over 82 miles, where it joins the Little Bras D'or arm of the lake, 
holding the Island of Boulardarie in its peaceful embrace. 
There the Lake widens, giving a beautiful expanse of water. 
From this point of observation stretches out to view the little 
Narrows Arm, rounding Red Head, and skirting the green 
slopes of Baddeck, where it forms a bay beautiful in all its 
eternal stillness, and stretching onwards against the northern 
and southern shores of the famous range of hills on the one hand, 
and of cliffs of Boisdale on the other hand, till it terminates 
in Whycocomagh Bay at the foot of Salt and Indian mountains. 
And from the same point of observation appears in a southern 
direction the Grand Narrows, widening out into Grand Lake, 
forming East and West Bays, and onwards, following the same 
southerly course, till it passes through innumerable islands and 
headlands and terminates at St. Peter's. 

The scenery opening up to the view of the observer as he 
sails upon these Lakes is most enchanting with its creeks, bays, 
inlets blending with rugged headlands and forest clad slopes, 



78 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

touching the water's edge. The extent and peculiar features of 
this inland sea may be noted in the survey by D. N. McNab, 
Esq., Government Surveyor, who found that, in following its 
shore in all its windings, the distance covered exceeded that be- 
tween the Island and Great Britain. 

''Cape Breton can boast of the beauty of its landscape and 
mountain scenery as well as the uniqueness of its lakes. In no 
part of the Maritime Provinces is the scenery so high and 
grand. Passing on towards the north all the way from St. 
Ann's Bay, where you leave behind you the frowning Cape 
Dauphin, the tourist has on his right the waters of the great 
Atlantic and on the left a succession of rugged hills, some clad 
in rich foliage from the top to the base and others bare and seam- 
ed by the action of mountain torrents, with deep ravines, open- 
ing up to view, through which the waters from the plains 
beyond rush in torrents. The scenery increases in grandeur, 
Alp upon Alp rising to view till the whole ranges culminate in 
Cape North, one of the highest mountains in Cape Breton and 
from the summit of which a scene of rare beauty opens up to the 
admiring view. Further north is the Sugar Loaf rising majesti- 
cally high above the surrounding hills, from which on a clear 
day is discernible a large extent of the country towards the south, 
the Magdalen Islands on the west, and St. Paul's on the east. 
Cape North and Malagawatch and Ben Cregan are grand, not 
only in themselves and their surroundings but the extent of 
scenery over land and water which they command, the former 
commanding a view across the Northumberland Straits to 
Prince Edward Island beyond and the Magdalen Islands under 
the setting sun. From the latter looking towards the north 
lies at your feet 18 Islands in Malagawatch Bay, and beyond, 
rising in majestic grandeur Salt mountain on the east and 
Skye mountain on the west of Whycocomagh Bay. 

As we have said hardship and privation of every kind met 
these people from the very outset. Rev. Mr. Farquharson, 
from whose admirable manuscript on "Presbyterianism in 
Cape Breton" I glean these extracts, says: 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 79 

"These people little knew when leaving their native land the 
trials that were in store for them ere they attained that which 
they so fondly anticipated. Indeed, their trials began at once 
on their embarkation. Many of the vessels in which they took 
passage were old and in other respects inadequate for the pur- 
pose of carrying passengers. It is related of the 'Hector' that 
she was so old that the passengers could with their hands pick 
the rotten wood out of her sides. Some of them took even 
months to cross. The state of these people can be easily ima- 
gined, crowded up under the deck of the ship, with provisions 
scant and from age unsafe to eat. Even the pure air of heaven 
was denied them. For days under closed hatches these poor 
people were often long intervals without seeing the light of the 
sun. The consequence was sickness and death. Instances 
were not rare where the mother had her child die in her arms and 
a few hours thereafter consigned to the deep. Old men and 
women succumbed to the trying ordeal, and their weeping chil- 
dren saw them consigned to their watery grave. But what 
must have been the experience of those among whom plague 
broke out, doing its deadly work among the poor and unpro- 
tected passengers! One of these unfortunate ships came into 
Sydney and while at quarantine at Point Edward had several 
of its passengers buried on that Point. 

"Their trials did not terminate with their landing. Their 
first work was that of building houses for themselves, there 
being no shelter for them. These houses consisted of miserable 
huts built of round logs cut on the spot, thatched with spruce 
bark, and a rude fireplace at the end with an opening in the roof 
immediately above it. This often was the work of a day, the 
people helping each other. Here for the first time they experi- 
enced the great disadvantage of not being accustomed to the use 
of the axe. Evidences till this day are seen in the stumps yet 
standing of the awkward manner in which they used the axe. 
Their worst trials are yet ahead. The winter, the severity of 
which they have no idea, is slowly but surely approaching. We 
have no idea, in our day of privileges, what the sufferings of these 



80 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

people were throughout a winter season ; in huts unfit to keep 
out the cold wind charged with the keenest frost, but with little 
to cover them during the night. Their fires had to be kept 
going day and night, and even then they were cold. Another 
hardship to which they were exposed was that of missing their 
way and perishing in the storm, the smallest fall of snow cover- 
ing their footpath. Men have even been known to miss the 
path between the house and the brook which supplied them with 
water and wander all night within a few yards of their houses. 
One man isolated on one of the mountains found out after the 
first snow had fallen that he could not make his way to the set- 
tlement and had with his wife and child to content him- 
self in his rude hut feeding on potatoes and herring till the snow 
disappeared. Painful instances of loss of life occurred for many 
years in this way. Two sisters during a snow-storm left their 
home to see a cow that was sick in the barn ; they missed their 
way and a search was made for them ; they were not found till 
daylight the following morning locked in each others arms a short 
distance from the barn, frozen dead. The same night a woman 
perished on Whycocomagh Bay, and two men perished on their 
way to Catalone. Suffering from actual want was severely 
felt by many of these settlers during their first few years re- 
sidence in the place. Owing to the limited extent of their 
fields, nothing but potatoes could be raised for the first and se- 
cond year. Meal was scarce, and they had to subsist on pota- 
toes and fish, and often on fish alone. Stores in those days 
where provisions could be obtained were far from the great 
body of the people and were only accessible by foot and boat. 
A poor woman at the head of a large and weak family in a rear 
settlement, while her husband was away from home was con- 
strained in midwinter to leave her home and collect what meal 
she could in the settlement for her famishing children. To- 
wards evening she directed her course to a relative of hers; 
on her way she through weakness and fatigue failed to reach 
her destination and on the next day was found near by the 
footpath, frozen dead, with the bag of meal clutched in both 
hands. 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 81 

Trials not a few often arose more from an ignorance on their 
part of the requirements necessary to their situation, and to 
meet the emergency of the moment, everything being new to 
them. In the winter season of 1823 a man with his boy left 
Malagawatch for Red Islands, taking the ice, which was sup- 
posed to be good, all the way across, a distance of twenty miles. 
On the following morning they undertook the journey home, 
which they expected to reach that evening, snow falling all the 
time. As they proceeded on their journey the storm increased, 
shutting out from their view even the high bluffs of the surround- 
ing land. They became bewildered. The boy became fatigued, 
the father helping him by hauling him on the sled with the 
potatoes. Night was coming on, but no trace of land. The 
old man finally gave up and could journey no longer. The boy 
regaining strength left in the hope of reaching the shore and 
obtaining help, which in good Providence of God he did. Neil 
McLennan and his brother Donald, afterwards settled at Mid- 
dle River, and Christpoher McRae at once upon learning the 
circumstances went in search of the man. But in so doing 
Neil and Christopher came to a bad spot in the ice and fell 
through. The former got out with difficulty, while the latter 
immediately sank but never to rise. On the following day the 
man was found frozen on the ice. An acquaintance with the 
treachery of ice travelling during a storm would have led this, 
man not to undertake the journey homeward when a storm was 
rising." 

There would also seem to have been a vein of what for want 
of a better definition may be termed "Scotch-Hibernianism" in 
these good people. Some of the instances related by Mr. 
Farquharson tend to show that the Scottish mind, when fully 
aroused, is evidently aware of the old adage of "looking out for 
number one." As an illustration of this we may give the fol- 
lowing story. Bears, it seems, in those days were numerous 
throughout the island, and the early settlers soon learned the 
wisdom of keeping at a safe distance from them. A young fel- 
low, named Malcolm who is described as being "a powerful man 
6 



82 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of gigantic stature" was one night aroused from his slumbers 
by the continued lowing of a heifer in his byre which animal was 
his most valuable earthly possession. On rushing out hastily 
to see what was the matter he found himself confronted by 
a large bear, before whose unfriendly advances Malcolm beat a 
hasty retreat into the house and hurriedly climbed up into the 
loft, pulling the ladder up after him. Bruin, however, followed 
closely in his wake, and was actually inside the house at the 
moment when Malcolm, suddenly remembering that his wife 
lay sleeping below, called to her "to be sure and pull the blanket 
over her head so that the bear should not see her." The bear, 
with more consideration for her safety than was shown by her 
stalwart husband refrained from further investigation of the 
premises. 

Ignorance of new conditions, and a certain constitutional 
dislike of admitting this fact so far as to receive advice when 
offered, often led to various ludicrous but certainly annoying 
blunders. 

It is related of a certain "Sandy" that he went a distance of 
twenty miles in the spring of the year for a bushel of salt to 
cure his Gaspereaux. On the following day he started home 
with his bag of salt on his back; the tied end downwards. 
After a hard day's tramp over muddy roads and under a heavy 
burden he at last came in sight of home, but alas! as he was 
fording the intervening river the string by which the bag was 
tied gave way and away down the stream went every grain of 
salt. 

The population of Cape Breton has from the earliest of 
these times to the present day been almost equally divided be- 
tween Protestants and Roman Catholics. Of the Protestants, 
the larger proportion were Presbyterians. For years after these 
latter began to pour into the island they were as sheep without 
a shepherd. Months and years passed without their being called 
to the sanctuary or having the Sacraments dispensed among 
them. Few among them possessed any education; whilst 
owing to the poor condition of the people there were no schools. 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 83 

The young in consequence were growing up in ignorance. 
There was not in the whole island a depository where the Bible 
or any religious book could be bought. To a people so natur- 
ally jealous of their dearly won religious privileges as these 
descendants of the covenanters, it was little wonder if they 
should regard their spiritual destitution as the greatest of their 
many trials. 

Among the first ordained ministers to visit these few people 
in the wilderness was the well known and much esteemed Rev. 
Dr. McGregor of Pictou, who started from that town in the 
autumn of 1799 in a boat with a crew of three men. Sailing 
down the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Gut of Canso they dragged 
their boat across the narrow isthmus which separates St. Peter's 
Bay from the Bras D'or Lakes and embarked upon the waters of 
the inland sea which was then surrounded by unbroken forests 
unrelieved by a solitary settler. After making ineffectual 
attempts to find their way across the land from East Bay to 
Sydney they once more embarked upon the waters of the lake, 
which they followed to the open sea, and around Cranberry 
Head to Sydney, a distance in all of over 100 miles. 

Mr. Farquharson mentions, however, other visits at rare inter- 
vals, from the Revs. Fraser, McLennan and McLean to differ- 
ent parts of the island. He also gives an interesting sketch of a 
rather odd character by the name of Chisholm, who is described 
as being a minister's son from Lewes, and who was a sort of 
peripatetic medical missionary, it would appear, who travelled 
about with his medicine box on a small sled, drawn by two huge 
Newfoundland dogs called "Bony" and "Baddeck" an equipage 
regarded with great wonder by the simple folk among whom 
he labored. He is described as a very peculiar man, as eccentric 
in his dress as in his manner. With all his eccentricities, he 
seems to have been practical and kind-hearted ; a sort of early 
type of "Weelum McClure." His fees were collected in kind, 
and at his death he was found to be the owner of over 100 
sheep, which he had obtained as remuneration for his medical 
services. 



84 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Perhaps the best idea of the life of these early settlers is 
given in the exceedingly interesting personal letters also found 
among the papers of the Rev. Mr. Farquharson, and evidently 
written in answer to enquiries sent out by him to aged Scotch 
settlers in various parts of the island, to ministers and others. 
A few extracts from some of these with their quaint and simple 
phraseology and often touching recitals of incidents long past 
but not forgotten, will give the clearest and most thrilling word 
picture of the trials and privations, the joys and sorrows of 
these good old Highland settlers. The farmer, the school-mas- 
ter and the saintly man of God, some of them still living, others 
gone to their rest, outline for us in a few graphic strokes the 
record of a heroism as grand as it is simple, and an industry as 
persevering, and untiring in its determination to wrest a living 
from the rugged soil; second only to the tenacity with which, 
amid a loneliness that might well appal the stoutest heart, they 
clung to their religion and to their integrity of purpose in the 
face of many and serious difficulties. 

Mabou. 

Mabou, Broad Cove, Intervale and Chimney Corner, seem 
to have received their Scottish immigrants early in the century, 
about 1802 to 1810, although in or near Mabou, there were 
several families who had settled there some years before. Pro- 
minent among these we may notice the family of William Mc- 
Keen, father of Senator McKeen, and the Smiths, from whom 
also he claims descent. These two were respectively of North 
of Ireland and English descent. 

This part of Cape Breton is noted for its grand and pic- 
turesque scenery. One who is evidently a lover of nature thus 
writes of the enchanting view from Cape Mabou : 

"Away to the west is the broad bosom of the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence, with P. E. Island in the distance, right beneath the 
setting September sun. The dim blue outline of the Magdalen 
Islands stretches more towards the north: but right beneath 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 85 

your feet, a thousand feet below, and steep as a plumb line, 
roll the deep blue waters of the Gulf, Margaree Island, though 
three miles away directly in front seems but a stone's cast 
away, the inward sweep of the landscape and coast line forming 
Broad Cove trends away to your right, and to your left, 
around the Cape on which you are standing, is the shallow bend 
of the land which forms Mabou harbor with its sand bar and 
low flats. Then turn your face to the east and you will sur- 
vey the broad and elevated plateau which lies behind; and, 
around the Cape to the east, and south, a well cultivated 
tableland stretching away to Lake Ainslie, which, in all its 
beauty and extent, is visible from the spot on which you stand, 
and lies below you like a mirror, fully 800 feet. From that 
elevation the lake looks like what your imagination chooses 
to make it. The white cottages may be noblemen's chateaux 
or shepherd's dwellings. Take it all in all, the view from Cape 
Mabou is intensely beautiful." 

But to the hardy pioneers there was menace of danger in all 
this wild beauty. The fierce winter storms which howled 
around that coast and swept over the beautiful lake not unfre- 
quently brought death and destruction to the lonely dwellers 
in their rough log cabins as they watched and waited for those 
who it may be perished in the blinding snowdrift almost within 
sight of home : or whose frail craft were engulfed in the stormy 
ocean on that bleak and inhospitable shore. 

For there are many heart-rending stories of wrecks all 
along that coast, which is most unsafe for vessels, there being 
no harbor of refuge nearer than Port Hood. 

Hector McLean on Mabou, etc. 

A characteristic letter from one Hector McLean speaks of 
the utter absence of carts and roads in those days, and describes 
the mode of conveying goods as follows : 

"Creels and sacks," he says "were the order of the day then, 
one on each side of the horse's back, with a breeching composed 



86 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of a stick about 3 feet long passing under the horse's tail and 
fastened by lines to the creels or sacks. It was customary to 
dock the horses' tails, leaving them only about nine or ten 
inches long, and that" he adds "with the stylish breeching 
must have given the horse and owner a comical appearance. 
The turnout was passing Taylor's shop one day and unluckily 
the end of the breeching or stick struck the window and broke 
some glass. "Confound you," cried Taylor "can't you shorten 
your main boom a bit?" 

"About this time, we are told, (1828) two grist mills were 
established, one at the foot of Cape Mabou, the other distant 
about 10 miles from it. These were great conveniences to the 
people as before this time the meal had either to be ground in 
the quirn by hand and we have heard of some settlers taking 
their grain all the way to Antigonish in Nova Scotia to be 
ground, a distance of 80 miles." 

A touch of humor in this letter is the sketch of a noted 
local character whose ways of doing business were, to say the 
least, both original and peculiar. This gentleman kept a 
small shop at Margaree Harbor, where he carried on a general 
trade which seems to have included the purchase of whale fat, 
on which occasion the narrator says: 

"He would, as a matter of course, give his customers plenty 
of rum, and then stand at the scales with his hand on the beam 
singing out to his customers "pile on there! be smart!" and when 
he would find that the fat end of the beam was raising himself 
on his tiptoes, together with the 200 Ib. weight for the draft, he 
would say "That will do just now, take it off and hand over an- 
other barrow." 

(From this incident it will be noted with regret that among 
the few possessions brought into the country by the early set- 
tlers they did not, it would appear, forget to import a modicum 
at least, of original sin.) 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. &7 

Cape North. 

"The first white men who,came to Cape North at the end of 
the 18th century (writes Mr. Peter Clark) with a view to pos- 
sibly settling there were called Stanley and Matatal. The first 
permanent settlers in 1812 came from the Gut of Canso in a 
small boat about fifteen feet long; this they dragged across the 
isthmus from St. Peter's Bay into the Bras D'or Lake. 

The settlement nearest to them was English town, fifty miles 
away. Four years after they were joined by five families from 
the north of Scotland. For twelve years after the first settlers 
came they did not see the face of an ordained minister. Old 
John Gunn, an Englishman, held meetings (Methodist) but not, 
we are told, to the edification of the Scottish settlers, who under- 
stood only Gaelic. They had however occasional visits from 
Mr. Farquharson of Middle River, and Rev. Mr. John Stewart 
of West Bay. As there was no church or meeting house these 
services were conducted in the open air, on the hillside or 
under the spreading branches of an old oak tree. The first 
building used as a church in Cape Breton was erected at Mala- 
ga watch. 

SL Ann's. 

St. Ann's, on the north shore of Cape Breton, has a character 
all its own. It was settled by a number of Scottish people from 
Pictou, N. S. f under the leadership of the extraordinary Norman 
McLeod, who seems to have arrogated to himself claims which 
far transcended those of priest or pope. Patterson in his his- 
tory of Pictou thus speaks of him ; 

Norman McLeod. 

"He was not only not connected with any religious body but 
denounced them all, even going so far as to say that there was 
not a minister of Christ in the whole establishment. Those 
who have heard him at this time describe his preaching as con- 
sisting of a torrent of abuse against all religious bodies and even 



88 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

against individuals the like of which they had never heard and 
which was perfectly indescribable. He had never been licensed 
or ordained but regarded himself as under higher influences than 
the ministers of any church." 

But though so wildly fanatical he was a man of great power, 
and gained an influence over a large portion of the Highlanders 
such as no man in the country possessed. Thus although his 
practice was to refuse baptism to the children of his parishioners, 
very few of whom he is said to have considered qualified to re- 
ceive the ordinance and fewer still, it is believed, to partake of 
the Lord's Supper, he yet retained such a hold over the affec- 
tions of a considerable number as to induce them to emigrate. 
For this purpose they built a vessel which they called the Ark 
and sailed in this way to St. Ann's. 

Many stories are told of the unlimited sway which Norman 
McLeod for many years continued to exercise over his people in 
this place, and although "an extraordinary mixture of the fana- 
tic and the pharisee," his influence was always used on the side of 
morality and temperance. His justice was administered how- 
ever in a truly Spartan manner and somewhat after the fashion 
of Judge Lynch. It ie related of him on good authority that 
one of his congregation, a young boy, having been accused by a 
wandering peddler of some petty theft, McLeod constituted 
himself both judge and jury and proceeded with his own hands 
to carry out the severe sentence which decreed that for his real 
or fancied offence the poor boy should have a portion of his 
ear cut off. A correspondent who was personally acquainted 
with the victim of this mutilation believed the boy to be inno- 
cent but adds of Norman McLeod "and yet for all that he was 
a good man." 

Certainly he must -have possessed to a wonderful degree 
the confidence and esteem of his people when, in his old age, he 
a second time induced them to emigrate and again to build a 
vessel for this purpbse. In this vessel they left with him for 
Australia and thence to New Zealand, where he died. (See Note) . 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 89 

Rev. Mr. Stewart. 

From an interesting letter of the late Rev. Mr. Stewart, of 
Pictou, N. S., formerly of Whycocomagh, (father of Dr. John 
Stewart, of this city) to his friend, the late Rev. Mr. Farqu- 
harson, we glean the following with regard to the settlement 
of West Bay, for many years the scene of Mr. Stewart's labors 

"The first settlers in West Bay arrived there in 1813. They 
were but few in number and came there one or two families at a 
time, not directly from Scotland but from Pictou, where they 
first landed and where some of them lived for a year or two. 
No doubt all had trials and privations to meet with on their 
first arrival, especially the first few settlers." 

One of their greatest hardships, he continues, was the diffi- 
culty of conveying potatoes (the only food to be had) from the 
earlier settlements to their own homes in the new. 

"I heard some tales in reference to that" he says "such as 
that one of the first, if not the first, settler in West Bay carry- 
ing on his back through the pathless forest bags of potatoes 
from River Inhabitants to Black River, a distance of 9 or 10 
miles. His plan was, when he brought his first load to the 
height of land between the two places to leave it there and re- 
turn for a second load, thus securing a comparative rest while 
he walked back without a load. On coming to the same spot 
with the second load, he rested a while, preceeded home with 
one load, and then returned for another." 

"I believe the people suffered much more hardship in the 
matter of clothes and shoes more than in the matter of food. 
When you consider the state of poverty in which many of the 
first settlers came out, how soon their stock of clothing would be 
far spent and how long it would be before they could provide 
clothing from their own sheep, of leather from cattle that they 
could spare to kill, it may easily be imagined what many must 
have suffered from scant clothing during the long and cold Cape 
Breton winters." 



90 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Middle River. 

The story of the settlement of Middle River, of which the 
Indian name is Wagamatcook, is so graphically told by a Mr. 
John McLennan in a letter to Rev. Mr. Farquharson that if 
time permitted it would be but right to read it in this connec- 
tion. A few extracts however are all that in the space of this 
paper can be given here. The writer gives an account of how 
the families of McRaes and Campbells were induced to emigrate 
from P. E. I. to Middle River, or as it was then called by the 
representations of Father Angus MacEachern a priest who told 
them of its advantages. It describes their long voyage in a boat 
down the Gulf of St. Lawrence to Canso and St. Peter's Bay; 
of their dragging their boat across the narrow neck of land where 
now runs the St. Peter's Canal, into the great inland sea of the 
Bras D'or, and of their voyage to Baddeck, then settled some 
years previously mostly by English or Loyalists, of their en- 
counters with the Indians, who afterwards were friendly enough, 
and of their various trials and tribulations which, however, were 
not nearly so great as those experienced in many other parts of 
the island. Describing the social and daily life of the settlers, 
the letter tells us in picturesque language of their truly pastoral 
existence in this fertile and lovely intervale region between Bad- 
deck and Margaree. Their only farming implements were an 
axe and a hoe, but the ground was kindly, and yielded large in- 
crease. Their potatoes, grain, and various farm produce, found 
a market at Arichat or at Sydney, both long distances away, 
where they obtained their winter supplies. Everything was 
trucked on large sleds on bare ground or to a landing place by 
the lake. 

"At the time of shipping" says the narrator, "it was not un- 
common to see twenty pair of oxen or more with loads of butter, 
pork and flour at the loading ground when going to Sydney and 
the same commotion when coming back with their fall supplies. 
About the year 1830 the Middle River people built a small 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 91 

church for themselves and had a minister of the name of Angus 
McLean who, however, only remained with them a few years 
and then left for Canada. His place was taken by the Rev. 
Alexander Farquharson, (father of the late Mr. Farquharson of 
Sydney) who was the first missionary sent out from Scotland 
by the Ladies' Society of Edinburgh, which was then under the 
leadership of Mrs. McKay, a woman to whose energy and 
Christian spirit Cape Breton owes a never-to-be-forgotten debt 
of gratitude. 

We are told that the race of people then were more industri- 
ous in their ways, and moderate in their requirements, parti- 
cularly as to dress, than at the present. They spun and manu- 
factured their own dress materials and were their own tanners 
and shoe makers. "Cotton wool" says Mr. McLennan, "was 
the go of the day, instead of cotton warp and brown cotton, 
the women used to card this cotton wool and spin it into yarn." 
Their necessaries, he writes, were all supplied by their own 
industry and they had a horror of getting into debt and would 
buy nothing that they could go without. The ladies generally 
went to church with a cotton handkerchief on their heads and 
felt themselves as well dressed as they now do with the most 
costly fashions." Until the first communion service held by 
Mr. Farquharson in 1838, he affirms there was not a bonnet 
going inside of Middle River church except those of the minis- 
ter's wife and three others of the ladies whose names are duly 
chronicled. "After that," he adds sorrowfully (for doubtless 
it was a sore subject in the family) "the bonnets came in by the 
dozen!" 

The first marriage at Middle River was a double one, Mr. 
Campbell to a Miss McRae from Margaree, and Philip McRae 
to Miss Ross of Margaree. Both parties had to tramp all the 
way to Margaree on snow shoes to the nearest magistrate in 
order to have the ceremony performed. An account of an 
Indian wedding at which many of the settlers assisted is also 
very interesting but too long for insertion here. 



92 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETV. 

Privations of Ministers, etc. 

I cannot bring this paper to a close without referring briefly 
to the noble work of those first missionaries of the Cross who 
came out from Scotland to the Island about the year 1830. 
Mention has already been made of the Ladies' Society of Edin- 
burgh, which was the means, directly or indirectly, of sending 
out several of these devoted men. The first of these as we have 
already seen, was the Rev. Alexander Farquharson, mentioned 
by Mr. McLennan in his account of the settlement of Middle 
River as being greatly beloved and esteemed by all who knew 
him, Roman Catholic and Protestant alike. He was followed 
by Rev. John Stewart of West Bay, Rev. Mr. Gunn of Broad 
Cove, Rev. Mr. Miller of Mabou and in 1842 the Rev. Matthew 
Wilson of Sydney Mines, a saintly and scholarly man greatly 
esteemed, whose place in the affections of the people is yet un- 
filled. 

In July 1843, came the Rev. Mr. Stewart, of Whycocomagh, 
afterwards of Pictou, father of Dr. John Stewart, the well 
known surgeon of this city. 

With these, and the name of the late Dr. Hugh McLeod of 
Sydney who also came out about that time or a little later, many 
present will be, doubtless, more or less familiar. 

They were men of no mean attainments, both mental and 
spiritual, and the life on which they were now to enter, banished 
as they were from congenial companionship, and all which 
renders life pleasant to a cultivated taste, was no small test of 
both their Christian fortitude and their physical endurance. 

Rev. Mr. Stewart of Pictou mentions amongst their trials 
and tribulations the long and fatiguing journeys they were 
obliged to undertake on foot, there being absolutely no roads, 
and the fording of rivers often rendered dangerous by swollen 
mountain streams. He speaks of his colleague and friend Rev. 
Mr. Farquharson suffering much in this way, so that he was 



m 

i 







REV. DR. HUGH McLEOD, 

Sydney, Cape Breton. 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 93 

accustomed to carry leeches in his pocket to apply to his sore 
and swollen feet when they were very bad, and when he chanced 
happily to reach a house where he could rest for a day or two 
in comparative comfort. 

The accommodation, even at the best of these houses, was 
of the scantiest, and the food of the poorest kind, although 
given with a hearty Highland welcome. Over the horrors 
which however beset the tired traveller on his couch, it is best 
to draw a veil. 

It is related of three of these godly men that on one oc- 
casion they were journeying together after a communion 
season at some distant locality, and losing their way on the 
mountains they wandered, footsore and hungry, for hours, 
until at last they espied a small hut, to which they joyfully 
directed their steps. The good woman of the house, seeing 
such an unusual sight as three men approach her lonely dwell- 
ing, fled into the woods. The ministers entered, and to their 
delight beheld a large pot boiling over the fire. They sat in 
silence waiting for the retuin of the good wife tor some time, 
but it is chronicled that before long, one, whose appf tite wai in- 
creasing, approached the fire and lifting the lid of the pot 
looked in, the second following and seeing that it contained 
potatoes and fish went so far as to try a potato with a fork 
(to see if it was done). At this point, the third lifted the pot 
off the fire, and honesty giving place to hunger, all sat down 
to enjoy a good meal. This purely human act of weakness 
so convinced the good woman of the house who was quietly 
watching their proceedings through the window that there was 
nothing to fear from her clerical guests, that we are told, in the 
quaint words of the correspondent she forthwith returned, 
"and made savoury diet for these saintly men, who are now in 
the paradise of God where they neither hunger nor thirst any 



A story is told of Rev. Mr. Farquharson, senior, that on 
one or two occasions he spent the night out on the wild mountain 



94 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

between Middle River and Lake Ainslie. At another time he 
was landed late one evening in the autumn at the foot of Middle 
River from whence he was to walk home. He was not able, 
however, to find the footpath (little more than a blaze). There 
were no Indians about at that time, but he found a deserted 
camp which it was evident the inmates had left quite lately. 
The fire however was quite out, but he found some half burnt 
sticks, managed to gather a handful of dry grass or moss, with 
his knife he struck a spark from the flint he always carried with 
him, together with a piece of punk. The very first spark 
caught and soon he managed to make a good fire. He was 
hungry, but there was nothing to eat, so he contented himself 
with a smoke, "and, you may be sure, committing himself to 
Him that keepeth Israel, he composed himself to sleep and 
slept soundly till a late hour next morning." 

Dangers by flood and field, both winter and summer, beset 
these devoted men ; perils on the frozen lake in winter and from 
fording swollen rivers in the early spring. Rev. Mr. Stewart 
instances a journey he once took to Sydney from West Bay in the 
winter time, which occupied six days, he having left West Bay 
on Tuesday, travelling chiefly on the ice and not reaching his 
destination until the following Wednesday evening, with the 
ninth horse employed after leaving home. "On leaving Bad- 
deck on a cold morning" he relates, "I had to come out of the 
sleigh, and hold my horse by the head opposite Red Head, till 
a squall of snow and drift cleared up so far that I could see 
Kempt Head," (the opposite shore some three miles distant) 
"then jump into the sleigh and drive as hard as the horse could 
go, with the snow up to my knees, in order to reach the other 
shore before the next squall came on. I did so just in time to 
avoid, not the next squall merely, but a whole day of drift and in- 
tense frost". He describes this storm as being so wild and terri- 
ble that three or four persons in different parts of the island who 
were overtaken in it perished. He was so fortunate as to reach 
shelter before night came on, and the next day arrived at the 
Hon. T. D. Archibald's house at Sydney Mines and thence to 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 95 

Sydney. Nearly a month elapsed before he could again return 
to his home in West Bay, where the anxiety of his family can 
be better imagined than described. 

Pioneers such as these must leave an indelible mark upon 
their descendants, and we of the New Scotland, which includes 
Cape Breton, may well be proud that in our veins there runs the 
blood not alone of the loyalist refugees who for love of King 
and country chose banishment and loss of earthly possessions 
and the exile's lot, but also of those sturdy sons of nature from 
the Western Highlands, rugged as the rocky shores of their 
adopted home, shrewd and yet kindly, leal and true. 

Little wonder then, if, reared amid the lonely grandeur 
of the island shores, or on swelling uplands by the smiling 
waters of the beautiful Bras D'or, that "arm of gold" which 
winds its tortuous way from end to end of the romantic island; 
from the green depths of the pine forest or from the blackened 
districts of the mining country, there should come forth to-day 
to the building .up of this our great Dominion, men of sterling 
worth, of bed-rock principle; thinkers and workers, playing 
their parts right faithfully in the every day world, leavening 
with their solid good sense rugged honesty and Scotch shrewd- 
ness the whole mass of society. 

To illustrate this point, I will read in closing a letter from 
a schoolmaster Mr. Alexander Munro of Boulardarie, who re- 
lates with evident satisfaction the names of several of his form- 
er scholars, now of various honorable trades and professions, 
and all doubtless none the worse for having been in their early 
youth subjected to a somewhat Spartan mode of life. The let- 
ter is dated, 1st January, 1883, and is evidently written in 
answer to enquiries made by the Rev. Mr. Farquharson: 

My dear sir: 

"The report I sent you by last mail will give you an idea 
of the privations the people had to endure in Cape Breton 40 
years ago." 



96 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

"Their dwellings were log huts, generally covered with bark, 
consisting in most cases of one apartment and that far from 
being so clean and tidy as might have been. The general 
dress of the women, blue cotton print with a white spot or 
sprig, a cotton handkerchief on the head. The only bonnets 
on Boulardarie were Mrs. Eraser's and Mrs. Munroe's. Flow- 
ers and ribbons were not so plenty as now. The men dressed 
in blue homespun, which had a flavor not like lavender. Both 
men and women wore homemade shoes or moccasins and fre- 
quently shanks; boots were of an after date. The living was 
poor; very few had anything but potatoes and fish, both of 
which were plentiful ; at Christmas all would try to have a little 
oatmeal; if the best farmers could make two barrels of meal 
in the year it was considered very good. Most raised a little 
wheat; it was kept for the sacrament time. Yet, for all the 
poor living, people were healthy, only I observed a great many 
infants died from sore mouth, and since they live better it is 
very rare. 

"I was sent to Cape Breton by Mrs. McKay and arrived 
at Boulardarie in October, 1839, commenced teaching in 
November and soon had a large school, the first winter near- 
ly 100; a number lived in small huts in the woods near the 
schoolhouse; those within six or eight miles would go home Fri- 
day night and return Monday morning. Young men from a dis- 
tance would board in neighboring houses. Many then in 
school have left the country and are in different parts of .the 
States, Canada and New Zealand. The most of them I have 
lost sight of and no doubt many are dead. Those I know of are 
Rev. Mr. Mclntosh, St. Ann's, Lauchlin Campbell, Tasmania; 
M. Fraser, New Zealand and Donald McNeil, P. E. I. Priest, 
John McDonald, (I think Pictou County) and the McKenzie, 
an M. D., Newfoundland. "I never had," says the good man 
naively, "any hand in making a lawyer." Hon. Win. Ross, 
John Ross and Donald Ross, and his partner Donald McKen- 
zie, New Zealand, with a number of others are in good positions 
in New Zealand and other parts of the world. 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 97 

"Mrs. Munro did good work teaching girls sewing and to 
keep themselves clean and tidy. My school was the only one 
on Boulardarie: in two years there was one opened at Big 
Band and one at Kempt Head. At one time I could count 40 
teachers who had been with me teaching in Cape Breton and 
Nova Scotia. The largest number I ever had at school was 120 
in winter. I generally had eight or ten seamen learning naviga- 
ton; all I believe are now dead except Capt. Donald Matheson, 
who is now building a vessel at LaHave, 350 tons; he is in the 
West India trade. 

"Our postal service in those days was not very regular. 
Tom Battersby brought the mail from Sydney on foot; if he was 
six hours late one thought nothing of it; if a day we began to 
think something was wrong but not very anxious until the se- 
cond day, when he came along. Mr. Howe was Postmaster 
General then. When Mr. Woodgate came matters were chang- 
ed and went on like clock work. Two or three letters came to 
this office a week and two papers. Now something like from 
150 to 300 a week, and I do not know how many papers. The 
first two letters I got from Scotland were 5/ each; then they 
came down to 2/6 and on to 3 cents. I do not remember any 
more to say only that in a few years at most all then alive will be 
gone and forgotten. Man-of-War Point received its name from 
a vessel which was building there and not finished when the 
Island was taken by the British, and they burned her. The 
marks of the forge are still to be seen and scraps of iron and 
pottery are turned up by the plough, and a few years ago the 
blocks on which the ship rested could be seen sunk in the sand. 

"I have written the foregoing as it came to my mind without 
any order, and were you with me for an hour much would be 
remembered that I cannot think of now but I hope the above 
will assist you. I wish you and Mrs. Farquharson a Happy 
New Year." 

My dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

(Sgd) A. MUNRO. 



98 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Those present will doubtless notice the name of our dis- 
tinguished townsman Hon. William Ross, and probably there 
are others familiar to some of us. The story of one is the story 
of nearly all. It is the living illustration of making the most 
and the best of opportunities as they present themselves; of the 
determination to win. Neither poverty, privation or hardship 
can deter such men as these. Frank Ferguson but a few years 
ago the ill-clad, but honest and ambitious son of poor parents on 
a little farm near Sydney, today the brilliant and popular phy- 
sician, chief pathologist in the New York Hospital, and a son-in- 
law of another self made man, and millionaire, Mr. P. Armour, 
of Chicago. Or the clever young lawyer and M. P. for New 
Westminster, Aulay Morrison, the miner's son of PortMorien; 
held in such high esteem for his moral worth and integrity, 
that he was chosen by acclamation, no man opposing, to repre- 
sent his constituency; a large band of devoted ministers and 
priests, many of them scholarly men, lawyers, business men, 
merchants, many well known in this city. 

In conclusion, just a word about the Lowland Scotch in Cape 
Breton, a large number of whom, mostly coal miners, mechanics, 
and artisans with their families, came out about 1827 and years 
following attracted by the opening up by the General Mining 
Association of large coal areas, both in Nova Scotia and Cape 
Breton. Many, if not most of these settlers (as of the highland 
immigrants) were of a very fine type of character: honest, 
industrious and intelligent above the average; and they too 
have left their impress not alone upon their immediate environ- 
ment but have sent out from their humble homes, sons and 
daughters who today, not alone in this Canada of ours but in 
the great country to the South of us are everywhere making 
good, and are building up the national character in a way that 
proves conclusively the value of plain living and high thinking 
as important factors in the growth of that righteousness which, 
alone, exalteth any nation. 

All honor then to these sturdy Island pioneers, whether from 
the North or South of old Caledonia these simple, honest, 



EARLY SCOTTISH SETTLERS IN CAPE BRETON. 99 

God-fearing men and women, whose courage faith and patience 
are the rich heritage of their children and grandchildren today. 

May they sleep well in their quiet graves on the lonely 
mountain side or beside the blue waters of the "Arm of Gold!" 
for 

" Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord: they rest from 
their labors and their works do follow them." 



Note 1. 

("Re The Rev. Norman MacLeod of St. Ann's). 

Since this paper was read the writer has been informed by 
the Hon. Wm. Ross, that the statement made in Patterson's 
History of Pictou Co., to the effect that the Rev. Norman Mc- 
Leod "was not connected with any religious body" is incorrect. 
Mr. Ross, himself a connection by marriage of the Rev. Nor- 
man MacLeod, is in a position to speak authoritatively and 
has shown the writer a letter from Mr. McLeod, dated October 
28th, 1843, in which he refers to the time, "about a score of years 
back," when he was licensed and ordained by the Presbytery 
of Geneva in the state of New York, 'according to the fundamen- 
tal principles of the Church of Scotland.' ' That he was, how- 
ever, an independent thinker appears in the following passage 
from the same letter in which he says, "My privilege on this 
ground is both singular and sure; for, being placed at the dis- 
tance from the body of the clergy, besides the particular lenity 
of those of them with whom I had more immediate concern I 
have never yet on this score experienced the least restraint or 
control but ever enjoyed the full and free liberty of my own 
conscience, otherwise I would never have thought of joining any 
clergy for all my time in the world." 

Hon. Mr. Ross says of him: "He was certainly a puritan 
of the real rigid red type and leaned more to the early leaders 
than to the Kirk of Scotland." 



100 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Before sailing for Australia he donated his church and some 
land to the Free Church. I was then one of the Trustees, men- 
tioned in the Deed of Gift." 

Rigid puritan as he was he was a man whose influence for 
good was deeply felt both in the region of Cape Breton where he 
first ministered and where his memory is still revered as that 
of a holy man by the country folk; and, also, in his later home 
in New Zealand. The Presbytery of Auckland, after his death 
gave public utterance to their esteem by a most glowing and 
eulogistic tribute to his many good qualities. 

While there is no doubt then of his original and somewhat 
eccentric modes of teaching and preaching, there can be no 
doubt to as his personal influence and character having left 
their imprint for good upon the widely differing communities in 
which his lot was cast. 



Note 2. 

It will be apparent from this paper that it has only 
chronicled the story of Scotch Presbyterian settlers in the 
island of Cape Breton. There must yet be a rich store of 
information about the pioneering experiences of settlers on 
what may be called the French shore of Cape Breton. The 
same heroic fidelity to duty which marked the earlier Pres- 
byterian ministers was shown by the devoted priests of the 
Roman Catholic Church, who shared the hardships of their 
people in these rude and trying times. It is earnesly to be 
hoped that some contributor will arrange to give a paper on 
this interesting subject before the N. S. Historical Society. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 101 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 

By HARRY PIERS, Curator of the Provincial Museum of N. S. and 
Deputy-Keeper of the Public Records, Halifax, N. S. 

(Read 22nd May, 1914.) 

Hitherto there has never been prepared an account of those 
artists who have worked in Nova Scotia. It is only with the 
greatest difficulty that any information whatever can be gained 
regarding them, and then merely in the most fragmentary 
and disjointed scraps. Some of their work is scattered through- 
out the province, while much of it has gone to other lands with 
descendants of the older opulent families into whose possession 
such heirlooms have descended. Sometimes even the name of 
a portrait's subject has been forgotten, and in very many cases 
the artist's name is lost in oblivion. 

For some years past, inclination has induced me to collect 
such data as might be met with in old newspaper files and docu- 
ments, or found lingering in very scanty tradition; and these 
notes have since been arranged, and form the basis of the ac- 
count herein presented. Besides being a slight record of the 
names, lives, and lines of work of various local artists, it will 
probably serve a purpose in assisting persons having pictures, 
to form an approximately correct idea as to who might have pro- 
duced them; and furthermore it is earnestly hoped it may in- 
duce others to contribute even a tittle to a subject that should be 
of interest. Above all, however, it seems only just and meet 
that we record something of a class of cultured men, which, note- 
ably enthusiastic, painstaking and altruistic in its character, 
has done its utmost in the face of inappreciation, and too often 
beset by poverty, to keep alive a spark of artistic taste in a new 
country where we seem to think of what is brutally utilitarian 
to the exclusion of the elevating influences of what are termed 
the fine arts. 



102 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

In preparing a paper on a new subject such as this, it will 
no doubt be found on further research that some men have 
been included who would not have deserved notice had we 
been fully acquainted with their productions. As, however, 
examples of the work of many of our artists are unknown, we 
are at present not justified in using undue discrimination. I 
have gathered all the available information, and when possible 
have presented brief critical remarks which may assist in giving 
the subject due perspective. The expressions used in describ- 
ing the skill of our painters, are more or less relative ones, and 
must not be considered as unduly magnifying their artistic 
ability. The lists of paintings ascribed to the various artists, 
have been compiled with considerable care, and have been veri- 
fied in a large number of cases, but they cannot hope to be en- 
tirely free from criticism. 



If we cast about for the first man who happened to use a 
pencil in what is now Nova Scotia, we would doubtless have to 
give SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN that credit, as he left an uncouth 
and illdrawn sketch of his house at Port Royal in 1605, which 
will be found reproduced in various historical works. He, how- 
ever, had not a glimmer of artistic ability (1). In 1731 
VERRIER (?)made a poor topographical drawing of Louisbourg, 
the original of which is in the Paris archives ; and a sketch was 
also made, and engraved, of the landing of the New England 
forces in the expedition against Cape Breton in 1745, of which 
Dr. Warren of Boston has a print. There also exists in Eng- 
land (at Woolwich, I think,) a poorly executed drawing of the 
bombardment of Louisbourg in 1758 made on the spot by CAPT. 
LIEUT. THOMAS DAVIES, Royal Artillery (2) ; and the Museum 

(i). It may be noted that L'Abbe Jean Antoine Aide Crequi, who wag 
born at Quebec, 6th April, 1749, ordained priest 24th October 1773, and 
died 7th December, 1780, was the first native Canadian painter. Several 
of his paintings are in vhe Basilica ai Quebec, and the painting of the "An- 
nonciation,' over the main altar in the church at 1'Isley, is also by him. 
Vide Cat. Chateau de Ramezay, Mont., 1907, p. II. 

(2) A reproduction of Davies's ske.ch of Louisbourg was published about 
June, 1895 on the occasion of the erection of a monument at Louisbourg, 
and a copy is in the Provincial Museum, Halifax, (ace. no. 1 122) 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 103 

of the Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal, contains a view of the 
town and harbour of Louisbourg in 1758 made by CAPT. INCE 
of the 35th (Otway's) regiment (1). 

A miserable little sketch of the picketted settlement of Hali- 
fax, taken from a ship's topmast in 1749 or 1750, and appear- 
ing as an inset in a map of the locality, although of interest 
historically, as being the first pictorial representation of that 
town, does not at all deserve notice as an artistic production. 

This brings us to the first of the more noteworthy topo- 
graphical landscape artists, so termed to distinguish them from 
the true landscapists who occupy a much higher artistic place, 
although the work of the former is eagerly sought for by his- 
torical and archaeological students who are satisfied with mere 
accuracy of portrayal. 

In May, 1759, RICHARD SHORT, while at Halifax with the 
British fleet bound for Quebec (2), made six painstakingly 
accurate sketches of the town: namely, one from Dartmouth, 
two from the citadel, one from George's Island, one of the old 
Governor's house (site of the present Province Building), and 
one of St. Paul's church. Dominic Serres, afterwards a mem- 
ber of the Royal Academy and marine-painter to George the 
Third, worked up paintings from these sketches, and they were 
engraved in copper-plate (four of them by James Mason, the 
eminent English engraver, one by Frangois Antoine Aveline, 
a French engraver who died in indigence at London in 1762, and 
one by John Fougeron) and published by Short at London on 
1st March, 1764, with a dedication to the Earl of Halifax (3). 



(1) Vide Catalogue of Museum and Portrait Gallery, Chateau de 
Ramezay, Montreal, 1907, p. n. 

(2) I think I have seen somewhere that Short was on the Prince oj 
Orange, a 6o-gun ship of the line. 

(3) James Mason, 1710-1783, the English landscape engraver, belonged 
to the Incorporated Society of ArUsts, and was very eminent in his line, his 
works being held in great esteem by foreign amateurs. He was employed 
by Boydell. (See Bryan's Diet, of Painters, and Diet, of Nat. Biog.). 
Some particulars of Aveline (1727-1762) will be found in the former work. 



104 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

These prints were re-issued by the famous John Boydell of 
Cheapside, London, on April 25th, 1777. (1). 

The first edition is excessively rare and for years was un- 
known here, thus leading even Dr. Akins into error as to 
the period in the town's history they applied to, as he knew 
only the 1777 issue. The only copies of the first (1764) issue 
known to be in the province (except one in the vestry of St. 
Paul's Church) belong to the estate of my late father, Henry 
Piers, and formerly were in the possession of the late Senator 
W. J. Almon. The Piers set, which is mounted on canvas, 
consists of the following views: (a) Halifax from Dartmouth, 
(b) Halifax looking down Prince St., (c) Halifax from George's 
Island, and (d) The Governor's House. The St. Paul's 
Church copy, which is in bad condition, unfortunately being 
much discoloured, is the one representing that church (2). 
Copies of the later edition may be seen in the Halifax City 
Hall (J. T. Bulmer's set of six) and Dalhousie College (J. 
J. Stewart's set of six), as well as in the J. R. Robertson collec- 
tion at Toronto. Four of these 1777 prints (Dr. S. E. 
Dawson's set) are reproduced in Bourinot's Builders of Nova 
Scotia, pp. 18, 20, 24 and 26. The Archives Department, 
Ottawa, has three of the 1764 prints and six of the 1777 ones. 

Historically these views of Short are by far the most im- 
portant ones of the town that have appeared, both because of 
the date (1759) at which they were made, and of the large 
amount of accurate detail they contain, their historic value 
being largely increased by the explanatory references to the 
various buildings, etc., given in the attached legends. 

Practically nothing is known of Short, although possibly 
search in the naval or military records might bring to light a 
few items regarding him. No mention is made of him in 
the 18186 edition of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and En- 

(1) Francis Edwards, printseller, London, in 1914, listed two of Short's 
1777 prints of Halifax, for 5; and Congdon and Britnell in 1901 offered a 
set cf the same edition for $50. 

(2) The Governor's House picture in the vestry of St. Paul's Church 
is merely a copy made by "M. J. R. 1832" after the engraving. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 105 

gravers, nor in the Dictionary of National Biography. Be- 
sides the Halifax plates, he made a series of twelve sketches at 
Quebec on the conclusion of the siege, which were engraved by 
C. Grignion, P. Canot, A. Bennoist, James Mason and four 
other engravers, and published by Short at London on 1st Sep- 
tember, 1761, photographic copies of which are before me, 
made from the original prints in the Robertson collection at 
Toronto (1). He also, made some drawings of Belleisle, 
France, at the time of its capture by Keppel in 1761, which 
were engraved and published. 

Each of the six Halifax prints bears the following legend, 
"To the Right Honourable George Dunk, Earl of Halifax, His 
Majesty's Principal Secretary of State, &c, &c., &c. This 
Plate representing [here is inserted the particular title], Is most 
humbly Inscribed by His Lordship's most devoted Servant, 
R. Short." In the centre of the legend are the arms of the 
second Earl of Halifax. The particular title is also given in 
French. 

Below are given, verbatim et literatim, the particular titles 
and explanatory matter inscribed on the series, which are 
incorporated with the above-mentioned dedication: 

The Town and Harbour of Halifax in Nova Scotia As they appear from 
the opposite Shore called Dartmouth. 1 St. Paul's, 2 St. Mather's, 
3 Governor's House, 4 Market Place, 5 George Street, 6 Duke Street, 
7 Major's Houses & Wharf, 888 South Middle & North Batteries. Drawn 
on ye Spot Design'd & Publish'd as ye Act directs by R. Short, 1764. 
Serres pinx. Mason sculp. [Size of engraved view, exclusive of le- 
gend, 20 by 13 inches.] 

Part of the Town & Harbour of Halifax in Nova Scotia, Looking down 
George Street to the opposite Shore called Dartmouth. 1 King's Yard. 
2 Barracks. 3 Printing House. 4 Pontack's. Serres pinxit. Jas. Ma- 
son sculpsit. [Original 1764 edition of this print not seen by me, but 
doubtless the rest of the inscription is the same as in the following print.] 

Part of the Town and Harbour of Halifax in Nova Scotia, looking down 
Prince Street to the Opposite Shore shews the Eastern Battery, George & 
Cornwallis Islands, Thrum-Cap, &c. to the Sea off Chebucto Head. 1 
Pontack's. 2 Governor's Summer House & Gardens. 3 Work House 
Drawn on the Citadel Hill des'd & Pub'd by R. Short Mar 1, 1764. Ser- 
res pinxit. Jas. Mason, sculpsit. [Size of engraved view, 19f by 
13 inches.] 



(i) Of Short's Quebec views, C. Gregnion engraved three, P. Canot 
two, A. Bennoist two, and James Mason, William Elliott, Anthony Walker, 
P. Benazech, and J. Fougeron, one each. These plates although published 
by Richard Short, were sold by Thomas Jefferys. 



106 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The Town and Harbour of Halifax in Nova Scotia, As appears from 
George Island looking up to the King's-Yard and Bason. Drawn on the 
Spot, design'd & Publish'd (as ye Act directs), by R. Short March 1, 
1764. Serres pinx. Jas. Mason sculp. [Size of engraved 

view, 20 by 13 1 inches.] 

The Governor's-House and St. Mather's Meeting House, in Holies 
Street, also looking up George Street, shews Part of the Parade and Cita- 
del-Hill at Halifax in Nova-Scotia. Drawn on ye Spot design'd & pub- 
lish'd (as ye Act directs) by R. Short March 1, 1764. Serres pinx. Ave- 
line sculp. [Size of engraved view, 20 by 13 inches. This plate 

must have been actually engraved in or prior to 1762, as Aveline died in that 
year.] 

The Church of Saint Paul, And the Parade at Halifax in Nova Scotia. 
1 The Printing House. Drawn on ye Spot design'd & publish'd (as ye Act 
directs) by R. Short March 1st 1764. Serres pinx. Jno Fougeron 
sculp. [Size of engraved view, 19f by 13 inches. An original 1764 copy 
of this print is in the vestry of St. Paul's Church, Halifax, having been ob- 
tained from the late J. G. Wetmore, picture-framer of that place. It is 
mounted on canvas, as is the Piers set, and is much discoloured.] 

No doubt the view on the original engraved plates, measured 
20 inches long by 13 inches high, and the very slight variations 
shown in the above measurements of the 1764 edition and those 
given by Robertson of the 1777 edition, were merely the result 
of shrinkage or unequal stretching of the paper in mounting. 
The names of the painter and engraver are given last in the 
above transcripts of the titles, but actually they occur above 
the legend, immediately below the view. 

In the 1777 edition the following changes are made in the 
plate: "R. Short delint" is added after "Serres pinx'-; and 
the statement at the bottom, about the drawing having 
been made on the spot, etc., and published by Short, is re- 
placed by the inscription "Published Ap. 25th 1777 by John 
Boy dell Engraver in Cheapside London." Otherwise the two 
editions seem to be identical, but of course the plates must 
have been worn by the time the later edition was run. 

Despite the two dates at which these very interesting plates 
were issued, historians must bear in mind that the original 
drawings were made by Short in 1759, just ten years after the 
settlement of the town, otherwise they will continue to be mis- 
leading as in the past. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 107 

COLONEL JOSEPH FREDERICK WALLET DESBARFES, in his 
magnificent set of admiralty charts, The Atlantic Neptune 
published at London in 1780-81, followed Short with some large 
and interesting topographical views of Halifax from the Dart- 
mouth shore, Annapolis Royal, Louisbourg, Sable Island, etc., 
as well as many smaller insets of coastal views, which were en- 
graved in aquatint, and the smaller ones sometimes washed 
with colour (1). The original drawings were presumably 
made by himself. DesBarres, who was born about 1722, was en- 
gaged surveying the coast of Nova Scotia from 1763 to 1773, 
and died at Halifax in 1824. Particulars of his life will be 
found in the Dictionary of National Biography and in the 
various histories of the province. I conjecture that the views 
were made about 1773 when he completed his survey, although 
the results were not published till several years later. 

I suppose we should here very briefly refer to GILBERT 
STUART and his short connection with Nova Scotia, which 
really was of no artistic moment as far as we are concerned. 
He was born near Wickford, Rhode Island, on 3rd December, 
1755, and died at Boston in 1828. His father, also named Gil- 
bert, removed to Newport, Hants County, Nova Scotia, in 
1775, and his wife and family followed him apparently in thj 
next year. They appear to have eventually moved to Halifax, 
where the father is said to have died in 1793 and been buried in 
St. Paul's cemetery. The artist's elder sister, Anne, married 
Hon. Henry Newton, and so became the mother of Gilbert 
Stuart Newton, another great painter, who was born at Halifax 
in 1795. 

There can be very little doubt that Stuart, the artist, spent 
some of his early manhood's days at Newport, N. S., and Mr. 
Mullane tells me that he went as supercargo on vessels sailing 
from Halifax to the West Indies. It is also said that at the 
time of his early struggles with poverty, he once worked his way 
back to America in a collier bound for Nova Scotia. In later 



(i) DesBarres's view of Halifax, is reproduced in Bourinot's Builders 
of Nova Scotia, 1900, opp. p. 28. The original, which measures about 22 
by 14 inches, is undated, but is next to a chart published I Mar., 1781. 
The Annapolis view, about the same size, was published I Jan., 1781. 
They are mainly in outline, with an added effect as if broad washes had 
been applied. "The Atlantic Neptune" may be seen in the Legislative 
Library, Halifax. 



108 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

years the Duke of Kent invited him to come from Dublin to 
Halifax to paint his portrait, offering to send a warship to bring 
him here, but as he was then rapidly rising in the art world, 
he declined. We know nothing further of his connection with 
Nova Scotia, although some of his earliest work must have been 
produced here (1). 

LT. COLONEL EDWARD HICKS, Major of the 70th Regiment 
of Foot, which was stationed at Halifax during the American 
War of Independence from 1778 to 1782, is stated to be the 
artist of two excessively rare and interesting views of the town 
of Halifax, mainly in outline, which were engraved and pub- 
lished in London. Indian-ink copies of these, made by Dr. T. 
B. Akins, in 1839, may be seen in the Provincial Museum. 
One shows the town as seen from the then new military post at 
Fort Needham, with the Naval Yard, Fort Coote, Dutch Town, 
and the old rambling fortifications on Citadel Hill and the Har- 
bour in the distance. The other drawing depicts Halifax from 
a spot a little south of Black Rock Point, Point Pleasant, with 
Citadel Hill in the distance, as well as Fort Massey with its 
blockhouse, the Grand Battery at the Lumber Yard, and a 
military encampment behind the citadel (whence the name 
Camp Hill, no doubt.) The first-mentioned view is dated by 
Dr. Akins 1783, and the Point Pleasant one, 1780. In 1782 Col. 
Hicks had advertised that he had taken nine views about Hali- 
fax, which he proposed to have engraved in London and pub- 
lished by subscription. It is regrettable that the location 
of the original set of these drawings is not known. Nothing 
further is known about Hicks but that he was commissioned 
major of the 70th Regiment on 9th February, 1775; lieutenant- 
colonel, on 17th November, 1780; and was succeeded as major of 
the 70th by Boulter Johnston on 6th March, 1782. As his 
name then drops from the Army List, he must have retired from 
military life (2). 

(1) See Dr. A. W. H. Eaton's "Gilbert Stuart, the Painter: his con- 
nection with Nova Scotia," in Morning Chronicle, Hx., 27 June, 1912; also 
verbal information from George Mullane. 

(2) See Akins's History of Halifax, 2nd ed., p. 84; Murdoch's Nova 
Scotia, vol. 3, p. 10; Army Lists. Hicks's prints doubtless resembled in 
style those in DesBarres's Atlantic Neptune, and probably were in 
Aquatint. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 109 

It is said that from about 1787 to about 1817 there was a 
chess, pencil and brush club in Halifax, of which the HON. 
RICHARD BULKELEY (1717-1800), the versatile and aristocratic 
secretary of the province, was president (1) . If 59, this was the 
first organization at all resembling an art club in Nova Scotia. 
Bulkeley seems to have done a little very mediocre amateur 
work himself, as witness his wretchedly-executed, straddle- 
legged, chalk representation of himself, now in the Provincial 
Museum (2). 

About the same period, HON. Hi B BERT NEWTON BINNEY 
(born 1766, died 1842), collector of imports and excise at 
Halifax, first cousin of Gilbert Stuart Newton, the artist, and 
grandfather of Bishop Binney, worked as an amateur in water- 
colours, and painted some third-rate topographical views, 
an example of which is a washed drawing of Halifax from the 
Dartmouth shore near Black-rock Point, dated 1791. It 
shows men hauling a seine in the foreground, George's and Mc- 
Nab's Islands, two men-of-war, the town with St. Paul's and 
Mather's Churches, citadel hill with its blockhouse (demol- 
ished in 1789) and the barracks on Brunswick Street (3) . There 
is also in the Provincial Museum a poorly executed bust por- 
trait by him of his brother, Barrack-Master Stephen Hall 
Binney, painted about the same year (4). 

We now come to the advent of professional artists into Nova 
Scotia, when GEORGE MACCRAE, from Edinburgh, painted oil 
portraits at Halifax from about 1783 until his return to Scotland 
in 1802. He was steward of the North British Society here in 



(1) See J.S. Macdonald's "Richard Bulkeley," Col. N. S. His. Soc., vol. 
12, p. Si, 86. 

(2) Engraved to illustrate Macdonald's paper above mentioned. It is 
said the portrait was drawn by Bulkeley by aid of a mirror. There is an 
abominably executed crayon portrait, at King's College, of Speaker William 
Nesbitt (died March, 1784), in a blue coat; and also I think one of his wife; 
but no one now knows who they were by, nor does it much matter. 

(3) The sketch belonged to the late W. H. Hill and now is the property of 
C. S. Blakeney of Halifax. A photographic copy of it is in the Provincial 
Museum (ace. no. 3699). See Report of Provincial Museum for 1911, p. 
15- 

(4) Reproduced in Coll. N. S. Hist. Soc., vol 17, opp. p. 76. 



110 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

1783, having joined in that year (l). J. WEAVER who signed a 
small full-length oil portrait, on panel, of the Duke of Kent 
(1794 to 1800), in the Legislative Library, Halifax, cannot be 
traced, nor does his work show any real skill. 

About 1800, G. J. PARKYNS made an excellent series of four 
topographical views of scenes about Halifax, which were 
published as coloured aquatints at London on 29th April, 1801, 
and are now very scarce, a set having been sold in London in 
1913 for fifty guineas. Nothing is known of Parkyns. He 
may have belonged to the army. The prints represent (a) 
"View of Halifax from George's Island," with the circular 
battery in the foreground, and in the distance Citadel Hill, 
the Duke of Kent's town house, the new Government House, 
Belle Vue, etc. ; (b) "View from Fort Needhfem near Halifax" 
with the Naval Yard and Commissioner's House in the middle 
distance, and the citadel, Duke of Kent's house, St. George's 
church, etc., in the distance (perhaps the best of the set); 
(c) "View from Cowie's Hill near Halifax, N. S." overlooking 
Melville Island Cove and the prison; and (d) "View of Halifax 
from Davis's Mill" at Albro's Cove, between Dartmouth 
and Tufts Cove. A set of these prints is in the King's Library, 
British Museum, another set belongs to J. Ross Robertson of 
Toronto, and I have seen a few copies about Halifax. They 
do not bear the name of the artist, engraver or publisher; 
and the first has only been ascertained from an old catalogue in 
London (2). The British Museum was unaware of the artist's 
name. 

Brief reference may be made to the REV. BENJAMIN GERRISH 
GRAY, an amateur, who in 1803 painted four topographical 
views, namely the old bridge over the Avon River, King's 
College from Saulsbrook Farm and from the ferry-house 
(Windsor), and also Fort Cumberland. These interesting but 
not very skilful little sketches are in a quarto-sized manuscript 



(1) Macdonald, Annals of N. Br. Soc., 1905, p. 39. 

(2) The British Museum copies are probably undated, as its authority 
only approximates thejdate, but Mrs. L. M. Murray's copy of the Davis's 
Mill is inscribed "Published as the Act directs, April 29th, 1801." It mav be 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. HI 

catalogue, by Gray, of the books in King's College library, 
which he dedicated to Sir John Wentworth (1). In July, 
1805, Wentworth wrote to the poet Moore, sending him a 
pen-and-ink drawing of a Nova Scotian landscape by Mr. Gray, 
saying, "I hope the drawing will meet with your approbation, 
and that both it and the scenery it represents will be brought 
into favorable notice by being prefixed to your intended publi- 
cation, which I shall be anxious to possess, that I must now 
solicit you to send me the book as soon as it is published' '(2). 

This brings us to the period of the silhouette-makers, who 
delicately cut profiles from black paper, many of them in a 
highly artistic style, from 1806 till about 1845 when this kind 
of portraiture was driven from the field by photography. 
Most of these silhouettes are in black on a white ground, but a 
very few are white on black. Some were produced with the 
assistance of various instruments, but the more skilful worked 
with no such aids. 

It would appear that WILLIAM KING first introduced this 
cheap but dainty style of likeness to Halifax people in Septem- 
ber, 1806 (3). His studio or room was in the house adjoining 
that of the Hon. Andrew Belcher, and there he labored at the 
"black art" from eight o'clock in the morning till nine at night. 
He claimed to have had extensive practice, and the cutting of 
the portrait did not take over five minutes. He produced his 
silhouettes with the aid of a new instrument, or machine as 
he terms it, which one is led to think may have been Wollaston's 

noted here that there is in the Provincial Museum (ace. no. 3589) a small 
stipple engraving of the "Commissioner's House, in the Naval Yard, 
Halifax," about the year 1803, which was engraved by Wells, and published 
29th February, 1804, by J. Gold, Shoe Lane, London, but it does^not men- 
tion who drew it and it is of no value artistically. The Commissioner's 
House was built about 1785 and demolished in November 1909. 

(1) See Piers, Catalogue of King's Col. Library, p. in. 

(2) See Murdoch's Nova Scotia, iii, p. 242. 

(3) See his long announcement in N. S. Royal Gazette, Halifax, nth 
September, 1806, A silhouette portrait of Mercy (died 1816) wife of Temple 
S. Piers of Halifax, must be either the work of King, Moore, Thomson, 
or Metcalf. It is somewhat unusual, the profile being cut out of white 
paper, which is mounted on a background of black cloth. The general custom 
was to cut the profile in black paper which was attached to a white card. 



112 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

camera-lucida, although that instrument was not perfected until 
1807. He announced that his sitters would not be inconvenienced 
by anything passing over the face, as was the case with some 
machines used by others. So delicately was the cutting done, 
that he could produce profiles so small as to go into a locket, 
for which he charged five shillings. His charge for larger sizes, 
"on a beautiful wove paper," was 2s. 6d. for two. He also had 
for sale, polished black oval frames as well as gilt ones suitable 
for the profiles. 

He was followed in June, 1808, for a brief time, by SAMUEL 
MOORE, another silhouettist, who worked in the long room at 
the Golden Ball at the southwest corner of Sackville and Hollis 
Streets, and charged two shillings for a portrait (1). 

We now come to the most gifted portrait painter who has 
ever resided in Nova Scotia, a man who was highly esteemed 
for his character as well as for his artistic ability. I refer to 
ROBERT FIELD, an English artist of culture and skill who came 
to Halifax about May, 1808, and laboured here with success 
until about 1818. He worked in both oil and water-colours, 
and also produced miniatures, the latter being the first produc- 
tions in that style of which we find any record here. Besides 
this he engraved moderately well in line and stipple. We will 
dwell a little on him and his work. 

He was born, it is said, in Gloucester, England, and then 
went to London (2). About 1793 he went to New York, and 
also worked in Boston, Philadelphia and Baltimore, painting 
very good miniatures, which was his chief occupation at that 
time (3). Seguier in his Critical and Commercial Dictionary of 
Works of Painters (1870) tells us that Field painted "clever 
portraits which in style and lightness of pencilling remind 
us a little of Hamilton." 



(1) See his announcement, dated 3 ist May, in Royal Gazette, Halifax, for 
I4th June, 1808. He states that his stay in Halifax will be but short. 

(2) According to information from Jas. S. Macdonald. Before 1792 there 
was published in London an engraving by R. Field after T. Stewart's oil 
portrait of John Lewis, which very likely was our Robert Field. (Vide D 
McN. Stauffer). 

(3) Wm. Dunlap: History of the Arts of Design in U. S. f New York, 
1834, vol. i, p. 430. 




ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 113 

He was in Philadelphia in January, 1795, as we find a letter 
of his, addressed to Robert Gilmor, Jr., of Baltimore, dated 
from the former town on the 13th of that month, which is 
preserved among the "Drew Manuscripts" belonging to the 
Pennsylvania Historical Society. In this letter Field refers 
to W. Robertson's portrait of George Washington, which he 
afterwards engraved. "This miniature of the President," 
he writes, "is as good a likeness and as fine a piece of painting as 
I ever saw." He states that he had been engaged to engrave it 
of the size of the original painting, "with some ornaments to 
surround and make it more interesting." As Robertson in- 
tended to go to India, he declined the large plate and proposed 
to sell the miniature to Field for $1,000, a price which Field 
thought was extravagant, although he says "it might be worth 
while even on these terms, if in my power." The terms are 
not known on which he finally obtained the portrait to engrave. 
He states that he already had plenty to do in Philadelphia, 
where he was "making a figure" in the Academy of Arts and 
Sciences lately established in that town. He hoped to succeed 
Robertson as a miniature painter. This is the only letter of 
Field's that has come to light. 

On 1st August of the same year (1795) he published in 
Philadelphia and New York, his stipple engraving of Robert- 
son's miniature of Washington, referred to above. In the same 
year he published at the first-mentioned city his engraving 
of Shakespeare after the oil portrait in the collection of the Duke 
of Chandos, which appeared as a frontspiece to an edition of the 
works of the dramatist. Others of his engravings published while 
in the United States, are portraits of Alexander Hamilton, pub- 
lished at Boston, 31st August, 1806, after J. Trumbull's oil 
painting; and of Thomas Jefferson, published at the same place 
on 14th March, 1807, after G. Stuart (1). All of these were 
executed in stipple in a pleasing manner. 



(i) J. B. Longacre made an engraving after Field's Jefferson, which was 
published at Philadelphia in 1823, "drawn and engraved by J. B. Longacre 
form the Portrait of Field after Stuart." 
8 



114 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Miniature painting, however, was occupying most of his 
time, and among his works in this style produced in the Uni- 
ted States, were portraits of William Cliffton and of John E. 
Harwood, both of which were engraved by David Edwin, the 
former published at Philadelphia in 1800. He also painted, in 
oil, Charles Carroll of Carrollton; which was engraved at Phil- 
adelphia in 1823 by J. B. Longacre. Dunlop (History of Arts 
of Design in U. S.) mentions that he painted miniatures of 
Mrs. Thornton of Washington, and Mrs. Allen of Boston. We 
know that he was in Boston in August, 1806, and March, 1807, 
as two of his plates were then issued at that place, and that is 
the last definite information we have of him in that country (1). 

About May, 1808, as mentioned, he removed to Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, doubtless from Boston, being induced to do so 
by Governor Wentworth. His first advertisement in the 
Royal Gazette, is dated 30th May, and states that "Robert 
Field, at Alexander Morrison's, bookseller, intends, during his 
residence in Halifax, to exercise his profession as portrait pain- 
ter, in oil and water-colours, and in miniature; where speci- 
mens of his painting may be seen and his terms made known" 
(2). 

Under Wentworth's patronage, he soon was commissioned 
to paint many of the most notable people of the town. Some- 
what as Kneller had done for the famous Kit-Cat Club, he pain- 
ted in oils various kit-cat portraits of the wealthy members of 
the old Rockingham Club, which portraits hung for a time about 
the walls of the club's room in the Rockingham Inn near Went- 
worth's lodge on Bedford Basin (3). 

Among his Halifax portraits, the most ambitious ones were 
full-lengths of Gov. Sir George Prevost (1808-11) and his successor 



(1) What is known of Field's work in the United States will be found in 
David McNeely Stauffer's American Engravers upon Copper and Steel, 
issued in two volumes in a limited edition, by the Groher Club of New York, 
in 1907. 

(2) Royal Gazette, Halifax, yth June, 1808. 
.'3) Akins's History of Halifax, p. 125. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 115 

Sir John Coape Sherbrooke (1811-16) , probably painted for the 
Rockingham Club. The Prevost is finely composed and execu- 
ted, and was engraved and published by S. W. Reynolds, the 
eminent mezzotinter, in London on 21st December, 1818, but 
without Field's name (1). The Sherbrooke, though a good 
likeness and dignified, was not quite so fine a production (2). 
Tradition says that Sherbrooke, who was irascible, got tired of 
posing for the painter, and when the face was finished told 
him to fill in the rest of the figure as best he could. A substitute 
was found in a Mr. Boggs who posed for the legs of the picture, 
as the governor and Boggs resembled each other in that respect. 
(3). Field himself engraved, in line and stipple, and coloured, 
a degenerate variation of Sherbrooke's portrait, and published 
the print at Halifax on 24th June, 1816. Very little idea of the 
original may be gained from the engraving, as the latter changes 
the posture, introduces new accessories, omits the background, 
and loses the dignity of the painting. These portraits I am 
told, were for a time in the institute reading-room on. Bedford 
Row. There is no doubt that they once hung in the Province 
Building, but they now are on the walls of the Halifax Club, 
and there are some who would be glad to know the history of 
their transfer there. 

One of his very best portraits is that of Governor Sir John 
Wentworth, painted for the Rockingham Club, probably about 
1808, a picture which had a peculiar sojourn out of the pro- 
vince for many years, but which some time ago was restored 
to the Province and now hangs in Government House (4) . His 
Bishop Charles Inglis, also one of his very best productions, is 

(1) Reynolds's print of Prevost may be seenint u e Legislative Library, 
Halifax. 

(2) "Sir John Coape Sherbrooke; fine full-length by Field; a good pic- 
ture and much like the worthy old knight." (Vide account, probably by T. 
B. Akms, of art exhibiton at Halifax, 1848; in British Coonist, 3rd, 
October, 1848). A poor half-tone reproduction of Field's painting of 
Sherbrooke is in the Coll. N. S. Hist. Soc., vol 17, opp. p. SO. 

(3) This story, which I have often heard, will also be found in Kings- 
ford's History of Canada, vol. 9, footnote on page 61. 

(4) This portrait shows him in old age. Copley's portrait of him, at 
Portsmouth, N. H., shows him in middle-age when governor of New Hamp- 
shire, 1767-75. A reproduction of Copley's picture may be seen in the 
Provincial Museum, Halifax. 



116 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



honoured by a permanent place in the National Portrait 
Gallery in London, and has been lithographed by M. Gauci (1). 
His portrait of John Lawson, the founder of the Halifax family 
of that name, is a fine piece of work, with some good tender 
colouring in the face (2). It is poorly engraved in miniature 
on the first banknotes of the Bank of Nova Scotia. 

Besides these, he painted in Halifax oil portraits of the 
following: Sir Alexander Cochran (belonged to late H. Harts- 
horne) ; Sir Edward Parry, the arctic explorer, (this small por- 
trait of the navigator by Field was in 1848 the property of his 
friend J. W. Nutting, and had probably been painted when 
Lt. Parry was in Halifax about 1818 in the "Niger"); Commis- 
sioner John Nicholson Inglefield of the Naval yard (once in the 
committee room of the Legislative Council, but afterwards 
presented to Admiral Inglefield, father of Sir Edward); Hon. 
Richard J. Uniacke; Hon. Michael Wallace (belonged to late 
John Wallace); Hon. Lawrence Hartshorne (belonged to late 
H. Hartshorne); Hon. Andrew Belcher (3) and Mrs. Belcher; 
Hon. Charles Morris the 3rd (1759-1831), a small half-length, 
seated, in Provincial Museum); the loyalist Adam DeChezeau 
the elder (belonging to Mrs. Henry Piers); Rev. Dr. Archi- 
bald Gray (a half-length, seated), and Mrs. Gray; Andrew 
Wright (of the firm of Belcher and Wright) and his sister Mary; 
Dr. William J. Almon (died 1817, grandfather of Senator W. J, 
Almon); Hon. James Fraser (died 1819); Judge James Stewart 
(son of Anthony) ; William Bowie, who was killed in a duel in 
1819, a fine portrait, poorly reproduced in Annals N. British 
Society (belonged to the late Jas. Richardson, Sr.) ; Dr. John 

(1) In 1848, when exhibited at Halifax, this portrait of Inglis was de- 
scribed as "a jewel of a picture one of Field's very best performances. 
The bishop was a fine majestic-looking old man. He is represented in his 
canonicals. This is one of the best works of art in this country." Vide 
account of art exhibition, British Colonist, Hx., 3rd, Oct., 1848. 

(2) This portrait (which measures 2 ft. by I ft. loins.) in 1901 became the 
property of John W. Lawson, of the Commercial Cable Company, now of 
Jamaica. A copy of it, by William B. T. Piers, belongs to Mrs. Henry 
Piers of Halifax. 

(3) This is doubtless the portrait of Andrew Belcher which now be- 
ongs to Rev. G. E. Belcher. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 117 

Halliburton, father of the chief justice (a good portrait, 
now in Virginia); Charles Geddes; John Bremner (good); 
Capt. Thomas Maynard, R. N., in uniform (now in the United 
States) ; Rear Admiral Herbert Sawyer (belongs to Miss May- 
nard, Windsor); Hon. William Lawson (in Bank of Nova 
Scotia) and probably Dr. Joseph Prescott (belongs to Miss 
Fairbanks, New York), and Dr. Mather Byles (1735-1814, 
(belongs to Frederick L. Gray of Brookline, Mass.) ; as well as 
many others (1). 

The portrait of Hon. Richard John Uniacke was not one of 
Field's best performances, but the family features are well mark- 
ed. "We expect to see the aged Attorney General with his 
fine white locks falling over his herculean shoulders, the big 
ivory-headed cane and the eye-glass; such a picture would 
have been invaluable" (British Colonist, Halifax, 3rd, 
October 1848). Field's portrait was painted when Uniacke 
was a much younger man than he was when the people 
of 1848 remembered him. It may prove to be the original 
from which J. Clow's miniature of 1831 was printed, as mention- 
ed on a subsequent page. 

He also painted in Halifax a few good miniatures; those I 
have seen being inconspicuously signed with the initial F. in the 
background. The finest is that of Captain Nicholas Thomas Hill 
in the uniform of the Royal Staff Corps, a gentleman afterwards 
well known in Halifax, painted about 1817 (2). It is a very 

(1) This list, which may be subject to correction in a few instances, is 
founded on statments in Akins's History of Halifax, p. 125, verbal information 
from J. S. Macdonald and the plates in his Annals of the North British Soci- 
ety (1905), catalogues of various art exhibitions, and personal knowledge of 
the writer. Considerable information may also be obtained from an 
account, doubtless by Dr. Akins, of an art exhibition held at Halifax in Sep- 
tember, 1848, in the British Colonist, Halifax, of 3rd, 5th and 7th October, 
1848. The oil portrait of Dr. Hoffmann, noted as "by Field" in the Loan 
Exhibition, Halifax, of 1894,13 by John Hoppner, and is correctly ascribed 
in a catalogue of 1881. 

A halftone of the Wallace portrait appears in the Collections of the N. S. 
Historical Society, vol. 16, opp. p. 32; the Sherbrooke in vol. 17, opp. p. 
80; and the Bremner, opp. p. 108; while the James Fraser, Dr. Gray, 
Wallace, Jas. Stewart, Dr. Halliburton, Bowie, Geddes, and Bremner appear 
in Macdonald's Annals of North British Society. 

(2) Capt. N. T- Hill's eldest daughter, Mary, married Asst. Com. Genl. 
Hector J. Macauiay, whose only daughter, Harriet (known as Kathy) 
Macaulay became well known in England as a skilful watercolor painter of 
fishing boats. 



118 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

beautiful piece of work, nobly designed, boldly executed, the 
hatching being not overdose or niggled, and is excellently 
coloured. It passed to Capt. Hill's son, and in 1913 became the 
property of Miss Grace Hill of Vancouver, B. C. Mrs. S. 
Creed has a miniature by Field of Dr. Matthias Hoffmann, 
but it is not so well executed. 

I have estimated that in order to make a living he must 
have produced at least 150 portraits while in Halifax. There 
is no doubt he had steady employment here. He had one very 
reprehensible practice, namely that he occasionally, but fort- 
unately very rarely, painted small oil portraits on tin-plate, 
as is the case in the Morris and DeChezeau pictures. 

Regarding his life in this town, practically nothing is known. 
We find that in July, 1812, he was a member of the First Com- 
pany of Volunteer Artillery under command of Capt. Richard 
Tremain (1). Mr. George Mullane informs me that he 
once found in a Halifax newspaper an advertisement of the sale 
of Field's furniture at his house in "Dutch town," Halifax, and 
says that he afterwards went to board in a house opposite some 
military office in the town, but we have not succeeded in again 
finding the notice and assertaining the date. 

We have stated that in June, 1816, he published here his 
print of Sherbrooke. Sometime between that date and 1818, 
doubtless in or about the latter year, he finally left Halifax for 
England, after a quarter of a century spent in busy and at times 
lucrative work in America, about ten years of which period he 
painted in Halifax. In 1818 he exhibited, as "a portrait pain- 
ter of Halifax," in the Royal Academy at London (2), and no 
doubt was then there, a supposition which is strengthened by 
the fact that in December of that year Reynolds issued his 
mezzotint of the Prevost portrait. 

(1 ) Akins's History of Halifax, p. 272. 

(2) Vide Algernon Graves' s Dictionary of Artists. One might sur- 
mise that this was the Bishop Inglis portrait, but that that picture was ex- 
hibited at Halifax in September, 1848. 







RIGHT REVEREND CHARLES INGLIS, D. D., 

First Bishop of Nova Scotia, 1787-1816; born 1734, died 1816. 
From M. Gauci's lithograph of the oil portrait by Robert Field, 
in the National Portrait Gallery, London. 




SIR JOHN WENTWORTH, Bart., 

Governor of Nova Scotia, 1792-1808; born 1737, died 1820. 

From the oil portrait by Robert Field, painted about 1808, 
in Government House, Halifax. 




WILLIAM BOWIE. 

Merchant; born about 1782, came to Halifax in 1803, and killed in a duel with R. J. Uniacke, Jr. 

in 1819. 

From the oil portrait by^Robert Field, which belonged to the late Jas. Richardson, Sr. 




CAPT. NICHOLAS THOS. HILL, Royal Staff Corps 

Born about 1792, came to Halifax in 1816, died 1870. 

From the miniature on ivory, by Robert Field, painted 

about 1817, now belonging to Miss Grace Hill, 

Vancouver, B. C. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 119 

He finally left England and went to Jamaica, where he died 
on 9th August, 1819 (1). Dunlap (2) tells us that he was a 
handsome, stout, gentlemanly man, and a favourite with gentle- 
men ; and tradition in Halifax states that he was somewhat of a 
dandy and wore Hessian boots with tassels at the top. He 
was undoubtedly the best portrait painter we have had here, 
and deserves notice in any comprehensive dictionary of English 
painters, and probably is only so little known to the artistic 
world because his works are buried in the colonies. So far as I 
can ascertain, to him is due the credit of introducing miniature 
painting into this province, as well as engraving (3). 

While Field was practicing his profession in Halifax under 
the patronage of the elite, we had some lesser lights here for 
short periods, to whom brief reference will be made (4). 

JOHN THOMSON, a portrait painter in oils, a miniaturist and 
silhouette-cutter, as well as probably our first drawing-master, 
came to Halifax about April, 1809, from Kingston, Jamaica, 
having "returned," he says, "to accomplish his tour through 
British America," and took rooms opposite Smith's hotel. In 
a long and somewhat florid advertisement in the Weekly 
Chronicle of 3rd March, 1809, he alluringly sets forth his numer- 
ous accomplishments and his prices. He announces that he is 
prepared to produce likeness of any size, from so small as to 
bear setting in a ring, to life-size; portraits in oils from $20 to 
$100 ; miniatures on ivory from $20 to $40 ; full or three-quarter 



(1) Died "at Jamaica, August 9th, Robert Field, Esq., an eminent ar- 
tist, very much regretted" (N. S. Royal Gazette, Halifax, 15th September, 
1819). See also Murdoch's Nova Scotia, vol. 3, p. 445. Kingsford's 
History of Canada, vol. 9, p. 28, and footnote to p. 61, contains considerable 
information about Field. 

(2) William Dunlap, History of the Arts of Design in the U. S., New 
York, 1834. 

(3) One brief biographical notice erroneously states that Field "went 
to Canada, studied theology and later became prominent in the Episcopal 
Church." It is unnecessary to state that search in the official church records 
of Canada disproves this. 

(4) According to J. S. Macdonald, a Mr. Rugeley, lieutenant in the 
Engineers, left the service and stayed in Halifax, where he painted some 
portraits. I do not know exactly to what period he belongs. 



120 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



faces on vellum or paper, from $5 to $10; profiles in gold or 
silver leaf, $5; in colours or painted on glass, $3; in India- 
ink, $1; cut on paper, four of one person, half a dollar, or two 
for one quarter. He also undertakes to teach drawing at pri- 
vate lodgings, boarding schools or at his own rooms, for from 
$7 to $4 a month. Further than all this, he will undertake 
the drawing and painting of signs and scenes, transparencies 
for windows, views of estates, coats-of-arms and anti- 
quities for antiquarians, landscapes, birds, flowers, figures, and 
lastly, patterns for ladies to draw or work on silk, satin, velvet, 
tiffany, etc. This advertisement, which might be termed a 
breathless one, shows that at least he was versatile; and his 
prices were fairly high for the time, which may indicate that he 
was not without skill. 

E. METCALF, a miniaturist and silhouette-cutter, was here 
in 1810, and states that he met with liberal encouragement, his 
prices for his work, framed or set, ranging from 5s. to 4. 
He left here in December of that year (1). In May of the 
next year, F. B. S. SPILSBURY opened a school for teaching 
drawing and painting (2). In 1813 one RALPH STANNETT, 
artist, was married at Halifax, to a Mary McDonald (vide 
Mr. G. Mullane); but nothing further is known of him. 

J. E. ACRES, late a Royal Academy student, London, pra- 
ticed here as a drawing-master and miniature painter from Sep- 
tember, 1815, till the next year or later, his rooms being at Mrs. 
Wright's near Thomas Donaldson's, and he gave the name of 
Hon. Charles Morris as a reference (3). Acres must have 
again been in Halifax in 1823, for a small round miniature on 
ivory, supposed to be of Mr. Wilkie, once the property of the 
late Miss Wilkie but now owned by Mr. George Ritchie, is. in- 
scribed on the back, "Halifax, Jan. 1823, Acres, Painter." 



Nova Scotia Royal Gazette, Halifax, 5th December, 1810. 
Notice dated iyth May, in Weekly Chronicle, Halifax, 26th July, 



(i) 

(2) 

1811. 

(3) Vide notice dated I3th September, in N. S. Royal Gazette of 25th 
October, 1815, 26th June, 1816, etc.; and catalogue of art exhibit, Pro- 
vincial Exhibition, Halifax, 1909. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 121 

The workmanship is not very good. The date is added in ink, 
and possibly may not be the date of painting. 

In 1819, R. FOULIS of Edinburgh and London, was painting 
portraits in oil and miniature, his studio being at Mrs. Stur- 
mey's, No. 14, Barrington Street, just north of the then post- 
office; and on 6th July of that year he opened a class for teach- 
ing the principles of landscape and figure drawing at Mr. 
Burns's English and Commercial Academy, No. 4, Cheapside, 
opposite the northeast corner of the Province Building (1). 
In July of the same year a MR. PATRIDGE was another drawing- 
master at Halifax (2). 

In 1819 there was published at Halifax a creditable 
"Perspective View of the Province Building from the N. E.," 
drawn and etched by J. E. WOOLFORD, a copy of which is in 
the "Acadian Recorder" office. The date of publication 
is not very clearly inscribed; but as the building, which 
was begun in 1811, was first occupied by the legislature 
on llth February, 1819, on its completion, I believe the 
latter date to be the correct one for the plate. It is printed in 
inks of two colours, a warm brown for the foreground, and blue 
for the distance, and may have been washed over with the 
brush to accentuate this, producing a pleasing effect, very close- 
ly resembling a pen drawing tinted with broad washes of 
colour. The new building occupies the centre of the plate 
(which measures about 13 by 8^ inches) ; to the left is seen 
the old Cochran building, three stones high; and St. Matthew's 
and St. Paul's Churches appear in the distance. It is the first 
etching produced and published here. 

In December, 1819, and early in 1820, JOHN POAD DRAKE, 
a young English artist, was here painting the excellent full- 
length of Chief Justice S. S. Blowers in his official scarlet 
robes and wig, which was ordered by the magistrates and grand- 
jurors of the county of Halifax. The portrait is inscribed by 



(1) N. S. Royal Gazette, Halifax, 3Oth June, 1819, and other issues. 

(2) Vide Geo. Mullane, from Halifax newspaper of 1819. 



122 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the artist, "Painted by J. P. Drake, 1820." This picture till 
1909 hung in the Province Building, but was then loaned to the 
barristers' society and is now in the County Court House. 
Some misunderstanding took place between Drake and his 
clients, and when the former was paid, the money was delivered 
to him in bags of halfpence, and the disgusted painter had to 
send a wheelbarrow to convey it away. It was apparently the 
only portrait he painted here. Drake was an artist of some 
note who was born at Stoke Damerel, near Plymouth, Devon- 
shire, in 1794, and died at an advanced age at Fowey, Cornwall, 
on 26th February, 1883. He was fifth in descent from John 
Drake (1564-1640), a cousin of the famous admiral. The artist 
was first employed with his father in Plymouth Navy Yard, 
and took up the study of painting. He saw Napoleon on board 
the "Bellerophon" in Plymouth Sound in 1815, and produced a 
a picture of the scene which he carried to America with him. 
Having painted the beforementioned portrait of Justice Blowers, 
he visited Montreal, where he painted an altarpiece, and 
then went to New York where his picture of Napoleon was ex- 
hibited. He spent much time in inventing new devices and 
improvements, and among other things is said to have discover- 
ed the principle of the Snider-Enfield gun in 1835. He left 
an only child, H. H. Drake, who was the editor of a new "His- 
tory of Kent" (1). The artist was a brother of the grand- 
father of the late William H. Drake of Halifax. 

The lack of data covering the period from 1820 to 1828, 
seems to indicate that my searches may not have happened to 
cover those few years; or that, less likely, there may then have 
been really a dearth of art-workers here. I regret that since 
bringing my notes together, I have not been able to go carefully 
over the newspapers of the nine years in question, in order to 
ascertain if they had been overlooked. 



(i) See fuller account of Drake in the Diet, of Nat. Biography, vol. 15, 
p. 447. See also correspondence, etc., in Royal Gazette, Halifax, 22nd 
December, 1819; Murdoch's History of N. S., vol. 3, p. 443; Akins's 
History of Halifax, p. 189; and Report of Prov. Museum, Halifax, for 1911, 
p. 23. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 123 

Haliburton's Nova Scotia, 1829, contains some line en- 
gravings of drawings of the Province Building, View of Halifax 
from Dartmouth Cove (by a lady of that place), View of the 
Front Street of Windsor, and View of the Fort and Part of the 
Town of Annapolis; but they are poorly done and badly en- 
graved, and we do not know who drew the originals. 

In 1829, MR. GELLESPIE of London, Edinburgh and Liver- 
pool, was in Halifax practising as a profile miniature painter, 
his outlines being made by means of "several mechanical 
and optical instruments." His prices were, for "features neat- 
ly painted in colours," two dollars each; in plain black, one- 
quarter dollar; shaded in black, one-half dollar; and finished 
in bronze, one dollar. (1). Two authentic profile miniatures 
on paper by Gellespie, of James McNutt a builder of Halifax, 
and Amelia A. Gaetz, aged eighteen, who became his wife, be- 
long to J. McN. Gabriel. They are unsigned, but a pen note 
on the back of Mrs. McNutt's portrait, states it was by Gelles- 
pie. I am also quite certain I identify this artist's work in 
another profile miniature, on paper, of Judge Emerson, born at 
Windsor, N. S., about 1801, but afterwards of St. John's, New- 
foundland, which belongs to Miss C. M. Sinclair of Halifax; 
as well as in one of Henry Goudge (1805-1841), father of Hon. 
M. H. Goudge, of Windsor. Gellespie's flesh tints are very 
thinly applied, with no indication of stippling, and his profile 
outline is clean and decisive though somewhat faint. Probably 
his skill was not of a very high degree. (2) . 

In 1829 and 1830, and doubtless later, W. H. JONES, an 
artist from Boston and Philadelphia, was successfully teaching 
painting in Halifax, his classes in Dalhousie College, on the 



(1) Vide George Mullane, from Halifax newspaper. 

(2) Major Henry Piers of the Royal Staff Corps, an Englishman who 
was stationed at Halifax from about 1830 till after he was placed on half- 
pay in November, 1831, was an amateur who painted some original water- 
colour landscapes which showed a trained hand; and a couple of his paint- 
ings of coast scenes in Sicily and Calabria are in Halifax. He was born in 
England about 1781, entered the service in 1809, and after returning to 
England went to Cape Colony in 1834 as a special magistrate under the 
slave emancipation act, and died there in 1872. His son Henry, who was 
with him in Halifax, did some good pen drawings after the style of etchings. 



124 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Parade, being attended by a number of notable persons, in- 
cluding Lady Mary Fox (daughter of William IV. and Mrs. 
Jordan, and wife of the then Col. Charles R. Fox), as well as 
Maria Morris the flower painter (1). Jones, when in the 
United States, had by imparting a portion of his own enthus- 
iasm to some of the more wealthy and influential citizens, or- 
ganized very respectable and lucrative art exhibitions in Boston 
and Baltimore; and under his energetic initiation a similar 
exhibition of paintings was held at Halifax, under his charge, 
in his rooms at Dalhousie College, from 10th to 29th May, 1830. 
This was the first art exhibition ever held here (2) . 

PHIPPS, a miniature painter on ivory, was here in 1829, 
having his studio at Mr. Loveland's, corner of Hollis and Sack- 
ville Streets, the price of his portraits being ten dollars (3); 
and L' ESTRANGE, an English portrait painter in oils, minia- 
turist and instructor in oil painting, etc., of some merit, who 
claimed that his "style of copying nature in her richest attire 
has been acknowledged by the best informed artists in Great 
Britain," practiced here from about 1832 until at least 1834. 
The latter's prices for portraits were from two to ten pounds; 
and for instruction, one pound a month, for three afternoons 
a week (4). Phipps's and L'Estrange's work is not now 
recognized, although there should be a fair number of the latter's 
canvases about the province. 

Possibly I may be pardoned for here referring briefly to one 
who for some fifteen years after about 1826, as a well-trained 



(1) One of a series of large pencil drawings of heads, executed no doubt 
at Jones's classes by my aunt, Elizabeth Piers, is dated May 29th, 1829, 
which tends to show that he was teaching here as early as that. The late 
T. S. Hill of Halifax also received instruction from him. I have seen some 
of Lady Mary Fox's water-colours, which belonged to Mr. Hill, but they 
were not well executed. Capt. Wm. S. Moorsom (1804-63), 52nd Regt., 
who was here in 1826-31 in his "Letters" (1830) gives views of the Province 
House, Cape "Blow-me-Down," and Lochaber Lake, no doubt from his 
own sketches, (See life, Diet. Nat. Biog. 

(2) See long article regarding Jones and this exhibition, in the Nova 
Scotia, Halifax, I ith February, 1830, also 8th April, 1830. 

(3) Notice dated I9th February, 1829, in Nova Scotian, Halifax, of 
26th March, 1829. 

(4) See L'Estrange's notice dated 6th Decembe'rinthe Nova Scotian of 
the 6vh December, 1832; and others in the same newspaper of nth July, 
183^ and i6t January, 1834. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 125 

and enthusiastic amateur, produced some oil portraits which 
evinced unusual skill, a facile, confident and free brush, and 
good drawing and colouring, and which showed that had he 
taken up art as a profession he would have at least equalled 
his contemporary and friend, Valentine. The stress and cares 
of business, however, were to be his lot, and his brushes were 
regretfully laid down later in life when the pressure of other 
occupations denied any leisure for the work he most loved. I 
refer to WILLIAM B. T. PIERS, and think it may be not un- 
truthfully said that he was the most gifted amateur portraitist 
of those days. Among his original oil paintings may be men- 
tioned portraits of his wife, Sophia; and of the latter's neice, 
Fanny, daughter of Capt. Robert J. Langrishe, R. N., after- 
wards wife of Rev. W. W. LeGallais; and also one of his father- 
in-law, the Hon. William Carson, M.D., Speaker of the Assembly, 
St. John's, Newfoundland, who died in 1843. There is also 
a picture by him (one of his last), entitled "The Key of the Har- 
em," which may not be original. His two portraits of John 
Lawson, who died in 1828, are known to be after Field; and 
one of Montgomery, the poet, was of course a copy (1). 

Doubtless the finest silhouettist we have had, was young 
HANKES, who, after practising in Great Britain and America, 
came to Halifax and in the winter of 1830-1 cut profiles which 
are really notable for their very masterly execution. He 
worked with great rapidity but rare skill and delicacy in 



(i) William Bevil Thomas Piers, eldest son of Temple F. Piers, was 
born 24th March, 1808, at St. John's, Newfoundland, where his father was 
then ensign and paymaster of the N. S. Regiment of Fencible Infantry. 
He received instruction in painting from an English artist at Halifax. He 
lived in Halifax till 1836, in Bedford till about 1842 when he returned to 
Halifax, resided at Horton from 1846 to 1851, when he went to Lansing, 
Iowa, and three years later to near Wabasha, Minn., where he died, 15 
April 1855. His paintings were doubtless all produced prior to 1842. One 
of the Lawson copies and the "Key of the Harem," belong to Mrs. Henry 
Piers, the other Lawson copy to J. G. A. Creighton of Ottawa, while the por- 
trait of his wife belongs to W. C. Piers, Minneapolis. Carson's picture was 
considered by the Doctor's family as superior to one of him by William Ea- 
gar. It is doubtless with a descendant of the Carson family in St. John's. 
Piers's sister, Elizabeth (1814-1839), afterwards Mrs. Wm. G. Green, also 
had artistic ability, having apparently been a pupil of W. H. Jones in 1829. 



126 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

this lesser style of portraiture. His price for a bust portrait was 
half-a-dollar for adults, and half-price for children. Some of his 
profiles were neatly and very sparingly touched up with bronze 
by an assistant named Reynolds. I have seen one portrait, 
doubtless by Hankes, in which the method of producing the 
profile is reversed, the portrait being cut out of the white back- 
ground paper, a piece of black paper being afterwards placed be- 
hind it. This is a method very seldom practiced. Hankes came 
here about 15th December, 1830, worked in the large upper 
room of the Exchange Coffee House, afterwards the City 
Court House, was patronized by the Governor, Sir Peregrine 
Maitland, and cut the portraits of very many important 
people of the town. His gallery (open 11 a. m. to 4 p. m., and 
7 to 9 p. m.) was brilliantly lighted and elaborately fitted up 
as a lounging place, and crowds inspected his greatly admired 
collection, which included family groups, full-lengths and bust 
portraits, as well as pictures of horses, dogs, etc. He finally an- 
nounced he would close his gallery or "papyrotomia" at 10 p. m., 
27th January ,1831, and the collection was sold by auction the 
next day. My father, Henry Piers, whose full-length profile 
was cut by him in 1831, when six years of age, remembered him 
well and described him to me as a dark man, who worked 
exceedingly rapidly, cutting out the portrait with scissors 
directly from the sitter, without any preliminary drawing or 
the aid of subsidiary appliances that were sometimes used by 
less expert men (1.) 

Since his arrival here in 1818 there had been patiently 
studying and working, under somewhat adverse circumstances, 
one who next to Field was to achieve the most success as a 
portrait painter in Nova Scotia, and who besides was to gain 
universal respect for his admirable character. Perhaps no 
local artist's name was more familiar to the last generation than 
that of WILLIAM VALENTINE, who from about the first quarter 
of the nineteenth century until his death in 1849, laboured in 
our midst, preserving the lineaments of many notable persons, 
more particularly during the period of 1830-49. Often as his 

(1) See also Hankes's advertisements in Royal Gazette, and Nova 
Scotian, from I5th Dec. 1830, to 26th Jan. 1831. Among his silhouettes are 
those of T.F.Piers's family, 1 831, including William B. T., and his wife (full- 
lengths), Temple S., Lewis E., Elizabeth, Mary, and Henry (a full-length). 
The portrait cut from the background, referred to above, is of Edward H 
Harrington, barrister, Halifax. 







THREE SILHOUETTES BY HANKES. 

Cut in January, 1831. 
(About <Hsths size of originals.) 

Wm. B. T. Piers (on right), 1808-1855; Elizabeth Piers, 1814-1839; 
and Henry Piers, 1824-1910. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 127 

name may be heard, not very much definite information can 
be gathered regarding his career. 

He was born at Whitehaven, Cumberland, on the northwest 
coast of England, in 1798 (1), and is said to have been a rela- 
tive and pupil of Field's, but I very much doubt that he 
received instruction from the latter as he is referred to by Howe 
as having been self-taught (2). 

He came to Halifax in 1818 (vide his obituary notice), 
at the age of twenty, the very year that Field is supposed to 
have left this town. Art with turn was a deep passion ; although 
to eke out the little he thereby won in the earlier years, he was 
forced to take up also the more commonplace trade of a house 
painter and decorator, being in partnership with one Bell, 
under the firm name of Bell and Valentine, painters, until 3rd 
May, 1824, after which he did business alone (3). I well 
remember the elaborate but tasteful freehand coloured borders 
and corner-pieces from his brush, which adorned a room of 
about 1828 in my old home, and as a wee chappie I viewed 
them with a feeling of veneration when they were discovered 
beneath a subsquent paper and I was told they were his work. 
His workshop was formerly at Starr's wharf, but in May, 1827, 
he moved to a two-and-a-half story, pitchroofed building in 
Bell's (Marchington's) Lane, at the northeast corner of that 
lane and Barrington Street, where he had his studio till his 
death. This building was afterwards Oxley's, and has since 
been demolished and another taken its place (4) . 



(1) Vide obituary notice in Halifax newspaper of December 1849, and 
inscription on tombstone in Camp Hill Cemetery. 

(2) The late J. S. Macdonald informed me that Valentine was either 
a grandnephew or nephew of Field, and that he was a pupil of the latter. 
If so, it could have only been for a very short time. Compare Joseph Howe's 
statement that he was self-taught, in his poem to his memory. 

(3) Vide notice in N. S. Royal Gazette, May, 1824. In the same paper 
of 2yth September, 1826, we find Valentine's name as a passenger on the 
cutter "George Henry," bound for Boston. 

(4) Vide notice of his removal, Nova Scotian, Halifax, iyth May, 1827. 
In the notice he styles himself "painter and glazier," and states that his new 
shop is "next door to Mr. Bell's brewery." 



128 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



The earliest of his paintings I have happened to come upon, 
is a small oil portrait of a unknown man, signed and dated 1828, 
which a few years ago had been knocked about an auction-room 
in Halifax until it had a couple of holes in it (1). Although 
of somewhat fair merit, it does not at all show the finer colour- 
ing of his mature productions of the late thirties. I believe 
that the original of a very poorly-executed crayon portrait of 
Anthony Holland (died 1830) which belongs to the Provincial 
Museum, was an oil portrait by Valentine which was in the 
Vinecove family of Halifax. If so, the latter picture must be 
one of his earlier works. The crayon copy, by an unknown 
bungler, gives no idea of the original which I have never seen. 
A pretty little oil profile portrait of Henrietta C. Morris, 
aged twenty-two years, in pink-ribboned lace cap and green 
dress, inscribed on the back as having been painted in 1828, 
seems to be by Valentine, as it looks like his earliest style, 
and I believe H. B. Sellon considered it to be from Valentine's 
brush. The profile is good and the face generally is attractively 
worked up, but the drapery is crudely done. It is on tin- 
plate, 8^ by 6 inches, and belongs to J. McN. Gabriel. (2). 

He took an interest in the Halifax Mechanics' Institute, 
being one of the original committee in 1831-2 and again in 1833- 
34, and in 1832 painted and presented to that society a portrait 
of its first president, the Hon. William Grigor, M. D., and some 
seventeen years later made a companion portrait of another 
president, Andrew Mackinlay, which I believe was the last 
painting he executed (3) . The former is the better in pose, the 
latter in colouring, bearing evidence of more mature work. 



(1) It is now, I believe, in the possession of Melvin S. Clarke. 

(2) In an old undated manuscript list of articles belonging to the Hali- 
fax Mechanics' Institute, is a portrait of "Andrew Angus, once an eccentric 
vendor of mutton pies at Halifax, presented by Mr. Valentine." This is 
not now in the Provincal Museum, and very likely it is the small profile 
head in oil, on tin-plate, dated 1829, now in the Legislative Library, 
Halifax, which looks like Valentine's earliest style. I always was told that 
it was a portrait of an eccentric character of not much importance in Halifax. 

(3) George Mullane informes me that he has seen it noted that the 
Mackinlay portrait was the last picture that Valentine completed. It was 
most likely painted in 1849, when Mackinlay retired after having served 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 129 

About August, 1836, he visited London (1), where he gave 
himself up to painstaking study and executed three-quarter- 
length copies in oils of the portraits of three successive presi- 
dents of the Royal Scoiety, namely, Dr. William Hyde Wollas- 
ton after John Jackson, R. A., Sir Humphry Davy after Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, P. R. A., and Dr. Da vies Gilbert after 
Thomas Phillips, R. A., the originals of which hang in the 
society's rooms. On the same occasion he made a copy of 
John Jackson's portrait of the Duke of Wellington in the uni- 
form of the Master General of the Ordnance. A description of this 
copy states that "it is painted in a very peculiar style, full of 
strong touches and deep glazing. It is said to be a most exact 
copy and Valentine was highly complimented in London on pro- 
ducing so good a copy; he should, however, have finished up 
the lower part of the picture" (2). It afterwards belonged to 
Dr. Akins and must be the picture which is now at King's 
College, Windsor: but if so, I have not so high an opinion of it 
as the writer of the preceding extract. 

The Wollaston, Davy and Gilbert portraits became the 
property of the Mechanics' Institute and with the Grigor 
and Mackinlay passed in trust to the Provincial Museum, where 
they now hang, and are among the best of Valentine's work. 
The Wollaston is said to possess all the spirit and touch of the 
original, and the Davy is a close imitation of Lawrence's style. 
The copy of Gilbert's portrait is very ably executed, particular- 
ly the head, which is unusually well modelled and delicately 
coloured, the pearly grays being notably tender; and this 
picture, although unfortunately not his own original com- 
position, is undoubtedly the best example of Valentine's work 
as far as mere brush technique is concerned. These canvases 

eleven years as president of the Mechanics' Institute, the year when the 
artist died. The Grigor portrait is inscribed by the artist, "Portrait of Dr t 
Grigor, painted for Mechanics Institute." 

(i) Vide notice in Nova Scotian, Halifax, Qth June, 1836, and 9th March, 
1837. The latter announces his return from London. It is very probable 
that Valentine visited London on more than one occasion. 
. (2) Account, probably by Akins, of ait exhibition in Halifax; British 
Colonist, Halifax, October, 1848. 
9 



130 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

were painted at the beginning of his best period (1). His studies 
in England had given him a more delicate sense of tone and 
colour, and his subsequent paintings were much the better for it. 

His dignified portrait of the Hon. S. G. W. Archibald, 
master of the rolls, also a three-quarter length, in black gown, 
painted after this time (Archibald died in 1842), is a masterly 
piece of work, one of his very best originals, and a fine likeness 
as well. It shows Archibald in his palmy days, and the pecu- 
liar expression of rich humour which lighted up his fine coun- 
tenance when addressing an audience, was happily hit by the 
artist (2). It was complimented by being shown in 1907 
at an art exhibition in Halifax as being from the brush of Sir 
Thomas Lawrence, P. R. A., a kind of error that is not in- 
frequent in the case of pictures! It was long the property of 
the Provincial Museum, having come to it with the other 
Mechanics' Institute pictures, of which it was one. On 21st 
August, 1899, it was transferred to the Province Building, and in 
January, 1909, was loaned, with Drake's Blowers, to the 
Barristers' Society to be hung in the Halifax Court House, 
where it now is. It is said that they suffered somewhat in 
being incautiously cleaned. The picture is reproduced in 
the Collections of the N. S. Historical Society, vol. 16, page 
198, and the head portion in Bourinot's Builders of Nova 
Scotia, opposite page 22. 

On 9 March, 1837, Valentine published in the NovaScotian 
a notice expressing his gratitude for the patronage with which 
he had been honored since his return from London to Halifax, 
and stating the terms on which he was prepared to execute 
paintings. These charges were: ls. 10 for profiles in oil, 11 
by 13 inches; and 3 for the same style, 16 by 19 inches; 
while for ordinary portraits they were, 5 for 16 by 19 inches 



(1) It is just possible the Gilbert was of later date, but only for the 
reason chat it is not mentioned in the account of the art exhibition at Hali- 
fax in 1848. Vide British Colonist of 5 October. 1848. 

(2) Vide British Colonist, 3 October, 1848; also Nova Scotian, gth Oct- 
ober, 1848. 




WILLIAM VALENTINE. 

Artist; born 1798. died 1849. 

From the oil portrait hy Himself, belonging to 
G. M. Smith, Halifax. 




HON. SAMUEL GEORGE WILLIAM ARCHIBALD, 

Master of the Rolls, etc.,; born 1777, died 1846. 

From the oil portrait by William Valentine, formerly in the Provincial 
Museum, belonging to the Government of Nova Scotia. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 131 

size, 10 for three-quarter size (25 by 30 inches) , 15 for kit- 
cat (28 by 36 inches), and 30 for half-length (42 by 56 
inches) (1). That is, he got fairly good remuneration for his 
work, if there was enough of it, which probably there was not. 
Other artists had worked here for longer or shorter periods 
during his time, but there is no doubt that he obtained the 
best of the local patronage during the thirties and forties, 
during which period he had grown to be a professional portrait 
painter of good reputation. It was the hey day of his artistic 
career, his best original work being done after 1836. 

Science, however, was now about to step into the field of 
portraiture, for in January, 1839, Daguerre's experiments in pho- 
tography were made public, and in the same year Talbot pub- 
lished his mode of multiplying photographic impressions by 
means of a negative photograph, the Talbotype or calotype 
(on paper) patent being dated February, 1841. The new pro- 
cess very soon found its way to Canada, and in October, 1840, 
daguerreotypes were taken in Quebec (2). Having first, it 
is said, received instruction from Daguerre himself in Paris, 
Valentine sometime about 1844 introduced the new daguerreo- 
type process into Halifax, thus becoming our first photographer, 
and in so doing dealt a heavy blow at his beloved art (3). 
A large number of his photographs, in their ornate velvet- 
lined, clasped cases, are still about Halifax, but without the 
photographer's name as is now the custom. His artistic 
skill permitted of his posing his subject with some taste, a 
thing that was made difficult by the long period of exposure 
that was then necessary. He was still eking out his earnings 



(1) See Nova Scotian, Halifax, 9th March, 1837. 

(2) F. A. McCord, Hand-book of Canadian Dates, Mont., 1888, p. 77. 

(3) The late Horacio Sellon, architect, who was connected with Valen- 
tine, assured me that the latter had told him that he had received instruction 
in photography "at the very fountain-head in Paris," which he supposed re- 
ferred to Daguerre, although someone in London may have been meant. 
I regret that I have not the exact date when yalentine introduced photo- 
graphy here, but a careful > search of his advertisements in the local news- 
papers, will bring it to light. I think I came upon the advertisement years 
ago, but can find no note of it among my memoranda. Par'sh, Chase, and 
others followed Valintine as photographers here. 



132 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

by practicing in the humbler but perhaps more lucrative trade 
of house, sign and ornamental painting (1). 

A few years before his death, a fire occurred at his studio 
in Bell's Lane, which resulted in the destruction of some of his 
finished and unfinished pictures, and others were stolen in the 
confusion. This loss preyed considerably on him, and there- 
after he seemed somewhat to fail. At four o'clock in the after 
noon of the day following Christmas, 1849, he passed away at 
Halifax, in the fifty-first year of his age, after thirty-one years 
residence among us, some eighteen or twenty of which were 
devoted more or less to active artistic production, his most 
prolific period probably being from about 1837 to about 1844. 
The last picture he is said to have completed was that of Mac- 
kinlay, which was most likely executed in 1849, as before noted. 
(2). A short obituary notice in the Nova Scotian, written 
doubtless by his friend Howe, truly says that "few men have 
lived in this community more deeply respected or died more 
deeply regretted;" and his humble tombstone, hidden away in a 
little iron-railed plot in Camp Hill Cemetery, justly states that 
he was "much respected as a worthy man, a skilful artist, and 
humble Christian" (3). 

Howe in lines addressed to his memory, which well de- 
scribes the artist's temperament, says: 

I would not, if I could, thy form restore, 

To toils that tasked it far beyond its strain; 

Nor win they spirit back, now free to soar, 

To struggle in the world's harsh stife again. 



(i) < See notice dated 2 May in the Times, Halifax, of 1848. The 
advertisment leads one to understand that he was taking up this business 
anew. 

(2) At a lecture before the Mechanics' Institute, I2th November, 
1849, reference was made to the likeness by Valentine of the former presi- 
dent, Andrew Mackinlay, Esq. The picture, the account continues, 
"now graces the walls of the lecture room." 

(3) The full inscription on the headstone, which is eight yards north- 
ward of the Keith monument, reads: "Sacred| to| the Memory of| William 
Valentine,) Born, 1798,! Died, 1849.) Much respected as a worthy| man, a 
skilful Artist,) and humble Christian. | ,'In the world ye shall have)' tribu- 
lation, but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world. [ John 16, 33 vs." 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 133 

Unfitted thou the thorny steeps to dare, 

Where lucre dazzles, and where fame, is won, 

Not thine the vaunt that makes the vulgar stare: 
Art's unpretending, artless, genuine son. 

Self-taught, without the coarseness which betrays 

The sturdy nuture humble life imparts; 
Self-poised, yet shrinking from the flickering rays, 

Which Fortune flung thee but by fits and starts. 

Loving the pencil for its innate power, 

To seize and consecrate what others love 

Pure thoughts, and childlike, were thy richest dower, 
Thou noble men, yet gentle as the dove." (1) 

The day will surely come when Halifax will be pleased to 
erect a befitting monument over his last resting place in God's 
acre, but the simple inscription on the present stone cannot be 
bettered. 

Valentine has been described to me by a close friend, 
and connection of his (2), as tall in stature (5 feet, 11 inches 
or 6 feet), thin, with light brown hair, bluish eyes, clean 
shaven except for the characteristic "mutton-chop" whiskers of 
the period, with a high Roman nose, high forehead, and the long 
hands of a gentleman and an artist. In religion he was a 
Methodist, and a most upright-living man. He was twice marri- 
ed, first,on 1st June, 1822, to Miss Susannah E.Smith, daughterof 
John and Elizabeth Smith, by whom he left an only child, Mary 
Ann, who died unmarried at Halifax on 29th June, 1899, aged 
seventy-five years, leaving directions in her will that her grave 
and that of her father and mother should be kept in order. 
His second wife, by whom he had no children, was Sarah Ann 
Sellon, sister of Edward Sellon, and an aunt of the late Horatio 
B. Sellon, architect of Halifax, who survived him and was 



(1) Joseph Howe, Poems and Essays, Mont., 1874, page 128. The above 
is merely an extract from the longer poem. Howe was a friend of Valen- 
tine's and Horatio Sellon told me that Howe had first discovered the former 
when engaged in painting on a scaffold. Valentine painted a portrait of 
the stateman's father, John Howe. 

(2) Horatio B. Sellon, architect, formerly of Halifax; born at Halifax, 
4th August, 1839 (son of Edward Sellon, died 1875, Chief Clerk in Quar- 
ter-master General Dept.) and died at Windsor, N. S., on 8th May, 1913, 
a g e 74 years. He was a nephew of Valentine's second wife, Sarah Ann. 



134 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

afterwards housekeeper at Mount Allison College, Sackville, 
N. B. Not one of Valentine's descendants now exists. 

He was almost solely a portraitist in oils, and besides the 
Grigor, Wollaston, Gilbert, Davy, Wellington, Archibald, and 
Mackinlay canvases already referred to, he paitvted oil por- 
traits of the following, all unsigned as far as I know: John 
Howe (died 1835, father of Joseph Howe, now belonging to 
Sydenham Howe, and a replica in Montreal) ; Rev. Matthew 
Richey, M. A., (engraved in stipple by T. A. Dean on a plate 
4^ by 3^ inches) ; John Sparrow Thompson (father of Sir 
John, one of Valentine's best portraits, reproduced on page 
459 of J. C. Hopkin's Life and Work of Sir John Thompson); 
George E. Morton (Loan Exhibition, 1894) ;Sir William Young 
(first portrait of him, when a young man); Hon. John Black; 
Chief Justice Sir Brenton Halliburton (not to be confounded 
with Hoit's full-length in the Legislative Council Cham- 
ber); Captain Thomas Maynard of Windsor (a portrait in 
civilian clothes), 1 John Albro, George N. Russell, Richard 
Kidston, James Thomson, William Forsyth, Mr. Benvie, 
Robert Noble, Alexander Keith, Andrew B. Jennings (now 
belonging to Walter T. Symons of Halifax), Samuel Sellon 
of Liverpool, N. S., (said to be a beautiful piece of work), 
and the mother of George Snadden representing her as Erin 
(these two last pictures belong to George Shadden of Liver- 
pool). He also painted, about 1832, a portrait of Lila, daughter 
of W. B. T. Piers, afterwards Mrs. Charles H. Brown of 
Lower Horton, representing her as a child of about four years of 
age, holding a bunch of grapes, this being the only child's por- 
trait by him that I know of. It was vivacious and well execu- 
ted. As I have stated, the crayon portrait of Anthony H. 
Holland, belonging to the Provincial Museum, is said to be 



(i) There exist two portaits of Capt. Thomas Maynard, R. N., one 
in uniform, and one in civilian clothes. The former is by Field andjbelongs 
to a member of the Bowman family in the United States. The other one 
is by Valentine and belongs to Martin W. Maynard of Ottawa. Capt. 
Maynard came to Halifax, about 1805, and died at Spa Spring, Windsor, 
in January, 1857, aged 87 years. 






ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 135 

a very poor copy of an oil one by Valentine which was in the 
Vinecove family of Halifax. He also painted an excellent oil 
portrait of himself, which belongs to G. M. Smith of Halifax. 

He painted a few miniatures, among which are Edward 
Sellon (son of Samuel; on paper), and his sister, Sarah Sellon 
(Valentine's second wife). Mrs. Charles S. Pickford of Halifax, 
possesses two of his profile miniatures, on bristol-board, which 
are of much interest, as one is a portrait of himself made with 
the aid of a mirror, and the other is supposed to be his first 
wife. (1) . The outlines of the features are cleanly and precisely 
drawn (perhaps a little over-accentuated) and the modell- 
ing and colouring of the faces are quite good. They are finish- 
ed in a very smooth style, without any noticeable effects of 
stippling, unless examined with a lens, and in this respect re- 
semble the still smoother workmanship of Gellespie (1829), 
but are more strongly coloured in the flesh. The style differs 
altogether from the bold decisive stippling which characterized 
Robert Field's miniature work. 

Among his other oil pictures is an historical one of "King 
John signing Magna Charta," a large canvas 41 by 40 inches, 
containing nineteen faces, which is an ambitious undertaking, 
and fairly well composed and executed. The king and the 
armed barons, standing in a sombre stone hall, have their right 
hands raised in the act of swearing assent to the great charter, 
while behind the sovereign are three ecclesiastics. The centre 
figure of the king is unfortunately the weakest part of the whole 
composition, while the strongest figures are those of two steel- 
clad barons on either side of the table. The faces generally are 
too flat. The picture now belongs to T. S. Bowser of Halifax, 
but was formerly in the Fredericks family. 

Another ambitious picture by Valentine, of an historical 
character, now belongs to G. M. Smith of Halifax, to whose 
grandmother the artist had presented it very many years ago. 

(1) Or can this be his second wife Sarah Sellon, of whom Valentine paint- 
ed a miniature according to H. B. Sellon. 



136 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

It measures 42 by 30 inches, and represents a young man seated, 
with head bowed in his hand, while a young woman, kneeling 
before him, urges him to don a helmet and shield which lie 
before them, while behind her is an old bearded man and three 
women. The subject of this picture, I think, is doubtless an 
Homeric one, representing "Thetis presenting the Vulcan- 
wrought armour to Achilles grieving for the death of Patro- 
clus." The left side of the picture is in shade, while to the 
right, beyond, is the bright outdoor light. Greys, greens, and 
pinks compose the draperies. While the composition is 
moderately good, the flesh-tints are too white and the shadows 
rather harsh, particularly in the drapery. The hands are 
poorly done. 

A third and one of the best of these large paintings by Valen- 
tine, now belongs to Mrs. Charles S. Pickford of Halifax, and 
measures about 40 by 30 inches. The subject is not at all 
clear, but in effect it represents a family group of seven figures 
in ancient costume. In the centre is a young man standing, 
leaning on a chair in which is seated a lady in a white gown. 
He is clad in a greenish-grey tunic and reddish mantle and has 
buskins on his feet. In the left background are two women in 
blue and rzd and reddish-yellow gowns, one carrying a small 
kettle-like utensil, . In front of them are two children playing 
with a white-plumed helmet or cap, and another child in red 
holds an antique bird-cage. In the background are fluted 
columns and dark green curtains. The picture does not seem 
to tell any particular story, but it is really well composed, the 
grouping being particularly good. The very poorly drawn 
hands are the weakest feature, and the faces are a trifle too 
flat. It was probably intended as a companion picture to 
what I call the "Achilles." These three pictures are sup-* 
posed to be original, but possibly may prove to be copies, par- 
ticularly as the composition of Mrs. Pickford 's picture seems 
almost too good for a painter who did not devote much atten- 
tion to such representations. These three pictures, which are 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 137 

not signed or dated, but are positively his work, are the only 
ones of the kind by him that I know of. (1) . 

There are of course many portraits that are unknown to be 
his work or that have not been brought to my notice, and several 
of his canvasses are said to be in Windsor and other pro- 
vincial towns. I roughly estimate that he must have painted 
about 125 or 150 portraits in all (2) . 

Having sketched the career of the second best of the portrait 
painters who worked here for a considerable time, we will 
now notice our first woman professional artist, one who 
occupied a foremost place in her particular line, namely 
the production of most accurately drawn and coloured repre- 
sentations of our flowers of woods and fields a botanical ar- 
tist of rare ability. I know nothing of her skill in composing 
flower pictures, or what knowledge she possessed and could 
exercise in the way of artistic grouping, subordination and 
restraint, as well as of aerial perspective, as I have seen no such 
work from her brush ; but for the portraiture of a single plant 
or spray of flowers, with the closest fidelity to nature in form, 
pose, parts, colour and texture, she stands absolutely unrivalled 
in this province. 



(1) The preceding lisc of some of Valentine's productions, is of course 
subject to correction, but is probably accurate. H. B. Sellon vouched for 
the Sellon and Snadden pictures as well as for the King John and other his- 
torical ones. James S. Macdonald is authority for the Young, Black, Halli- 
burton, Russell, Kidston, Thomson, Forsyth, Benvie, Noble and Keith por- 
traits. S. Howe verifies the Howe, and the J. S. Thompson is referred to in 
the account of the 1848 exhibition. In the memoirs of Rev. William Black 
of Halifax, published in 1839, is an engraved portrait of Black, but without 
the artist's name, which was probably by Valentine. 

(2) Ths account of Valentine's life was made up from the following 
sources: numerous extracts from various Halifax newspaper files; article 
by G. Mullane in Occasional's letter, Acadian Recorder, Halifax, nth 
July, 1908; valuable information supplied me verbally by the late H. B. 
Sellon; names of some portraits from James S. Macdonald; account of 
picture exhibition of 1848, in British Colonists, Halifax, 3rd, "5th and 7th Oct- 
ober; catalogues of various other picture exhibitions at Halifax; probate 
registry, Halifax; Howe's Poems; and Report of Provincial Museum of 
Nova Scotia, for 1911. 



138 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Miss MARIA MORRIS, afterwards MRS. GARRET T. N. 
M ILLER, was born at Halifax in 1813, a member of a cadet branch 
of the well-known Morris family of that place. Her father, 
Guy Morris, dying while she was young, her mother, Sibylla 
E., and the latter's daughters taught school for some time. 
Maria, who while quite young had shown indications of artis- 
tic taste and power, took lessons in drawing and painting from 
W. H. Jones for two years in 1829-30, and further, in 1833, 
"availed herself of the instructions of an eminent professor 
[L' Estrange] for the last nine months' ' (1) . 

In September, 1830, she first opened a school at her resi- 
dence next to the Acadian School, for the instruction of young 
ladies in drawing; to which in the following year, having mov- 
ed with her mother's seminary to the rear of the National 
School, she added a course in oil and water-colours, besides 
landscapes and figures in pencil, crayon drawing, poonah 
painting (on rice or other thin paper, in imitation of oriental 
work), etc. (2). From December, 1832, to August, 1833, she 
was instructed by L' Estrange, and on the 26th of the last-men- 
tioned month she re-opened her school of drawing and painting 
at her residence next south of the Acadian School, and taught 
figure work in water-colours on paper or ivory, and in pencil or 
chalk; landscape work in pencil, chalk or water-colours; and 
flower, fruit, bird and shell painting on paper or on such petty 
material as velvet and satin to satisfy the whims of the time. 
She devoted herself exclusively to instruction in the fine acts, 
while her sisters took charge of other branches taught in their 
school (3). From this time she seems to have abandoned 
oil colours, and well she might after attempting to hold so many 
reins in her hands! 



(1) See her notices of 23 Sept. 1830 (Nova Scotian, Hfx., 13 Jan. 1831); 
and 24th Nov. 1831 (Nova Scotian, 24th Nov. 1831). 

(2) See the two notices, referred to in proceeding footnote. 

(3) See her long notice, dated 22 August 1833, in (the Nova Scotian 
of the same date. She therein speaks of herself (unless a misprint) as Miss 
Mary E. Morris. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 139 

About this time she began to give especial attention to the 
painting of the beautiful wild-flowers of her native land, a 
kind of work which had besn hitherto neglected, and for which 
she was unusually well fitted. The talented local botanist, 
Titus Smith of the Dutch Village, collected flowers for her for 
this purpose, correctly determined them, labelled her draw- 
ings, and generally encouraged her in the undertaking. (1), 
Ninety-nine sheets (representing 146 species) of her flower 
paintings, natural size, on paper measuring 16 by 12 inches, 
watermarked 1834 and 1835, which approximately determines 
the time of their production, became the property of the Halifax 
Mechanics' Institute and are now a most valued possession of 
the Provincial Moiseum. This set is different from and fewer 
in number than the one retained by herself, which latter was to 
be the original of a publication to which we will now refer. 

Apparently early in 1840 she began, through a London pub- 
lisher, to issue in parts (each number to contain three plates, 
quarto size) a most beautiful series of coloured full-sized litho- 
graphs of her water-colour drawings, entitled "The Wild Flow- 
ers of Nova Scotia," with descriptive text by Titus Smith, and 
under the patronage of Sir Colin Campbell. Part 1 con- 
tained plates of the mayflower, pigeon-berry, and white 
water-lily; and part 2, Indian cup, tree cranberry, and Indian 
hemp or milkw^eed. The price of each part was five shillings (2.) 

A second series, same si/e, with text by Dr. Alexander 
Forrester, (Smith having died in January, 1850,) was issued 
in 1853, under the patronage of Lt. Governor Sir Gaspard 
LeMarchant, she having previously become Mrs. Miller. I 
have seen two or three issues of this series, which belonged 



(1) Vide verbal information from my late father. 

(2) On 3 October, 1839, sne fi rst announced the proposed publication of 
her Wild Flowers of Nova Scotia, by subscripiion. (See Nova Sco.ian, 
3 Oct.-7 Nov. 1 839). On May 28th, 1840, she announced that she intended to 
publish Nos. 3 and 4 of her Wild Flowers with descriptions by Titus 
Smith; to be issued in the course ol the summer. See notices in the Nova 
Scotian. A notice, dated 1$ Nov. 1840, gives a list of the plates in parts 1 
and 2. (See Nova Scotian, 10 Dec. 1840.) It is doubtful il perts 3 and 4 
actually appeared. 



140 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

to my family, and am fairly certain they were published con- 
jointly by Snow of London and Mackinlay of Halifax, but 
unfortunately I cannot now verify this. Probably only very 
few parts of this series were issued. 

Part 1 of what may be considered as a third series, with 
the title of "Wild Flowers of British North America," was pub- 
lished under the patronage of His Excellency Sir William 
Fenwick Williams, by Reeve and Co., London, in 1867, with 
information on the history, properties, etc., of the subjects, 
by Prof. George Lawson, Ph. D., of Dalhousie College. The 
size of the work was 14 J by 11 J inches, and the first part 
contained six hand-coloured lithographic plates, viz., the may- 
flower, pigeonberry, white waterlily, cranberry-tree, Indian 
cup (?) and common silkweed. These were the same plates 
which appeared in parts one and two of her first issue of 1840. 
It is not known how many of these parts appeared doubtless 
very few. The sumptuous style of the plates was far ahead 
of the time for Nova Scotia, I mean and only a few parts 
were published and they seem to be now exceedingly rare. 
The venture was financially a failure. A full collation of the 
various parts would be of interest, but the material for so 
doing is not available. 

These beautiful plates, and the much more lovely originals, 
are sufficient to place this artist in the very first rank of 
botanical painters. Some of her paintings shown at the London 
exhibition of 1862 were highly praised by the London press. 

On 8th July, 1840, Miss Morris married Garret Trafalgar 
Nelson Miller of LaHave, and she died at Halifax on 29th 
October, 1875, at the age of sixty-two years. Her husband 
died on 21st July, 1897, aged ninety-three years. Not many 
years ago her original paintings were in the possession of her 
daughter, Mrs. James A. Grant of 34 Russell Street, Halifax (1). 



I 



(i) Particulars of Mrs. Miller and her work have been gathered from 
notices in the Halifax newspapers of the period, which have been referred to; 
and there is also a short biographical sketch of her in H. J. Morgan's Bibli- 
otheca Canadensis, 1867, p. 279. Her daughter, Rose, I am informed, paint- 
ed fruit very well in water colours. 











F 



Water-colour Paintings of Wild Flowers of Nova Scotia. 

(Choke-berry, Sea-lavender, Water-lily, and Blue Flag.) 

From the originals by Mrs. Maria Miller, painted about 1835. 
(Originals, 16 by 12 inches, in Provincial Museum, Halifax.) 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCQTIA. 141 

L' Estrange (p. 124) was followed in 1834 by WILLIAM EAGAR 
who began here as a landscape and portrait painter in oil and 
water-colours, although his lack of skill as a portraitist and 
the successful competition of Valentine caused him to specialise 
in the former branch (1) . He was probably the best topo- 
graphical artist we have had, a few of his drawings even 
rising to the plane of excellent landscapes. He also frequently 
drew directly on stone, and shares with Petley (see p. 144) the 
of credit having introduced lithography into this province. 

He was an Irishman, probably from one of the southwest 
counties, born about 1796, who took up art as a mere accom- 
plishment, which later he utilized as a means of livelihood. It 
is not known who instructed him, but it is thought that he may 
have studied in Italy for a time. He went to St. John's, 
Newfoundland, where in June, 1831, he made a drawing of the 
town from Signal Hill which was engraved in stipple (2). 
He also painted a portrait of Hon. William Carson, the well- 
known whig politican and speaker of the Assembly of New- 
foundland, not to be confused with W. B. T. Piers's portrait of 
the same gentleman (3). 

In 1834 he left St. John's and settled at Halifax. For the 
reason given, he did little or nothing at portraiture, but devoted 
himself to the representation cf Nova Scotian scenery for which 
he was better fitted and in which he reached a commendable 
degree of proficiency. Some of his drawings, notably one of 
the two of Halifax from Fort Needham, evince excellent pic- 
torial composition and good balance, in fact the ons partic- 
ularized is a creditable landscape. On 14th December, 1837, 
he announced the proposed publication of a series of Land- 
scape Illustrations of British North America, to be issued in 
parts, and ultimately to form two volumes, the first devoted to 
Nova Scotia, the second to New Brunswick, and to consist of 



(1) See his notice in Nova Scotian, Halifax, 25th December, 1834. 

(2) See Catalogue of J. R. Robertson Collection, Toronto, 1912, p. 
35, No. 202. It is reproduced, I think, in Prowse's History of Newfound- 

(3) Vide the late Mrs. Charles Wilson of Quincy, Mass. 



142 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

lithographs by himself, J. Gellatly, A. Ferguson, etc., 
after his own sketches (1). This, if completed, would have 
been a worthy work, but death took him before it was finished. 
Evidently the title of the work as issued was Illustrations of 
Nova Scotia Scenery, and the first number undated, appar- 
ently appeared about June, 1839. Only five or six parts, 
of three plates each, were published. Among the plates 
issued, which are now quite rare, were the following: 
1. Halifax from McNab's Island. 2. Halifax from the 
Eastern Passage. 3. Entrance to Halifax Harbour from 
Reeve's Hill ["The Brae?"|, Dartmouth, drawn on stone 
by Eagar himself. 4. Halifax from the Red Mill [Albro's 
Cove , Dartmouth. 5. Halifax (from Fort Needham, with 
large tree, cattle and figures, harbour in distance; his 
very best picture). 6. Halifax from Fort Needham (a 
different view, lithographed by Allan Ferguson, Glasgow. 
7. View on the North West Arm (showing Melville Island and 
Hosterman's grist-mill in distance). 8. View on Bedford* 
Basin (looking toward the Narrows). 9. Ruins of the Duke 
of Kent's Lodge (Bedford Basin). 10. Windsor, N. S., from 
Fort Hill. 11. View from Retreat Farm, Windsor,. N. S. 
(Major Thomas King's.) 12. View from the Horton Moun- 
tains (looking over the Grand Pre with Blomidon in the dis- 
tance; a rather good composition, spoilt by the introduction of 



(i) See Eagar's notice, dated I4th December, in Nova Scotian, Halifax, 
2ist December, 1837, and also same paper of 4th January, 1838. The title 
of the work as issued was probably "Nova Scotian Scenery." It appeared 
under che patronage of Lt. Gen. Sir Colin Campbell, from the lithography of 
Moore and Thayer of Boston, and was issued in wrappers, the size of the 
paper being 17 by iif inches, with a vignette view (the Rotunda at the 
Prince's Lodge) on title-page. The lithographed portion measured about 10 
by 7 inches. Ea:h part contained three prints, the price of which was one 
dollar. On 4th July, 1839, C. H. Belcher, bookseller of Halifax, announced 
that he had just received part one of Eagar's "Nova Scotia Scenery," con- 
sisting of the three plates numbered 4, 3, and 8 in my list, and part two 
would be issued shortly. (Vide Nova Scotian, 1 Aug., 1839). Part three 
(May, 1840) contained Nos. 10,-12 of my list. On 18 Oct., 1840, Belcher 
advertised that he had "a few remaining copies of the late Mr. Eagar's 
Illustrations of Nova Scotia Scenery, parts 1, 2, 3 and 4, each containing 
three views." (Vide Nova Scotian, 10th Dec. 1840). This would make 
twelve views, as issued; but as we know of about sixteen of the prints, 
probably five or six parts eventually appeared. The publication continued 
for over a year after Eagar's death. Part four (July, 1840, continued Nos. 
14-16 of my list. 



V 




ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 143 

a tree at each margin instead of at one only ; drawn on stone by 
Eagar). 13. Cornwallis, Grand Priare (sic) and Basin of 
Minas (from the North Mountain;) a moderately good com- 
position. 14. Pictou from Mortimer's Point (looking northeast;) 
15. Pictou from the Road to Halifax (a rather good com- 
position). 16. Pictou from Fort Hill (looking west-southwest). 
I think I have seen another plate of this series, being 
a near view of Hosterman's stone grist-mill at the head 
of the North West Arm, not to be confounded with No. 7 
of the previous list. Many of these plates, were drawn directly 
on stone from nature by Eagar himself. He also left a 
lithographic print of the Provincial Building, Halifax, from the 
corner of George and Hollis Streets, sketched directly on stone 
by himself (not one of his regular series, being smaller) ; and 
likewise a print showing the Tandem Club meeting on the Par- 
ade, Halifax. 

Besides these he made some original water-colour drawings, 
which now belong to Emile A. Vossnack of Halifax. They 
represent: 1. Review on North Common, Halifax, on occas- 
ion of the celebration of the Queen's Coronation, 28th June, 
1838. 2. Provincial Parliament Building and old St. 
Matthew's Church. 3. St. Paul's Church from corner of 
Argyle and Duke Streets. 4. St. Mary's Church, Glebe 
House and Convent. 5. Ferry Slip, foot of George Street. 
6. Pleasant Street, looking north from Morris Street, and show 
ing the Stewart and Inglis houses. MissJ. Eagar has a copy 
by him of a portrait of Madam Barneveldt, probably from the 
very fine original, said to be by Rubens, which in 1848 
belonged to Mrs. R. J. Uniacke. He also painted a portrait 
of his daughter (1). 

(i) The list of works by Eagar is compiled from pictures in the possession 
of his grandsons, R. F. and Dr. W. H. Eagar, Miss J. Eagar, J. Ross Robert- 
son, G. E. E. Nichols, E. A. Vossnack, and others. The original drawings 
of the Illustrations of Nova Scotia Scenery, are not now in the possession 
ol his family, and where they are is not known. The numbers given in my 
list are not inscribed on the prints, and the order given is not that adopted 
in course of publication. A full set in the original wrappers is not available 
in order to ascertain the correct sequence of the prints, or even the precise 
title. 



144 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

On returning from England, whither he had gone doubtless 
on business connected with the engraving of his plates, while 
travelling by coach from Boston to his home, he was exposed 
to wet in crossing the St. John River, N. B., from the effects of 
which he died of pneumonia at Halifax on 24th November, 1839, 
in the forty-fourth year of his age, and was buried in St. Paul's 
Cemetery, but just where is not known, as no stone marks the 
spot. The publication of his work was never completed. 
No authentic portrait of him is known to exist. He married 
Miss Saunders of St. John's and left a family of six sons and 
three daughters; one of the former being the late Martin F. 
Eagar, who died in 1902, aged sixty-four years. 

While ROBERT PETLEY was stationed at Halifax from 
August, 1832, to August, 1836, as a first lieutenant Df the 1st 
Battalion of the Rifle Brigade, he drew from nature and on 
stone a "View of York Redoubt" from Sleepy Cove, near Hali- 
fax, which was printed by C. Hullmandel, tinted with colours, 
and published doubtless about 1837 by J. Dickinson, of 
New Bond Street, London, the view measuring 11^ by 6| 
inches. A copy of this lithograph, which is not without merit, 
is in the Provincial Museum (ace. no. 3654). Petley also 
made sketches of the "Rocking Stone near Halifax," and of 
"Bedford Basin from near the Three Mile House." The two 
latter are in the J. Ross Robertson Collection at Toronto. 
Petley in December, 1836, transferred to the 50th Regiment, 
and in September, 1838, to the 92nd (Highland) Regiment, as 
first lieutenant in each (1). 

To Lieutenant Petley or William Eagar is to be accredited 
the introduction of lithography into Nova Scotia; as each of 
them drew to some extent on stone. As Petley was here from 
1832 to 1836, and Eagar from 1834 to 1839, in the absence of 
more definite information I suppose it is fair to surmise that the 

(i) Vide Army List; MS. list of regiments on this station; and letters of 
J. R. Robertson to the writer. In his print of York Redoubt, he describes 
himself as of the 5Oth Regiment, which makes me think it was not published 
until 1837. Hullmandel was a lithographer of note, who established the 
first lithographic firm in London in 1822. 



ARTISTS TN NOVA SCOTIA. 145 

former was the earlier worker here in this style. The general 
introduction of lithography into England had taken place 
about 1817, some eighteen years before the production of Pet- 
ley's drawings. Gesner's Geology of Nova Scotia, 1836, 
contained some poorly designed and executed lithographs 
(Parrsboro, after a drawing by Miss A. A. Jeffrey, and Cape 
Split after Gesner), but they were lithographed in Boston, the 
drawings on stone being the work of B. F. Nutting. About 
1838 there was 'printed at T. Moore's lithography, Boston, 
a 14^ by 8j inch lithograph of the "Position of Piers', 
Howe's and Mabury's Boats, coming in at the last Regatta held 
at Halifax, 26th September, 1838," after a drawing by J. (?) . C. 
BE AM is, JR., but beyond representing a notable yacht race of 
the period, it has no artistic merit (1). 

On 5th August, 1835, there died at Chelsea, England, 
GILBERT STUART NEWTON, R. A., a native of Halifax, N. S., 
where he was born in 1795, being a son of Hon. Henry Newton; 
collector of customs, and his wife Anne, elder sister of Gilbert 
Stuart the noted artist. I very strongly suspect that Newton 
may have received early instruction, or at any rate encourage- 
ment, from Field, and on his return from a visit to Italy, about 
1818, he became a student of the Royal Academy in London, 
and soon rose to eminence, being elected an academician in 1832. 
He was unquestionably the greatest artist Nova Scotia has 
ever produced; but as all his work was done abroad, he un- 
fortunately does not come within the scope of this paper (2). 

WILLIAM HENRY BARTLETT (born 1809, died 1854) the noted 
English topographic landscape artist, made four voyages to 



(1) M. G. Hall drew two views of Digby, N.S., and of some places in 
New Brunswick, which were issued as coloured lithographs from Pendle- 
ton's lithography, Boston, size about 55 by 8| ins.; but as they were un- 
dated, I do not know jusc where to place them in this paper. They may be 
comparatively recent. Copies of them are in the Robertson collection at 
Toronto (Cat. Nos. 408 and 417). I have never seen them. 

(2) Full accounts of Newton's life will be found in all dictionaries of 
painters and artists. I may, however, refer to less-known sketches of his 
life in Rev. G. W. Hill's Nova Scotia and Nova Scotians, 1858, p. 42; in. 
the Provincial Magazine, Halifax., vol. I, p. 49; and in the Nova Scotian,, 
Halifax, 5th October, 1826. 

10 



146 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

America between 1836 and 1852, came to Nova Scotia, 
and in 1842 published at London a work somewhat of the style 
which Eagar had contemplated, but with text added by N. P. 
Willis, which contained a number of Nova Scotian views. 
His drawings, however, always had an eastern savour to them. 

For a short time after 9th February, 1837, J. CLOW, a minia- 
ture painter who seems to have done good work, practiced for a 
short time in Halifax, his studio being in the Exchange Coffee 
House; and he returned here again about 27th February, 1840, 
occupying the same room in the Coffee House. Besides minia- 
tures on ivory, he also painted small-sized portraits in oils (1). 
There is a rectangular miniature of Hon. Richard John Uni- 
acke, who died at Mount Uniacke, N. S., on llth October, 1830, 
representing him with short hair, seated, three-quarter length, 
with books beside him, which is clearly signed and dated, "J. 
Clow, 1831;" which would strongly suggest that Clow was here 
on a previous occasion (2). As it was painted after Uniacke's 
death, and as it represents him as a comparatively young man, 
without the long hair which characterized him in later life, I 
believe that it will prove to be a copy by Clow of Field's oil 
portrait of the attorney-general, before referred to in this paper, 
but I regret to say I have not had an opportunity of comparing 
them. There is a miniature of my uncle, Temple Stanyan 
Piers, which I have good reason to believe was painted by 
Clow, although unsigned. 

In the summer of 1838, MONSIEUR ROSSE, from Paris, was 
for a brief period in Halifax as a portraitist in oils, and was pre- 
pared to execute full-lengths, his rooms being at Mrs. White's 
boarding-house, Granville Street (3) ; while in 1840, SEAGER from 



(1) See tiis notices, dated gth February, 1837, and 27th February, 
1840, in the Nova Scotian, Halifax, of 23rd Feb., 1837, and 3oth April, 1840. 

(2) The original of Clow's portrait of Uniacke now belongs to the lat- 
ter's grandson, Lt. Col. Crofton J. Uniacke of Southsea; Eng., and a re- 
production of it appears in the Collections of Nova Scotia Historical Society, 
vol. 17, opp. p. 18. 

(3) See notice dated 23rd, August, 1838, in the Nova Scotian. I do 
*iot suppose it is possible that the excellent portrait of Bishop John Inglis 
(who was t>ishop from 1825 to 1850) by "W. C. Ross" (vide M. Gauci's 
Engraving) , could have been by Rosse referred to above. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 147 

London, England (lately from the United States), produced 
miniatures and made profiles in bronze, and also gave instruc- 
tion in drawing from nature, painting, and miniature painting, 
at his room, corner of Harrington and Sackville Streets (1). 

In the last-mentioned year (1840), T. AND J. H. ABBOT, 
from London, opened a drawing academy at Flohr's house, 
Brunswick Street, near St. George's Church (2); and MON- 
SIEUR LE CHAUDELEC, professor of drawing at St. Mary's Sem- 
inary, also gave lessons at his residence at Mrs. Flohr's, on 
Barrington Street (3). 

ALBERT GALLATIN HOIT, a skilful Boston artist, in the same 
year painted a fine full-length (signed and dated) of Chief 
Justice Sir Brenton Halliburton which hangs in the Province 
Building (4) ; and also, it is said, made a portrait of the late 
William Nyan Silver of Halifax, but did no other work here that 
I know of, unless the portrait of Hon. William Stairs is by him. 
Hoit was born in Sandwich, New Hampshire, in 1809, worked 
for a while in St. John, N. B., prior to 1839, painted President 
Harrison of the United States in 1840, and died in 1856 (5) . 

DR. THOMAS BEAMISH AKINS, our local historian, who was 
born at Liverpool, N. S., in 1809, and died at Halifax on 6th 
May, 1891, was an amateur copyist of moderate skill in oils 
and water-colours during the period of about 1840 to 1850, as 
evidenced by some portraits, copied by him, which are now in 
King's College Library, Windsor, N. S. One of these, his por- 
trait of Governor Paul Mascarene after Smibert, was shown at 
a picture exhibition at Halifax in 1848. The best piece of work 

(1) Notice dated 25th June, 1840, in the Nova Scotian, Halifax. 

(2) Nova Scotian, 5th November 1840. 

(3) Nova Scotian, December 1840. 

(4) Reproduced in Macdonald's Annals of N. British Soc., opp. p. 147. 

(5) See sketch of Hoit s life in Appleton's Cyclopaedia of Am. Bio- 
graphy; also Report of Prov. Museum, Hfx., for 1911. The present W. N. 
Silver informs me that he is unaware of the name of the man who painted 
his namesake, but says it was the same artist who painted Hon. William 
Stairs. The Silver portrait, which is a fairly good one, was shown at a loan 
exhibition, Halifax, in 1894, as by "Hoyt", having been loaned by its then 
possessor, the late Wm. C. Silver. 



148 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

reputed to be by him, is a copy of J. Singleton Copley's 
portrait of Lt.-Gov. Michael Francklin, the head of which is 
reproduced in the N. S. Historical Society Collections, vol. 16. 
I would have never thought of this as Akins's work, but for 
the label pasted on the back, which is apparently Akins's own 
writing (1). The original Copley ("in a rich old carved frame") 
was shown at the picture exhibition at Halifax in 1848, 
without a statement as to whom it belonged (2) . In 1881 it and 
Copley's portrait of Mrs. Francklin belonged to Rev. James 
Uniacke (3). There is not another of Akins's pictures that at 
all approaches it in manifestations of skill. All of his other work 
is more or less mediocre, as seen in the Mascarene. He also 
painted a fancy picture on panel, (size 13J by 9j inches) re- 
presenting the Meeting of the First Council in the Beaufort's 
cabin in 1749; which is also at King's College. His in- 
dian-ink views of Halifax after Short, etc., in the Provincial 
Museum, were prepared to illustrate his History of Halifax 
read before the Mechanics' Institute in April, 1839 (published 
in 1847). 

GEORGE SMITHERS in the middle of the last century painted 
in oils some genre subjects of moderate merit, and also had a 
taste for heraldic painting. He was self-taught. Among his 
pictures are, "The Smugglers," "Shaving," "Taking Snuff," 
and "Taking a Night-cap," as well as scenes suggested by 
Burns's poems. The first-mentioned now belongs to his 
grandson, Lewis E. Smith, and the next three to his daughter, 
Mrs. G. H. Taylor. The present location of the Burns pictures 
is not now known. He also lectured on drawing before the 
Mechanics' Institute in January, 1840. 

(1) The label on the back of the picture reads, "Michael Francklin, 
Lieut. Governor of Nova Scotia from 1766 to 1776. Copied by T. B. Akins 
from the original by Singleton Copley." It measured 24 by 20 inches, and 
is on canvas prepared by Robinson & Miller, London, and as this firm was 
in business in the middle of the nineteenth century, it strengthens the 
statement that the picture is a copy by Akins. The picture was given to 
King's College, with others from Akins, on 22 May, 1891. It may be 
mentioned that there is also at King's College an oil profile portrait of 
Sir James Kempt, in red uniform, 26 by 22 inches in size, which has no 
artist's name, and may be a copy by Akins. It was presented by him. 

(2) Nova Scotian, 3rd Oct.,1848. 

(4) Catalogue of R. C. Acad. Exhibition, Hx., 1881, Nos. 215,216. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 149 

He was born at Crewkerne, Somerset, Eng. 23rd Sept., 1810, 
and came to Halifax when about eighteen years of age, and in 
1829 founded a firm of house painters and decorators which was 
long known in the town. We find that when on 5th January, 
1832, Blake advertised the opening of the Halifax Theatre on- 
Graf ton Street, it was stated that the decorations of the house 
were by Smithers. It may be mentioned that he and his son 
of the same name painted the banners of St. George's, St. 
Andrew's, and St. Patrick's socities. He died, after a long illness, 
at Halifax on 1st March, 1868 (1). 

MA<OR GENERAL ANTHONY REYNOLDS VYVYAN CREASE, 
R. E., who as a lieutenant in the Engineers is said to have been 
stationed at Halifax, made some water-colour drawings, two of 
which (7 by 10| inches in size) are in the Robertson collec- 
tion at Toronto, namely, "Halifax, looking up the Harbour from 
the Citadel, 1849" and "Halifax, looking down the Harbour 
from the Citadel, September, 1849" (2). Crease, who made 
several pictures of different places in Canada, was born on 25th 
April, 1827, and died I think about 1892, as his name then drops 
from the Army List. He entered the Army in 1846, became 
captain in 1855, lieut. -colonel in 1869, and colonel in 1874, 
retiring with honorary rank of major-general in 1885. He 
served in the Crimea, 1855-6; with the Central India Field 
Force, 1858; and in South Africa, 1881-5. 

We have scant information about the progress of art work 
in the province outside of Halifax, but it may be very briefly 
mentioned that ELIZA (GILPIN) MILLIDGE, born Dec., 1819, died 
14th January, 1856, wife of Rev. A. W. Millidge of Antigonish, 
N. S., worked as an amateur in water-colours; and FRANCES 
A. HARRINGTON, (born at Halifax, 1832; died 1865), afterwards 
the wife of Lieut. John D'Arcy Irvine, R. N., one of her pupils, 
did some creditable work as an amateur in that style; as did 
also Miss KATHERINE E. McDouoALL, daughter of Hon. Alex. 

(1) Information regarding Smithers has been mostly furnished by 
Lewis E. Smith. 

(2) See Catalogue of J. Ross Robertson collection, Toronto, 1912, nos. 
347 and 359. 



150 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

McDougall, afterwards Mrs. J. E. Wilson of Halifax, who I 
believe also received instruction from Mrs. Milildge. She was 
born at Antigonish about 1833, and died 10th Aug., 1893. 

In JOHN O'BRIEN we had a man who did some fairly credi- 
table work as a marine painter the first of the kind here. Un- 
fortunately in order to find a market for his productions, he 
was forced to spend much of his time in making more or less 
trivial representations of ships under a fine spread of canvas, 
with everything "drawing," to gratify the demands of vain 
ship-owners, which minimized the amount of higher-class 
marine work he did. His oil-paintrng of Strachan's famous 
clipper barque "Stag,' (1)' the pride of Moseley's shipyard, 
painted about 1855, is a good example of his best " pot-boilers ;" 
and one representing a 26-gun frigate shortening sail in a squall, 
fore-course drawing, main-topsail being clewed-up, and men on 
the fore-topsail yard mostly painted in quiet greys initialed 
and dated 1856, is a fair example of a much higher grade of work 
produced at the same period. This canvas belongs to James 
McCormack of Halifax. Three of his pictures belong to Mrs. 
T. J. Egan. They represent H. M. S. "Galatea," a fine 
26-gun frigate which was on this station from about 1864 to 
1867, and was later commanded by the Duke of Edinburgh: 
(a) lying-to under sail in Halifax Harbour; (b) under full 
sail and steam in a seaway; (c) on her beam-ends in a 
cyclone in the Indian Ocean. Each of the three is signed and 
dated 1888. The sea is handled best in (b) ; and (c) is very 
poorly done. One of O'Brien's faults was that in many of 
his pictures he unduly accentuated the cordage, which is most 
unrealistic and not found in good marine wok. Many of his 
paintings may be met with about Halifax, and no doubt they 
will prove to be of widely different merit. He painted at 
least one portrait, namely of Hon. J. W. Johnstone, which he 
presented to the latter in February, 1857 (2). 

(1) The barque "Stag" of 209 tons, probably the fastest clipper vessel built 
in this province, was designed by Ebcnezer Moseley and built in his and his 
brother Henry's shipyard at La Have, N. S., in 1854, for John Strachan of 
Halifax, and was lost at Bermuda in 1859 or 1860. The picture represents 
her under sail, off Mauger Beach lighthouse. 

(2) An acknowledgment from Johnstone of the gift is printed in the 
Recorder, Hx., of Feb. 1857, being copied from the Sun newspaper. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 151 

O'Brien, who was the eldest son of Daniel O'Brien, formes- 
ly of Cork, Ireland, was born it is said during his parents' pas- 
sage to Halifax about 1832. One of his brothers was the late 
J. J. O'Brien, the secretary and historian of the Charitable Irish 
Society. He evinced strong artistic tendencies, and with the 
assistance of Halifax admirers and friends was sent to study in 
England, Paris and probably Italy, after which he returned to 
Halifax and devoted himself to marine painting, but was, 
forced later to do less artistic brush-work in order to make a 
living, somewh at due, perhaps, to a failing which he un- 
fortunately possessed, and which undermined his constitution. 
After a lingering illness, he died unmarried at Halifax on 7th 
September, 1891, aged 59 years, and was buried in Holy Cross 
Cemetery. The fact that nothing but an ordinary death-notice 
appeared in our newspapers, shows how much thought we 
give to one whose bent leads him along the lesser trodden 
paths! We can merely say that he was the best marine-painter 
we have had, and under other circumstances he might have 
made a reputation for himself after the promise of his youth (1). 

WILLIAM GUSH, a skilful artist of 15 Stratford Place, 
London, England, was commissioned by the provincial govern- 
ment to paint a full-length of General Sir Fenwick Williams, 
which was completed in 1860, and first hung in the Legisla- 
tive Council Chamber on 21st December of that year. Two or 
three years later he also painted a second full-length portrait for 
the Province, that of another gallant Nova Scotian, Major- 
General Sir John Inglis, which hangs beside Williams. On the 
back of this picture is the inscription, "The late Sir John Inglis, 
Bart., K. C, B. by Mr. Gush, 15 Stratford Place," which seems 
to show that it was not completed until after Inglis's death in 
September, 1862. In composition the Williams picture is the 
better of the two. 

While in Halifax, Gush also painted a fine bust portrait of 
Mrs. M. B. Daly, afterwards Lady Daly, as well as portraits 

(1) The dates of O'Brien's birth and death were ascertained from ike 
burial record at the City Hall, Halifax. 



152 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of her parents, Sir Edward and Lady Kenny, and possibly 
others. He also, it seems, painted a three-quarter length of 
Rev. George McCawley, D. D., President of King's College 
from 1836 to 1875, which hangs in the convocation hall at 
Windsor. It is signed "Gush," in unnecessarily large letters, 
and otherwise would not suggest itself as from his brush, as 
it is a poor production compared with the Williams and Daly 
portraits. His other pictures are unsigned, and why he should 
have appended his name to a poor example of his skill, I cannot 
understand. I have not succeeded in ascertaining anything 
further regarding him, save the tradition that (like many ar- 
tists) he was an inveterate smoker, and that his daughter is 
said to have married Lord Hope (1) . 

About 1862 we find that FREDERICK CRAWLEY of Wolfville, 
brother of Dr. Crawley, gave drawing and painting lessons at 
that place, and had classes in connection with Acadia College. 
Alfred T. B. Barrett, now a portrait painter in Roxbury, Mass., 
was one of his pupils. He was a son of Capt. T. Crawley, R. N. 

CAPTAIN WESTCOTE WITCHURCH LYTTLETON, late of the 
64th Regiment, was at Halifax with his regiment in 1840-43 
and returned to reside here on retiring from service about 1849 
lived in the city and on McNab's Island for about seventeen 
years, and died at Keswick, Eng. about 1879. He was an 
amateur who did some original landscapes in water-colours, and 
exhibited at the International Exhibition, London, 1862, two 
pictures, a "Sketch of Halifax"and "American Winter Scene" (2). 

MAJOR GENERAL CAMPBELL HARDY, the well-known sports- 
man-naturalist and author of Forest Life in Acadie while 
stationed at Halifax as a captain in the artillery from 1852 to 
1867, painted some Nova Scotian forest scenery in water-colour 
in 'an excellent manner. Two of his pictures were published in 

(1) Gush's name seems to have been pronounced goosh t which has 
led to the name being variously spelt here, but all authorative references 
give it correctly as Gush. Just what the Williams picture cost, I do noc know, 
but in the public amounts for the year ending December, 1860, we find 
noted the payment to "William Gush, balance of cost General Williams 
picture, $192.00." 

(2) See sketch of his life in 'Proc. N. S. Inst. Sc., Hx., vol. 13, pt. 3. 
also Catalogue of International Exhib. of 1862. 




ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 153 

colours a camping scene in the woods in summer, and a 
woodroad in winter. There was issued at London, 2nd June, 
1863, by Day and Son, lithographers to the Queen, their size 
being llj by 16 inches. Other of his drawings appear in 
Forest Life in Acadie. He was born at Norwich, England 
10th October, 1831(1). 

JOHN BERNARD GILPIN, M. D., who was born at Newport, 
Rhode Island, 4th September, 1810, lived in Halifax from 1846 
till about 1886, and died at Annapolis Royal on 12th March, 
1892, was a naturalist of ability and an amateur zoological 
artist of moderate skill, who illustrated with coloured chalk 
drawings, his lectures on the mammalia of Nova Scotia, 1863-71. 
(2). He was related toSawrey Gilpin, R. A., (1733-1807,) the 
animal painter. 

EMIL VOSSNACK, who was a civil and mechanical engineer, 
had a taste for art, taught drawing in the old Halifax Techno- 
logical Institute of 1878 and produced an excellent picture of 
"Moose Hunting in Nova Scotia," the studies for which were 
made with considerable care, and which is a most truthful 
representation of a characteristic forest scene in this province. 
His son (E. A. Vossnack) informs me that this picture, which he 
thinks was not in colours, has been lost or destroyed, but I 
possess a photograph of it. He also produced other pictures 
in water-colour, one representing H. M. S. "Bellerophon" and 
Halifax Harbour during a regatta in 1879. He was born at Re- 
mscheid, Germany, llth Aug. 1837 came from New York to 
Halifax, about 1871 where he built at the Montgomery Iron 
Works, Freshwater, the only two locomotives ever constructed 
in this city, and died here on Sept. 1885 

Sometime after 1857 there was published by Day of London, 
a large, undated, coloured lithograph of Halifax, from a 

(1) See sketch of his life in publication referred to in preceding footnote. 
Copies of his two published pictures belong to Mrs. George Piers of Halifax, 
I am much pleased to say that my venerable friend, General Hardy, is yet 
active at the age of eighty-three years, lives at Dover, England, and still takes 
a keen interest in all that relates to Nova Scotia. I cannot refrain from in- 
cluding him in this paper, as the impressions of our forest scenery which 
inspired his brush, were all made in the years from 1852 to 1867. 

(2) See sketch of his life in Proc. N. S. Inst. Science, Hx., vol.13, pt. 3. 
No doubt many officers on this station were accomplished water-color 
artists, but their work has not happened to come to my notice. 



154 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

drawing by WILLIAM HICKMAN, B. A., a copy of which is in the 
Legislative Libfary. It shows Wellington Barracks, built 
about 1857, which is the only way of dating it. It is of no value 
pictorially. In 1860 he published eight colored sketches of the 
Nipisaguit River, N. B. made during a tour with Lord Mulgrave. 

From 1862 until 1879 we had in Halifax the late FORSHAW 
DAY, R. C. A., whose landscapes in oil and water-colours, of 
various degrees of merit, are numerous and well-known. He 
was born in London, England, in 1837, and educated at Dublin 
and South Kensington, being trained as an architect. He came 
to Halifax in 1862, and was for many years draftsman in H. M. 
Naval Yard, and at the same time painted many pictures of 
local scenery and taught art students. In 187t) he accepted the 
position of professor of freehand drawing and painting at the 
Royal Military College at Kingston, Ontario, and in 1880 was 
selected as one of the foundation members of the Royal Can- 
adian Academy of Arts the only Nova Scotian artist on the 
original roll. In 1897, after eighteen years service at King- 
ston, he retired owing to age and ill-health ; returned to Halifax 
for a while, but finally went to Kingston and died there on 
22nd June, 1903. Former cadets will long hold in memory the 
kindhearted but eccentric and bluff old artist (1). 

Two of his most notable works are "Grand Pre" and 
"Louisbourg," both Nova Scotian subjects, which gained favour- 
able notice in Paris. His work varies a good deal in merit, 
some of his canvases, pot-boilers no doubt, being faulty in com- 
position and balance, and overcoloured, for he had a slight 
partiality for the garish tints of autumn, which like those of 
gorgeous sunsets have played sad havoc with the reputation 
of many an artist who is not extremely gifted. Perhaps his 
patrons were most to blame for this. His pictures are signed 
and therefore easily recognizable, and there is no need of list- 
ing them (2) . 



(1) See Morgan s Canadian Men and Women of the Time, 1898; also 
obituary notice (from Toronto Glob ) in Halifax Chronicle, 29 July, 1903. 

(2) It may be merely noted that from at least 1871 to about 1880, 
when he died, C HAS. CHAUNCEY GREENE, portraitist who resided at 54 
Agricola Street, Halifax, and although I remember the old man weJK I 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 155 

The portrait of Sir Hastings Doyle, late Lt. -Governor of 
Nova Scotia, hanging in the Province Building, was painted 
about 1874 by A. R. Venables of London, but I do not think he 
was ever in the province (1) . 

This brings us down to the period of LIVING ARTISTS with 
whom I have no intention of specially dealing, and will therefore 
merely mention the names of some of those who have worked 
here, such as : Robert Harris, afterwards president of the Royal 
Canadian Academy, who when a young man in Halifax in 1873, 
painted a portrait of Hon. William Garvie which hangs in the 
Provincial Museum; William Gill, born in Halifax I think, a 
scenic artist who also did some landscapes of moderate merit 
until he left Halifax about 1878 for Boston, where he is now 
prominent in the former line of work; George Harvey, lands- 
capist and well-known art teacher, who was at Halifax from 
about 1882 till about 1895, being the first head-master 
of the Victoria School of Art and Design from 1887 till 1894; 
Ozias Dodge, principal of the same institution, 1894: C. 
Waterbury, 1895, and Miss Catherine N. Evans, 1896 to 1898, 
who succeeded Dodge; Henry M. Rosenberg, landscapist, 
figure painter and etcher, who was also principal of the Art 
School from 1898 till 1910, and still works among us; Lewis E. 
Smith, landscapist, designer, and etcher, a native of Halifax, 
and principal of the Art School from 1910 till 1912; George 
Chavignaud, landscapist, a native of France and later of Tor- 
onto, who has been principal since May 1912 ; Miss C. F. Howard , 

known nothing whatever, of his work, and fear it may not have evinced much 
skill. HERBERT CROSSKILL, died 1902 deputy provincial secretary from 1867 
>o 1878, and from 1882 until he retired about 1898, did some amateur land- 
scape work in oils, chiefly copies however. CAPT. BLOOMFIELD DOUGLAS 
R. N. R., (born!832),of theBoardof Examiners for Masters and Mates, who 
was in Halifax from about 1897 until his death, Mar. 1906, was an amateur 
who did some very fair marine work. MATILDA MAUD CRANE daughter of 
John Muncey and wife of Dr. Chandler Crane of Halifax, was an amateur 
pain.er who from about 1884 until 1888 conducted art classes in Mor- 
ris St. and the Queen Building, where she was one of the first to teach china 
painting. She also caught landscape painting in oil-colour. She was born 
at Halifax in 1830, received instruction from Forshaw Day, and died at 
Bay Verte in 1901. 

(1) See Report of Prov. Museum of N. S. for 1911. 



156 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

art teacher at the Halifax Ladies College; Miss I. Ridd 
(now Mrs. Howard P. Jones) who was teacher at the Church 
School for Girls, Windsor, and other teachers at that insti- 
tution, as well as at the Convent of the Sacred Heart and the 
Academy of Mount St. Vincent, Halifax; F. Leo Hunter, 
who was at Halifax about January, 1888, and produced several 
delightful etchings of picturesque scenes along our waterfront; 
Louis A. Holman, who in 1890 made sketches in Nova Scotia 
which were published in the NEW ENGLAND MAGAZINE Oct., 
1892, p. 175; Mrs. Frances Bannerman, now of England, who was 
born at Halifax in 1855, daughter of Lt.-Governor A. G. Jones, 
and has exhibited at the Royal Academy and the Paris Salon ; 
Mrs. Florence Rogers (wife of Dr. Henry Rogers), an English 
water-colour and oil landscapist, who was here from about 
1889 till about 1895, taught art at the Halifax Ladies College 
and afterwards had private pupils; John J. Dillon of London 
and Southampton, who paid many visits here from about 1880 
till February, 1906, selling pictures, including some of his own; 
J.L.Blauvelt, landscape and portrait painter,who was here about 
1887; Arthur T. B. Barrett, born at Gaspereau, N. S. 1852, 
afterwards resided at Halifax, and now lives at Roxbury, Mass., 
who has painted a number of portraits here and at Acadia 
College, Wolfville; Gyrth Russell, a native of Dartmouth, N. 
S., a young painter of marines and dockside subjects; Miss 
Charlotte VanBuskirk of Dartmouth, now in London; Miss 
Florence Seely of Dartmouth; Miss Edith Smith; Miss Agnes 
J. Vondy; Miss Bessie Brown of Halifax and Hantsport; Miss 
Kate Foss Hill; Miss Hetty D. Kimber of Sydney, N. S., after- 
wards of Montreal; Miss Minnie R. Wyman of Yarmouth, 
who studied in Paris; Miss Marion K. Graham; Miss Louise 
Cornelius (Mrs. A. Fulton Johnson) ; Miss Lear; Miss L.Collins; 
Mrs. M.U.LeNoir (wood-carving) ; A. C. Wyatt, a skilful painter 
of landscapes and flowers who came to live in Nova Scotia in 
1913; and others whose name I do not happen to remember. 
Mrs.Geo. K. Thomson, Mrs.J. C. Hagen (nee Egan), and others, 
are prominent china painters. John A. Wilson, a native of 
Potter's Brook, Pictou County, N. S., who in 1902-3 was study- 
ing at Boston, Mass., is a young man who has shown promise as 
a modeller and sculptor, his figure of a lion (1902), representing 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 157 

Great Britian in South Africa, being an admirable piece of 
modelling from one of his age. Reference must also be made 
to Ernest Lawson, of 106 Northern Avenue, New York, a 
landscape artist of much reputation, who is a son of Dr. Archi- 
bald and Anna E. Lawson of Halifax, where he was born on 
22nd March, 1873. He received his art education in New York 
and Paris, but none of his pictures were produced here, so that 
his only connection with Halifax is his birth and his boyhood 
days here. 

Just a few words as to ART EXHIBITIONS in Nova Scotia. 
The first exhibition of pictures at Halifax was held in Dalhousie 
College building, from the 10th to the 29th May, 1830, through 
the exertions and under the charge of W. H. Jones, a successful 
teacher of painting to whom reference has elsewhere been 
made. He had previously organized similar ones in Boston 
and Baltimore. The patrons of the Halifax exhibition were 
His Honor the President (Michael Wallace), Admiral Sir Charles 
Ogle, and Col. Norcot; and the managing committee was Col. 
Charles R. Fox, Lord Charles Russell, Capt. P. Maitland (mili- 
tary secretary), and Beamish Murdoch. Among the pictures 
shown were some which had been captured in the war of 1812, 
loaned by Chief Justice Blowers, some of Sir Peregrine Mait- 
land's own drawings and others in his possession, as well as 
about fifty examples in oils of the work of Jones's pupils, many 
of them original work (1) . 

The next exhibition of paintings and works of art held at 
Halifax, was opened on 25th September, 1848, at Dalhousie 
College, under the management of a committee of the Halifax 
Mechanics' Institute, a society which did much to foster local 
art since its formation in 1831. This exhibition contained a 
number of good pictures, and fortunately we have a very 
full critical account of the most noteworthy ones, written 
doubtless by Dr. T. B. Akins, which appeared as consecutive 
articles in the British Colonist newspaper, Halifax, of 3rd, 

(i) See Nova Scotian, 1 1 Feb., and 8 April 1 830; also p. 123 of this article. 



158 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

5th and 7th October, 1848, articles which are of much value to 
anyone interested in painters and paintings in this province as 
they often fix the authorship of many of the latter which might 
otherwise be much in doubt. 

On 5th July, 1881, there opened at the Province Building, 
Halifax, the second annual exhibition of the Royal Canadian 
Academy of Arts, the most noteworthy collection of modern 
paintings ever brought together in this province. The printed 
catalogue listed 380 items, including paintings, architectural 
designs, etc. 

This was followed by a Loan Exhibition held in the same 
building from 17th to 25th June, 1887, in aid of the Victoria 
SchDol of Art and Design, at which were shown paintings, an- 
tique furniture, china, coins, textile fabrics, bric-a-brac, etc., 
the printed catalogue having 810 entries, of which 213 were 
paintings and engravings. Another art loan exhibition was 
held from 6th to llth August, 1894, in the old exhibition build- 
ing, Tower Road, under the superintendence of George Harvey, 
the catalogue of which contained 213 numbers, all of them paint- 
ings, many of them old. Again in 1904 a loan collection of 
fifty old pictures was shown at the Victoria School of Art. In 
1906 there was inaugurated a series of annual art exhibits in 
connection with our provincial exhibition, a somewhat incon- 
gruous association in the minds of some, but deserving of praise. 

The full-length portraits in the Province Building consti- 
tute the finest collection of pictures the public owns (1); 
while the Provincial Museum, as before stated, has several good 
canvases of Valentine's which came to it in trust from the Me- 
chanics' Institute. Government House contains a collection of 
prints and photographs of persons connected with the history 
of tha province, which was brought together by the late Gover- 
nor Jones. A public picture gallery, however humble, is much 

(i) See account of them and of those in the museum, in Report of Prov. 
Museum for 1911. Enoch Seeman painted Queen Caroline and George II., 
and Beatham painted Judge J. C. Haliburton. 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 159 

needed, such as may even be seen in mere villages in the Uni- 
ted States and Great Britain (1). 

THE VICTORIA SCHOOL OF ART AND DESIGN founded in 
1887, and opened in the Union Bank building on 31st October of 
that year under the head-master, George Harvey, has a bare 
existance, is now housed in what has been sometimes termed 
a barn-like building, and has inadequate financial support (2). 
This is not at all a reflection on the management, which does all 
it can; but the conditions are the result of a lamentable lack of 
interest in art matters on the part of the general public. On 
24th November, 1909, an art association (the N. S. Museum of 
Fine Arts) was organized at Halifax, with an ambitious and 
laudable list of ''objects" in its constitution. It held one or 
two general meetings, an exhibit of etchings, and then went 
sound asleep, awaiting perchance, as in the fairytale, for some 
fine prince in the future to push his way through the thorns 
of public apathy and arouse it once more into active being (3). 



Now to sum up. While Gilbert Stuart Newton, who is be- 
yond the range of my paper, was undoubtedly the greatest and 
only really great artist Nova Scotia has produced, yet Field 
was the most talented one and best portraitist and line engraver 
we have had actually working here to any extent; with Valen- 
tine close behind him in portraiture (5) . Day was the best land- 
scapist, and Eagar the best topographic landscapist and litho- 
grapher, Miller the best flower painter, O'Brien the best 
marine painter ("of sorts" as they say), and Hankes the best 
silhouettist. Miniatures are very difficult to assign to their 



(1) I am glad to be able to state that a small but definite beginning was 
made in this direction in the autumn of 1914, when the Nova Scotia Museum 
of Fire Arts (incorporated in 1908) decided to accept a bequest of a few pic- 
tures from the late Dr. Thomas Trenaman and to show them in a room in 
the Art School. 

(2) The headmasters or principles of the Art School have been as follows: 
George Harvey, 1887; Ozias Dodge, 1894; C. Waterbury, 1895; Miss Cath- 
erine N. Evans, 1896; H. M. Rosenberg, 1898; Lewis E. Smith, 1910; 
and George Chavignaud, 1912 to date. 

(3) This revival I hope has come, as noted in a footnote above. 

(4) I have just learned that Valentine in 1846 painted portraits, at 
Acadia College, of Edw. Manning, Theodore and Harris Harding, and Jos. 
Dimock. 



160 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

artists, but judging by such as we can, we strongly believe 
Field's to have bsen the best, but this may be open to ques- 
tion. We have never had a real historical painter, although 
Valentine tried his hand at such work; nor a marine painter of 
the highest class of such work; and no sculptor, although I trust 
that John A. Wilson from Pictou County will be able to 
bring us that credit in the near future (1). 

It is sad to record that of all these bygone professional ar- 
tists in Nova Scotia, only Miller was actually born in the pro- 
vince. From about 1830 to about 1840 might perhaps be term- 
ed the heyday of art in Nova Scotia, and the advent of pho- 
tographs naturally largely replaced portraits on canvas, min- 
iatures and silhouettes. 

I will conclude by most regretfully expressing the belief 
that art is at a lamentably low ebb in our province, with none 
of the vitality that characterized it in the past. Our houses 
are filled with poor pictures, and we are frankly told by the 
Royal Canadian Academy that it will not exhibit here, because 
its members would not be able to sell their productions. The 
present roll of that academy does not, I think, bear the name of 
a single Nova Scotian painter. It behoves us in some way to 
at least see that we keep up with the bright promise of the earlier 
days. 

(l) George Lang ("Geordie" as he was familiarly called) was .well- 
known to the last generation as a good artisan carver in freeston' , after 
other's designs. He cut the lion on the Parker-Welsford monument at 
Halifax (erected 1860) but chiselled a little two much at it, and got it a crifle 
..oo small. Much of his architectural carving exists on various buildings 
here. He was 6ft. i inch tall, and had a great beard like the Apostle Paul. 
The Bruannia on the Post Office, Halifax, was cut by Andrew Wood, and 
various men worked on the festoons which are on the walls. All of these men 
were artisans, not sculptors in the proper sense. (Vide H. B. Sellon). 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 161 

Addenda. 

RICHARD SHORT (page 104). The three prints of Short's Halifax views, 
1764 issue, which are in the Archives Department, Ottawa, are, Halifax 
from George Island, the Governor's House, and the Church of St. Paul. 

GILBERT STUART (page 107). Further investigation into Stuart's life, 
makes it extremely likely that I was in error in supposing that he must have 
spent some of his early days with his father's family at Newport, Nova 
Scotia, as it is stated that he embarked from America for London in the 
spring of 1775, and it was not till the summer of that year that his father 
came to Nova Scotia and was followed there apparently in 1776 by the lat- 
ter's wife and daughter Ann (afterwards the wife of Hon. Henry Newton 
of Halifax). It was in or about 1774 that the young artist worked his pas- 
sage to America in a collier bound for Nova Scotia. It is stated that he was 
in Scotland from 1772 to 1774, then at Newport, Rhode Island, in London 
from 1775 to about 1788, and in Dublin from the latter date till he finally 
returned to the United States in 1792. (Vide Diet, of Nat. Biog., and 
Appleton's Cyclop, of Am. Biog.) He must have landed here at least in 
1774 on his way from Scotland, and it is just possible that it may have been 
then that' he sailed as a supercargo on West India vessels out of Halifax, as 
stated by Mr. Mullane. He may have visited his relatives here in sub- 
sequent years. He began to be successful in 1785 when he set up a studio 
of his own in London, after having been about seven years with Benj. 
West. Dr. Eaton (Morning Chronicle, Hx., 27th June, 1912) must be mis- 
taken in saying that the Duke of Kent invited him to come from Dublin to 
Halifax to paint his portrait, as the prince did not arrive at Halifax till May, 
1794, at which time the artist was in America. It must have been while 
the prince was in Canada after 1791. 

SIR ALEXANDER CROKE, KT.(insert on page 110). Dr. Alexander Croke, 
an English lawyer and author, who was born in 1758 and died at Studley 
Priory, Oxfordshire, on 27th December, 1843, having been judge of 
the vice-admiralty court at Halifax from November, 1801, until his return 
to England in 1815; had some reputation as an amateur artist. He made 
sketches of Nova Scotian scenery while here, and some of his paintings are 
said to have been well spoken of by Benjamin West. While at Halifax he 
resided in the old Studley house, which he built and which was subsequently 
destroyed by fire. He was knighted in 1816. (Vide Archibald's Sir A. 
Croke, Coll. N. S. Hist. Soc., vol. II, p. 128; and Diet, of Nat. Biog., 
vol. XIII, p. 116). 

MAJOR ROBERT PETLEY (page 144). Petley was the eldest son of Col. 
Joh Cade Petley, Royal Artillery, of the Riverhead, Kent, family of 
that name. He must have been born about 1809, as he received 
his first commission in December, 1829. Previous to coming to 
Nova Scotia in Aug., 1832, he was stationed with the Rifles in New 
Brunswick. He was placed on half- pay, as captain, on 18th January, 
1859, and became a major in Nov. of the next year. About 1868 he be- 
came professor of military surveying at the Royal Military College, Sand- 
hurst, and died in 1869. (Vide Army Lists). He published at London, in 
1837, a work entitled, Sketches in Nota Scotia and New Brunswick, drawn 
from Nature and on Stone. These sketches, he says, were originally not in- 
tended for publication, but were merely done to while away some part 
of the idle hours of a soldier's life abroad; but were afterwards published at 
the urgent entreaties of many brother officers and others who had visited 
the provinces, as a means of recalling pleasant recollections. The follow- 
ing untinted lithographs by Petley appeared in the work: Rocking Stone; 



162 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Bedford Basin from the Three Mile House; Fredericton, N. B., from the 
Oromocto Road; View of the Cobaquid Mountains; Windsor, N. S., from 
the Banarks; A Sleigh leaving Windsor; Stream near the Grand Schub- 
inacadie Lake; View of Halifax from the Indian Encampment at Dart- 
mouth; Indian of the Micmac Tribe; Interior of a Wigwam. If he actual- 
ly drew on stone from nature, before coming here from New Brunswick 
in 1832, as the title of the work indicates, then it is clear that he, not Eagar, 
must have introduced lithographic drawing into Nova Scotia. 

FREDERICK SIDNEY CRAWLEY (page 152). Mr. Crawley, brother of 
Rev. E. A. Crawley, D. D., was a son of Capt. Thomas Crawley, R. N., 
surveyor-general of Cape Breton Island. He was born at Ipswick, England, 
about!797, received his art education at London and in France, and resided for 
about fifteen years in the latter country. He conducted art classes at Wolf- 
vine, N. S., for some years, and about 1868 became teacher of drawing and 
painting in the female department of Horton Collegiate Academy (now 
Acadia Ladies' Seminary), where he taught until succeeded by Miss E. 
Morse about 1872. He was chiefly a landscapist, working in oils, water- 
colour and crayons. He died at Wolfville about 1880 (vide E. S. Crawley). 
Regarding the art department of Acadia Ladies' Seminary, Wolfville, it may 
be noted that Miss Anne Fowler was teacher of drawing in the female 
branch of Horton Academy (afterwards Grand Pr6 Seminary and now the 
Ladies' Seminary) from about 1863 till about 1865, Miss Randall about 
1865-66, and Miss Fowler again about 1867-68; then the teachers of draw- 
ing and painting were F. S. Crawley about 1868-72, Miss E. Morse about 
1872-73, Miss Marie Woodworth about 1873-78, Miss Annie Woodworth 
about 1878-79, and Miss Eliza T. Harding for several years after 1879. 
Another teacher was Miss R. Elinor Upham (1896), and the present in- 
structor is Miss Isa Belle Andrew. 

PICTURE EXHIBITION, 1863 (insert on page 158). In addition to the art 
exhibitions mentioned on page 157 of my paper, I find that on the 19th, 
21st and 23rd of November, 1863, an exhibition of oil and water-colour 
paintings and engravings was held in the armoury of the volunteers' drill- 
room, Halifax, as the result of the efforts of Capt. W. W. Lyttleton, Capt. 
C. Hardy, and Capt. W. Chearnley. It was largely attended, and the 
admittance fees of 1\ d. and Is. 3d., amounted to about $300.00, which 
sum was given to various charitable institutions. The exhibits included 
paintings by celebrated artists, several Art Union prize pictures, and others 
from the brushes of local artists. Among the latter were excellent water- 
colours by Capt. Lyttleton (see page 152), whom General Hardy believes 
was the best local artist he knew here during the period of 1852-67. Hardy 
exhibited his two water-colours, "The Forest Road: Summer and Winter," 
which had been published as coloured lithographs in June (see page 153), 
and other sketches, principally relating to moose hunting, etc. Mrs. Miller 
showed her water-colour drawings of wild flowers; and Forshaw Day, who 
had arrived here the previous year, exhibited several oil paintings. There 
was also shown a fine old painting, the "Hop-picker," which a contemporary 
newspaper (Nova Scotian, 23 Nov., 1863) refers to as the work of "Mr. 
Bullock, a young Nova Scotian," although the Rev. Dr. R. H. Bul- 
lock knows nothing of him and I have never elsewhere heard him spoken 
of as belonging to this province. The newspaper statement regarding 
Bullock must certainly be a mistake. This picture, which has been seen 
at loan-exhibitions here, belonged to Capt. Hardy, who gave it to the 
late W. M. Harrington, and it is still in the city. (Vide letter of Gen. 
Hardy, Dec., 1914; and Nova Scotian, Hfx., 23 Nov., 1863.) 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 



Summary of Professional and Amateur Artists 
referred to in the preceding paper. 



163 



Name. 


Class of work. 


Birth & 
Death. 


Approx- 
imate 
active 
period 
here. 


I 


Champlain, S. de 


Rough sketch 


1570 M63 


1605 


102 


Verrier (?)... 


Topographic view. 




1731 


102 


Davies, Capt. T. 1 


Topographic view (amateur) 




1758 


102 


Ince, Capt 


Topographic view (amateur) 




1758 


103 


SHORT, RICHARD 


Topographic views 




1759 


r !03 


DesBarres, Col. J 
F. Wallet 
(Stuart, Gilbert) 


Topographic views, charts . . 
Portraits in oils. (He was in 
Nova Scotia for a short time, 
about 1774, and perhaps on 
other occasions; but probably 
did no painting here.) 


1722P-182 
1755-182 




1763-178C 

j 


.161 
107 

107 
161 


Hicks, Lt.-Col. E 


Topographic views (amateur) 




1778-1782 


108 


Bulkeley, Hon. R 


Very mediocre amateur work 


1717-1800 




109 


Newton, Hon. Hy 


Topographic views and poor 
portraits in water-colours 
(amateur) 


1766-1842 


Aboutl791 


109 


MacCrae, George 
Weaver, J . . 


D ortraits in oils. (First pro- 
fessional portraitist) 
D ortraits in oils .... 




1783?-1802 
Aboutl798 


109 
110 


Parkyns, G. J.. .. 


Topographic views in water- 
colours (reputed to be his) 




1800-1801 


110 


Croke, Sir Alex. 


Topographic views in water- 
colours (amateur) .. 


1758-1843 


1801-1815 


161 


2 /. E.G.. 


Topographic views in water- 
colours (amateur).. . . 


1769?- 1854 


about 1803 


110 


King, William. . . . 


Silhouettes. (First silhouett- 
ist) 




1806 


111 


Moore, Samuel. . . 


Silhouettes 




1808 


112 


FIELD, ROBERT. . 
Thomson, John . . 


Portraits in oils, miniatures, 
engravings. (First minia- 
turist and engraver) 
'ortraits in oils, miniatures, 
silhouettes; first (?) draw- 
ing classes 


-1819 


1808-1818? 
1809 


112 
119 


Rugeley, .... 


*ortraits. (Formerly lieuten- 
ant in Engineers.) 


. . . Period 


unknown. 


19 


Metcalf, E 


Miniatures silhouettes 




1810 


20 


Spilsbury, F. B. S. 


Art classes . . 




1811 


20 


Stannett, Ralph. . 






1813? 


20 


Acres, J. E. . . 


Miniatures drawing classes 




1815-1816 


?0 


Foulis, R 


Portraits in oils, miniatures, 
drawing classes 




1819' 


21 


Patridge, . . 


Drawing classes 




1819 


21 


Woolford, J. E... 


Topographic etching. (First 
work in this style). . 




1819 


21 



164 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Name. 


Class of work. 


Birth & 
Death. 


Approx- 
imate 
active 
period 
here. 


<u 

1 

121 
123 

123 
123 

124 
124 

124 
125 
125 

126 

137 
141 

"144 
.161 

L45 

145 
145 

145 
145 
145 

146 
146 

146 
147 

147 

147 


DRAKE. JOHN P 
Gellespie, . . . . 
Piers, Maj. Henry 

Jones, W. H 
Moorsom, Capt. 
William Scarth 
Phipps, 
L'ESTRANGE, . 

Piers, William B.T 


Portraits in oils 
Profile miniatures 


1749-1883 


1819-1820 
181S 

1830-1831 
1829-1830 

1826-1831 
1829 

1832-1834 
C About 
U826-1841 

1830-1831 
1828-1849 

1830-1875 
1834-1839 

1832-1836 i 
1836 

1836 
1838 

about 1838 
uncertain. 

1831?,1837 
and 1840 
1838 

1840 
1840 

1840 
1850 


Landscapes in water-colour 
(amateur) . . 


1781?-1872 
1804-1863 


Art classes 
Topographic landscapes (ama 
teur). 


Miniatures. 


Portraits in oils, miniatures 
art classes. : 




Portraits in oils (amateur) 
Silhouettes (some touched u] 
with bronze by Reynolds). 
Portraits in oils, miniatures 
a few historical subjects 
First photographer 

blowers in water-colours, art 
classes 


1808-1855 


VALENTINE, WM. 

MILLER, MRS. M. 
(MORRIS) 

EAGAR, WILLIAM 
Petley, Maj. Rbt. 

Gesner, Dr. A. ... 
Jeffery, Miss A. A. 

Beamis, J(?).C... 
(Newton, Gilbert 
S., R. A.) 

BARLETT, WM. H, 
Hall, M. G ' 
CLOW, J 


1798-1849 

1813-1875 
1796P-1839 

809P-1869 
1797-1864 


Topographic landscapes, lith- 
ographs 


Topographic landscapes 
drawn on stone (amateur). 
(First to work in litho- 
graphy). 


Topographic views, poor, 
(amateur) . 


Topographic views, poor, 
(amateur). 


Topographic view (poor) .... 

Familiar and historical paint- 
ings. (Born at Halifax; 
no known work produced 
here, except perhaps earl- 
liest efforts) 


1795-1835 
1809-1854 
. . . Period 

c 


Topographic landscapes. . 


Fo pographic views 
Miniatures, small oil por- 
traits 


Rosse, Monsieur. . 
Seager 


Portraits in oils 


'{ 


Miniatures, profiles in bronze, 
art classes 




Abbot, T&J.H.. 
LeChaudelec, 
Monsieur . 


Art classes 




Art classes 




HOIT, ALBERT G. 


Portraits in oils. . 


1809-1856 



ARTISTS IN NOVA SCOTIA. 



165 



Name. 


Class of work. 


Birth & 
Death. 


Approx- 
imate 
if active 
|f period 
^- here. 


! 

147 
148 

149 
149 
149 

149 
150 
151 

152 
162 

152 
152 

158 
153 
154 
154 
154 

155 
155 

155 
155 
162 

158 
159 
159 
161 


Akins, Dr. T. B... 

Smithers, George. 
Crease, Maj.-Gen. 
.A. R. V 
Millidge, Mrs. E. 
(Gilpin) 
Irvine, Mrs. F. A. 
(Harrington). . . 
Wilson, Mrs. K. E 
(McDougall)... 
O'BRIEN, JOHN. . 
GUSH, WILLIAM. 
Crawley, Fred'k S. 

Lyttleton, Capt. 
Westcote W. . . 
Hardy, Maj. Gen. 
Campbell 


Copies of portraits in oils, etc., 
(amateur) . . 


1809-1891 
1810-1868 

1827-1892? 
1819-1856 
1832-1856 

1833P-1893 
1832P-1891 


1840-1850 
1829?-1868 

1849 
1839-1856 


Genre subjects in oils 


Landscapes in water-colours 
(amateur) 
Landscapes in water-colours 
(amateur). Antigonish . . . 
Landscapes in water-colours 
(amateur) ... 


Landscapes in water-colours 
(amateur) 




Marines in oils 


1855?-1891 
1806 

1862-1872 i 
1849-1866? 

1852-1867 
("About 
[1863-1871 
1871?-1885 
Aboutl860 
1862-1879 
1870-1880 


Portraits in oils 


Chiefly landscapes in oil and 
water-colours, art classes. 
Wolfville) 


1797-1880? 
1818-1879? 
1831- 

1810-1892 
1837-1885 


Landscapes in water-colours 
(amateur) .... 


Landscapes in water-colours 
(amateur) 


Gilpin, Dr. John B 
Vossnack, Emil. . 
Hickman, Wm.. . . 
DAY, FORSHAW. . 
Green, C. C 
Crosskill, Herbert 

Douglas, Capt. B. 
Crane, Mrs. M. M. 
(Muncey) 

Living artists, 
Art exhibition 
1904, 190 
Pictures in Pr 
ment Hoi 
Victoria Schoc 
Summary 


Zoological subjects (amateur). 
Landscapes in water-colours 
Topographic views 


Landscapes in oils, art classes 
Portraits. ... ... 


1837-1903 
-1880? 

1826-1902 
1832-1906 

1830-1901 


Landscapes in oils, mostly 
copies, (amateur) 


Marines (amateur) 


1897-1906 

(1884-1888 


Landscapes in oils, china- 
painting, art classes 

1873-1914 


s at Halifax, 1830, 1848, 1863, 1881, 1887, 1894, 
6-13 157, 


ovince Building, Provincial Museum and Govern- 
ise 


>1 of Art and Design, 1887 




Addenda .... 







Nova Scotian Postage Stamps. 
Plate 1. 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SrOTIA. 167 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 

WITH A REFERENCE LIST INCLUSIVE OF THE 
BISECTED PROVISIONALS. 

By DONALD A. KING, Post Office Department, Halifax, N. S. 
Read April 12, 1912. 

A large amount of matter has at one time and another been 
published on the stamps of Nova Scotia, and the subject 
has been pretty well written up. 

This information, however, is scattered about in different 
publications, and is not always available. 

The work of the Royal Philatelic Society of London, on 
the stamps of British North America, issued in 1889, contained 
valuable data valuable because of its reliability, and yet it, 
as it were, but opened up the subject. A great deal had still 
to be brought to light in regard to the stamps of Nova Scotia, 
interesting features that on discovery quickly engaged the atten- 
tion of what may be called the philatelic world. 

For my part, I may say that I was greatly impressed with 
the conviction that a complete history of the postage stamps of 
the Province should be furnished ; and that, too, while it was yet 
possible to gather the facts, and that the available records of 
the Post Office Department should be laid under contribution. 

The Post-office commissioners had, as early as 1844, re- 
commended that postage stamps should be issued for the use 
of the Colony, and a petition to that effect was forwarded to 
the Postmaster-General of Great Britain. 

This memorial was ignored by the Imperial authorities. 
When approached again on the subject they sent out a dis- 



168 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

patch saying that the matter could not be considered, for the 
reason that there would be great risk of loss owing to danger 
of the stamps being forged, and the likelihood of the forgers 
escaping. 

This reply silenced the Commissioners for the time, but as 
great dissatisfaction existed with the postal service in all the 
British North American Colonies, a strong agitation was com- 
menced in favour of each of the Provinces having an indepen- 
dent service, and accounting to the English Post-office Depart- 
ment for letters addressed to the United Kingdom, or foreign 
letters forwarded via that route alone. 

All the North American Provinces united in this demand, 
and under this pressure the Imperial Government yielded, and 
the agitation was ended on the part of Nova Scotia by the pass- 
ing of the Post-Office Act of 1850. 

This Act is as follows: 

"CHAPTER XXIII. . 

OF THE POST-OFFICE. 

(The first five sections are of no interest, and are omitted.) 

"6. In conformity with the agreements made between the 
Local Governments of British North America, the Provincial 
postage on letters and packets, not being newspapers or prin- 
ted pamphlets, magazines, or books entitled to pass at the 
lower rates hereinafter referred to, shall not exceed the rate of 
threepence currency per half ounce, for any distance within 
the Province, and the increase of charges on letters weighing 
over half an ounce shall be regulated according to the British 
rate and scale of weights; no transit postage shall be charged 
on any letter or packet through the Province to any other 
Colony in British North America, unless it be posted in this 
Province and the sender choose to prepay it, nor on any letter 
r packet from any such Colony if prepaid there; and the rate 



THE POSTAGE SRAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 169 

of twopence sterling the half ounce shall remain in operation as 
regards letters by British mails, to be extended to countries 
having postal communication with the United Kingdom, unless 
Her Majesty's Government shall see fit to alter the rate thereon 
to be charged to threepence currency. 

"7. The prepayment of Provincial postage shall be op- 
tional to the sender. 

"'8- All Provincial postage received within the Province 
shall be retained as belonging to it, and all Provincial postage 
received within any other , of the British North American 
Colonies may be retained as belonging to such Colony. 

"9. The British Packet Postage, and other British postage 
collected in this province, shall be accounted for and paid over 
to the proper authorities in the United Kingdom; but the 
Colonial postage on the same letters shall belong to the Colony 
collecting it, or if prepaid to the British Post-office it shall be 
credited and belong to the Colony to which such letters or 
packets are addressed. 

"10. No privilege of franking shall be allowed as regards 
Provincial Postage. 

"11. Provincial stamps for the prepayment of postage 
may be prepared, issued, and sold under the orders of the 
Governor -in-Council; and such stamps, prepared, issued, 
and sold under the direction of the proper authorities in the 
British North American Colonies, shall be allowed in the 
Province as evidence of the prepayment of Provincial Postage 
in such Colonies, respectively, on the letters or packets to which 
they are affixed. 

"12. All newspapers published in this Province shall pass 
through the Post-office in this Province free of charge. 

"13. Printed books, periodical publications, and pamph- 
lets may be transmitted by post within the Province at the rate 






170 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of twopence per ounce, up to six ounces in weight, and three- 
pence for each additional ounce up to sixteen ounces, beyond 
which weight no printed books, publications, or pamphlets 
shall be transmitted by post; but the Governor-in-Council 
may by order alter, modify, and reduce the rate of postage on 
such printed books, periodical publications, or pamphlets. 

"14. The Packet Postage for letters shall be one shilling 
sterling the half-ounce tenpence of which shall belong to the 
English Post-Office, and two- pence to the Nova Scotia office. 

********** 

"28. The postage marks, whether British, Foreign, or 
Colonial, on any letter brought into this Province, shall, in 
all Courts of Justice and elsewhere, be received as conclusive 
evidence of the amount of British, Foreign, or Colonial postage 
payable in respect of such letters, in addition to any other post- 
age chargeable thereon, and all such postage shall be recover- 
able in this province as due to Her Majesty. 

"40 To forge, counterfeit, or imitate any pos- 
tage stamp issued or used under the authority of this chapter, 
or by or under the authority of the Government or proper 
authority of the United Kingdom, or of any British posses- 
sion, or of any Foreign country; or knowingly to use any such 
forged, counterfeit, or imitated stamp, or to engrave, cut or 
sink, or make any plate, die, or other thing whereby to forge, 
counterfeit, or imitate such stamps, or any part or portion 
thereof, except by the permission in writing of the Post-mas- 
ter General, or of some officer or person, who, under the orders 
to be made in that behalf, may lawfully grant such permission; 
or to have possession of any such plate, die, or other thing with- 
out such, or to forge counterfeit, or unlawfully imitate, use, or 
affix to or upon any letter or packet, any stamp, signature, 
initials, or other mark or sign, purporting that such letter or 
packet ought to pass free of postage, or that the postage there- 
on or any part thereof, hath been prepaid or ought to be paid 
by, or charged to any person or department, shall be felony, 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA 171 

punishable by imprisonment for life, or for a period not less 
than five years." 

This Act did not immediately become law, as it had first 
to be sent to England to be approved of, and beside this delay, 
the various Provinces did not agree at once to all the provisions 
of it; this necessitated a long correspondence between their 
respective Governments, until at last an agreement was made, 
which was practically the same as the Act, and was embodied 
in a minute of Council made at Government House in Hali- 
fax, on the 8th of February, 1851. 

"Council at Government House at Halifax, 8th February, 

A. D., 1851. 
"Present his Excellency, etc. 

"In pursuance of the authority vested in this Board by 
law, and for establishing a uniform rate of postage in Nova 
Scotia, and for regulating a postal arrangement with other 

countries. 

********** 

"2nd. That the uniform rate of 3d. currency, shall be 
the charge for all letters up to half-an-ounce sent by mail to 
and from any part of British North America, and the increase 
for additional weight to be regulated by the British scale. 

********** 

"5th. That no transit postage shall be charged between 
the Provinces. 

"6th. That each Province shall retain the amount of pos- 
tage collected therein. 

********** 

"10th. That Colonial Postage Stamps shall be engraved 
for the Province, and used for prepayment of postage on let- 
ters." 

A copy was sent to the Governments of the different Pro- 
vinces interested, and was acquiesced in by them all. Th fc 



172 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick, Sir Edmund Head, 
sent a copy of it to the Governor General of Canada, with a 
letter containing his views on the subject, which is so curious 
that I give it nearly in full. 

"Government House, 

"Fredericton, February 2Qth, 1851. 

"My Lord, I have the honour, etc 

"The Executive Council of New Brunswick entirely concur 
with your Excellency's advisers in thinking it desirable to act 
on the suggestion of Her Majesty's Postmaster- General, and 
thus assimilate our scale of weights and charges to that in use 
in the United Kingdom. 

********** 

"The only difficulty will arise as to the charge of 2d. 
sterling, or 3d. currency. His Excellency Sir John Harvey 
proposes 3d. currency in Nova Scotia; but 3d. of the Nova 
Scotia currency does not correspond exactly with either 3d. 
currency in Canada and New Brunswick, or with 2d. sterling. 
It is believed, too, that the currency of Prince Edward Island 
varies slightly from the currency of any of these Continental 
Colonies. 

"Two courses only are open either that the single rate of 
Colonial postage should be fixed throughout British North 
America at 2d. sterling, and each Colony left to adapt this sum 
as they can to their own currency ; or that the Governors of the 
several Colonies should agree on such a rate in the currency of 
each as may best correspond with the British rate, and with the 
intrinsic value of that rate in Colonial money. 

"The former of these plans is by far the most simple, but 
it would be much more convenient for the public if a small 
piece of money, of mixed silver and copper, of the value of 2d. 
sterling could be struck, and be made current in all these Colon- 
ies when the new rate of postage is introduced. 



v 



<'* r~ & A 




/t/t <'**($ ~ /'H 



*m 




'J~?* 




Nova Scotian Postage Stamps. 
Plate 2. 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 173 

''I would also submit for your Excellency's consideration, 
whether it is not expedient that the design for the postage 
stamps should be one and the same in all the British North 
American Provinces, saving only that the words 'Canada,' 
'Nova Scotia/ or 'New Brunswick' might appear on such of the 
stamps, respectively, as will be distributed within limits of 
each Province. 

"This can easily be effected by concerted action between the 
Executives of the several Colonies before the 6th of July. 

"I have the honour, etc., 

"(Sgd.) Edmund Head." 

This letter is no doubt the explanation of the resemblance 
in design of the stamps of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. 
Not being able to have his way in the proposed issue of a coin, 
the Lieutenant-Governor no doubt used his influence to- have 
the stamps as much alike as possible. 

, With some few amendments the Act was passed by both 
Houses of Legislature, and sanctioned by the Imperial authori- 
ties. It became law by a proclamation of Lieutenant-Colonel 
Bazalgette, who was then the Administrator of the Govern- 
ment of Nova Scotia, dated the 17th of June, 1851. 

On the 5th of July the official notice from the Provincial 
Secretary was published in the "Royal Gazette" and includes 
many of the minor details which are not given in the Act. 
The notice reads: 

"Provincial Secretary's Office. 
2nd July, 1851. 

"His Honour the Administrator of the Government, by 
the advice of Her Majesty's Council, has been pleased to 
approve and establish the following regulations, to come into 
operation in the Post-Office Department in this Province on 
and after the 6th of July, instant: 



174 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

"1st. Letters addressed to any part of Nova Scotia or 
British North America will be liable to a uniform rate of 
3d. currency the half -ounce, prepayment optional. 

"2nd. Packet letters to and from England, Is. sterling, 
or Is. 3d. currency, prepayment optional. 

"3rd. Letters to and from Newfoundland, 8d. currency, 
5d. packet rate, instead of 4 l-2d., and 3d. inland, prep'ayment 
optional. 

"4th. Letters to and from Bermuda and the British West 
Indies, 8d. currency, 5d. the packet rate, instead of 4 l-2d. 
inland 3d., which latter rate must be prepaid in advance on 
letters for Bermuda and the British West Indies. 

"5th. Letters addressed to the United States will be liable 
to the rate of 3d. currency the half ounce, between the place of 
posting and frontier line; by Contract Packet 5d., currency, 
instead of 4 l-2d., in addition to the inland rate (3d.), which 
must be prepaid. 



"Newspapers, Pamphlets, etc. 

"1st. Newspapers published in the Province of Nova 
Scotia, addressed to any part of British North America and 
the United States, when forwarded by land mail pass free of 
charge. 

"2nd. Newspapers to and from the United Kingdom by 
Contract Packet from Halifax, free; if forwarded via the 
United States, Id. each, payable on delivery. 

"3rd. Newspapers for the United States, by packet from 
Halifax, 2 l-2d. currency each, which must be prepaid. 



"8th. Pamphlets, printed books, and periodical publi- 
cations will be liable to a charge of 2d. per ounce up to six 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 175 

ounces in weight, enclosed in covers open at the ends, and 3d. 
for every additional ounce up to sixteen ounces, beyond which 
weight no printed book, publication, or pamphlet can be for- 
warded by post. 

"9th. Printed books, magazines, reviews, or pamphlets, 
whether British, Colonial, or Foreign, will, after the 5th of 
July next, be permitted to be senc through the Post-office from 
the United Kingdom to Nova Scotia, or vice-versa, whether 
forwarded by packet or private ship, and in all respects (ex- 
cept as to weight) subject to the same conditions and restric- 
tions to which newspapers are liable, at the following rates, viz., 
not exceeding a half pound, 6d. sterling, or 7 l-2d. currency; 
exceeding half a pound and not one pound, Is. sterling, or Is. 
3d. currency; exceeding one pound and not two pounds, 2s. 
sterling, or 2s. 6d. currency; and so on, adding Is. 3d. currency 
for every additional pound, or fraction of a pound. When for- 
warded by packet they must be sent by the direct route from 
Halifax, the postage in all cases to be prepaid. 



Stamps. 

"Letters with stamps affixed to them equal to the rate of 
postage chargeable upon such letters, pass free of all other 
postage in whatever part of Nova Scotia they may be posted, 
and to whatever part of British North America addressed. 

Money Letters. 

"Registered money letters will be liable to a charge of 6d. 
currency each, in addition to the postage, which must in all 
cases be prepaid in advance." 

The Postmaster-General must have been unaware of the 
orders given for stamps, as in the letter-book of the Post- 
office Department I find the following letter: 



. 176 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

"Halifax, April 21s/, 1851. 

"Sir, As the period is fast drawing near when the re- 
duced rate of postage is to take effect in Nova Scotia, and 
as I perceive by the Provincial Act that provincial stamps 
are to be provided for the convenience of the public, and not 
being aware that any steps have been taken by the Govern- 
ment to obtain them, I request to be informed whether His 
Excellency would authorise me to make application for a supply 
from the authorities of the General Post-office. 

"I would beg to suggest that a requisition for 5000 sheets, 
or more, be made, each sheet containing 240 heads, which at 3d. 
would be equal to 15,000, or 3 for each sheet. 

"Also 5000 of 6d. stamps for double letters or letters ex- 
ceeding the half-ounce; and also 60 defacing stamps for the use 
of the several postmasters throughout the Province. 

"I would further suggest that the head be something 
similar to that represented in the margin, the field to be blue 
instead of red, or any other colour His Excellency would prefer. 

"This supply would, I imagine, be sufficient for the first 
introduction of this reduced rate, when, should His Excellency 
think proper, other arrangements could be make for keeping 
up the supply. 

"Should the Lieutenant-Governor approve of this propo- 
sition, I will apply to the Post-office in London by the next 
packet. I have, etc., 

"(Sgd.) A. Woodgate. 

"The Honourable Joseph Howe." 

A copy of the design mentioned in this letter is on the margin 
of the letter-book. Plate 1, No 1. It is of large rectangular shape, 
in the centre the head of the Queen, of a type somewhat like 
that of the early Mauritius, excepting that there is no crown or 




ARTHUR WOODGATE, 

Postmaster-General and Post Office Inspector of Nova Scotia, from about 
1843 till about 1876, 









Nova Scotian Postage Stamps. 
Plate 3 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 177 

wreath upon it. This is drawn on a square of red. At top 
"Postage," at bottom "Three Pence" in small script letters, 
on left side "Nova" reading up, and on right side "Scotia" 
reading down. In each corner a small square, with figure 
"3" in it. The entire appearance of the design is much like 
the early Mauritius, although probably meant for an imitation 
of the then current English Id. stamps. 

The design of the "defacing"or cancelling stamp is verymuch 
like the one adopted,having the same oval shape, but the lines on 
the face are perpendicular instead of horizontal, Plate 1. No. 2. 

This proposal for stamps did not go further than the office 
of the Provincial Secretary to whom it was written, and it 
would appear that stamps must have been ordered before this, 
as there would not be time enough between this date and that 
on which they were issued (September 1st, 1851) to have de- 
signs approved of and plates prepared. It is more than probable 
that the Hon. Joseph Howe, the Provincial Secretary, who, I 
am informed, was in London the previous winter, had had de- 
signs then submitted to him and approved of, and had ordered 
the necessary stamps without the knowledge of the Post- 
master-General. 

At the same time he probably ordered 'the stamps for New 
Brunswick, as the following memorandum from the same 
letter-book would imply. It is dated the 8th of July, 1851. 

Memo. 

"When Mr. Howe made the application for stamps it was 
proposed that after the first supply had arrived the plates 
could have been sent out, and impressions taken off by engra- 
vers in Halifax. As Mr. Saunders however seems to report 
against the proposition, I would beg to suggest for the con- 
sideration of the Government, that 10,000 worth of stamps for 
Nova Scotia, and a similar amount for New Brunswick, viz., 
3d. ... 5000 

6d. ... 2500 

Is. 2500 



178 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

be furnished for immediate use, or should this amount be con- 
sidered too small to double the above numbers. 

"I would also recommend that 200 half-pound canisters of 
obliterating ink be also provided 100 for the use of this Pro- 
vince and 100 for New Brunswick, and directions for its use. 

"(Sgd.) A. W. 
"W. H. Keating, Esq., July Sth, 1851." 

What amount or number of stamps was ordered it is now 
impossible to say. The books of Messrs. Perkins, Bacon & 
Co., of London who manufactured them would probably show 
if they could be examined. 

In the Chronicle newspaper of the 30th August, 1851, the 
Postmaster-General had an advertisement inserted, notifying 
the public of the introduction of stamps. 

Notice to the Public. 

"Postage stamps having been received from England, no- 
tice is hereby given that stamps of 3 pence, 6 pence, and 1 
shilling can be purchased at this office on and after Monday, 
the 1st day of September, next. Plate 1. Nos. 3, 4 and 5. 

"Note. Postage stamps before using should be examined 
to ascertain that they will firmly adhere (as in the event of 
their falling off, the letters become charged with postage), 
they should then be placed on the front of the letter, and upon 
the right hand corner of the upper side. 

"Should this direction not be attended to, from the rapidity 
with which the duty must be performed, letters which bear 
stamps will frequently be taxed, while the parties receiving 
them will be put to much trouble in obtaining a return of the 
postage improperly charged. 

"In all cases of complaint of any irrgularity, the covers of 
the letters (and contents in all practicable cases) must invari- 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 179 

ably be kept and sent to the Post-office, as affording the only 
means of investigating the complaint. 

"A. Woodgate, D. P. M. G. 
"General P. O., Halifax, August 25th, 1851." 

The Postmaster-General in his report for 1852, says: 
"Postage stamps valued at 1 shilling, 6 pence, and 3 pence 
have been procured from Trelayney Saunders, Esq., Stationer, 
of London, and supplied to stationers, postmasters, mer- 
chants, and others, at a discount of 5 per cent, allowed on 
sums of 5 and upwards. During the past year there have 
been issued from my office postage stamps to the value of 
355 2s. 6d. This is a much smaller circulation than was an- 
ticipated at the time of their introduction into the Province, 
the public generally, I apprehend, not yet clearly understand- 
ing their use, nor appreciating their advantages. 

"They are deposited with the Receiver-General for safe 
keeping, from whom I procure them when a supply is need- 
ed. Application has been made for 1 penny stamps, which 
are expected to arrive shortly." 

The only mention of a bill for the stamps is in the accounts 
for the quarter ending 5th October, 1851. It is 

"By cash paid to Hon. Jos. Howe, being 
amount remitted by him to Trelayney 
Saunders, Esq., for postage stamps 
for Nova Scotia .... 221 14s. 8d." 

This seems to be a very small amount for the plates and 
stamps, but it more probably is a part payment, as the plate 
and printing of the 1 penny alone cost 191 3s. 2d. I cannot 
however find any mention of any further sum paid. 

The stamps were not long in use before it was found that 
the want of a 1 penny label was a great inconvenience as it 
was necessary for the local drop letters in Halifax, and also 



180 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

to make up the rate on letters prepaid in stamps to the United 
States, Bermuda, Newfoundland, &c. 

The Post-office Commissioners spoke of this in their first 
report after the Province had taken over the postal adminis- 
tration. 

"The Committee recommend that the Governor-in-Council 
should be legally empowered to introduce a 1 penny stamp, 
in addition to those now in use, the same being necessary to 
prepay letters to the United States, Bermuda, Newfound- 
land, and to accommodate the people of Halifax; and also 
to make regulations to secure the safe passage of money let- 
ters." 

At this time the postal rates with the United States were 
the same as in 1848: "The United States rates to be taken 
on letters forwarded between the United States and the British 
North American Provinces, under Article 13 of the Convention 
of December the 5th, 1848, shall be as follows: 

"On any letter not exceeding half-ounce in weight, con- 
veyed, or to be conveyed, any distance within the United States 
not exceeding 300 miles a rate of 5 cents, and for any distance 

exceeding 300 miles a rate of 10 cents. 

i 

"When the United States rates of postage are collected in 
British North America, 5 cents shall be considered equivalent 
to 3d., and 10 cents to 6d., Provincial currency. 

"The Provincial rates of postage, to be taken under the 
provisions of the same article, shall be as follows: On any 
letter not exceeding half an ounce in weight, conveyed, or 
to be conveyed, any distance within British North America, 
not exceeding 60 miles a rate of 4d. sterling, or 9 cents. Above 
60 miles but not exceeding 100 miles a rate of 6d. sterling, or 
12 cents, and so on an additional rate of 2d. sterling or 4 cents 
for every distance not exceeding 100 miles." 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 181 

In 1852 a new agreement was made between the respective 
Governments of Nova Scotia and the United States, 'causing 
a very great reduction in the postal rates. It is as follows: 

"No. 12. 

"Articles of agreement between the Post-office Depart- 
ment of the United States, and the Post-office Department of 
Nova Scotia. 

"For the purpose of establishing and regulating the exchange 
of mails between the United States and Nova Scotia, it is agreed 
between the Post-office Department of the United States, and 
the Post-office Department of Nova Scotia : 

"1. That there shall be an exchange of mails between the 
United States and Nova Scotia at the following points, viz., 

On the side of the United On the side of Nova Scotia 

States at Boston. At Halifax. 

"2. The postage to be charged in the United States on a 
letter not exceeding half an ounce in weight, to and from 
Nova Scotia, and Cape Breton, shall be 5 cents (three pence) 
for any distance within the United States not exceeding 3,000 
miles, and exceeding 3,000 miles within the United States 10 
cents (sixpence) the single letter, every additional weight of 
half an ounce, or additional of less than half an ounce, to be 
charged as an additional rate; the rates of this section men- 
tioned having been agreed upon by the Postmaster-General 
of the United States by and with advice and consent of the 
President. 

********** 

"8. The postage stamps of either country shall be taken 
as evidence of the prepayment of postage. 

"9. The Post Office designated for the dispatch and receipt 
of the Provincial mails on the side of the United States, will 
stamp "U. States" upon all letters sent into Nova Scotia for 



182 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

delivery; and the office designated for the dispatch and re- 
ceipt of United States mails on the side of Nova Scotia, will 
stamp "Nova Scotia" upon all letters sent into the United 
States for delivery." 

Clause 9 of this agreement will explain to a certain extent 
the existence of some of the Nova Scotia 3d. and 6d. stamps 
with a new value of 5 or 10 cents stamped on them. Although 
the clause only calls for "U. States" or "Nova Scotia" to be 
stamped on letters exchanged between the respective coun- 
tries, yet I have never seen one cover with that inscription 
alone on it. The commonest form of these inscriptions is 
PAID 6d." on United States letters, and "Paid 10 cents" on 
Nova Scotia letters. This hand stamp is usually found in 
two lines, "PAID" above and the value in a half circle beneath. 
Other types of these hand stamps are not uncommon in either 
country; I have seen a letter mailed at Providence, R. I., and 
postmarked "June 4, 1859," prepaid with the United States 10 
cent stamp of 1857, it has a small, double-lined oval stamped 
on it, within which are the words "United States," and in the 
centre of these words "6d." The stamp is cancelled with 
"PAID" in a circle. Although all the stamping on this cover 
is done in red, yet the ink of the postmark and cancellation is 
quite different to that in which the "United States 6d." is 
struck. The hand stamps used may sometimes have been 
struck on the stamp, and thus would make the so-called sur- 
charge ; this however does not in any way resemble that which 
would be made by printing. I do not believe in the least in 
any such variety made by the latter means. 

To return to the Id. stamps. The recommendation of the 
Post-office was acted upon as soon as possible, and a One 
Penny stamp was issued. Plate 1. No. The exact date of the 
issue I cannot find, although I have searched the Royal Gazette 
and all the newspapers of the time ; apparently there was no ad- 
vertisement published of their proposed use. The nearest 
approach to the date is the first requisition for them made by the 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 183 

Postmaster General on the Receiver General, who in Nova 
Scotia held the stock of stamps; this is dated 

"Halifax, May 12, 1853. 

"Sir, I have the honor to request that I may be furnished 
with a supply of 200 sheets of 1 penny stamps (amounting to 
100) for the use of the Post-office in this Province." 

(Sgd.) "A Woodgate, P. M. G." 

The next reference to the Id. stamp is in the report for 
1853, where the Postmaster-General says that "One Penny 
postage stamps having recently been received from London, 
and put into circulation, are now to be had in nearly every 
Post-office in Nova Scotia. 

"There are at present stamps for 1 shilling, 6 pence, 3 
pence, and 1 penny ; and the public have thus every facility 
afforded them to prepay their letters to any place to which 
stamps can free them. His Excellency's Government having 
at considerable outlay introduced into the country the system 
of prepayment by stamps, it is a subject of gratulation that the 
public at large are beginning to feel and appreciate their con- 
venience and advantages, a much larger amount having been 
issued from my office during the past than the present year, 
being an increase of over 25 per cent., as will be seen by re- 
ference to Report 1." 

In the accounts for this year there is one lettered "K." 
"Penny postage stamps . . . 191 3s. 2d." 

This no doubt is Perkins, Vacon & Go's bill for making 
the plate and for printing. 

In 1853 the question of a reduced rate of postage to the 
United Kingdom was raised, and a petition was drawn up and 
forwarded on the 17th of March, 1853, by Sir Gaspard Le 
Marchant, Lt.-Governor of Nova Scotia, to the Parliament of 
Great Britain, praying for a reduction of postage to a uniform 



184 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

prepaid Id. postage rate to all the English Colonies and Great 
Britain. 

An answer was sent to this petition on the 8th April, 1853, 
by the Duke of Newcastle, who encloses a copy of a circular 
dated 5th April, 1853, of which he also forwarded copies to 
all the governors of British Colonies. 

The circular says: " Her Majesty's Government 

will be prepared to adopt a uniform 6d. rate for all Colonial 
letters within a specified weight, so soon as the circumstances 
which the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury may think it 
their duty to take into consideration will permit, and upon its 
being ascertained that those Colonies, whose postal arrange- 
ments are independent of this country, are willing to acquiesce 
in the proposed arrangement. 

"In order to avoid any misconception, I beg to repeat that 
the object of the Postmaster-General in the first instance is 
to enquire whether the Governments of the several Colonies 
will consent to the measure contemplated. Should their con- 
sent be obtained it will then remain to fix a period for bringing 
the arrangements into effect, simultaneously in the United King- 
dom and Colonies." 

On Lord Canning's accession to power the reduction was 
made. 

"The details of the arrangement are that the present 
postal charges on letters between the United Kingdom and 
all the British Colonial possessions shall be reduced to a uni- 
form rate of 6d. the half-ounce, according to the following 
scale, which is that in use in the United Kingdom, viz., 

Not exceeding 1-2-ounce . . .1 Rate. 

Exceeding and not 1 ounce . 2 Rates. 

1 " 2 ounces . 4 " 

and so on. The postage to free the letter to its place of des- 
tination, and to be prepaid or not at the option of the sender." 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA- 185 

When the reduced rate went into operation in Nova Scotia, 
there was no stamp of the value of 7f d. (equal to 6d. sterling) 
for the use of those who wished to prepay their letters. This 
difficulty was overcome by a notice to the public allowing the 
3d. stamp to be cut and used for half its value. This is allu- 
ded to in the report for 1854, which says of this: "The Im- 
perial Post-Office authorities having completed the necessary 
arrangements for reducing the comparatively high rates of 
postage charged on the correspondence between the United 
Kingdom and British North America, &c., the reduced rate 
came into operation on the 1st August last. 

"This considerate act on the part of the parent country 
cannot but be considered as a great boon, especially to the 
poor man, who can now send or receive his letters by packet 
for the comparatively small sum of 7|d. currency, the single 
rate of half an ounce. 

"To remedy to some extent the serious inconvenience said 
to be experienced by merchants and others, in consequence 
of there being no seven and one-half penny currency postage 
stamp, by which parties who feel desirous could thus prepay 
their letters to England, and not wishing to put the Province 
to any further expense in having another die prepared, I 
considered it expedient to allow half stamps to be used with 
those now in use, to obviate the want of accommodation com- 
plained of, and a circular was accordingly forwarded to my 
deputies, and a notice issued to the public to the effect that 
letters could be prepaid to England by stamps by parties us- 
ing a sixpence, or two threepenny stamps together, with half 
a threepenny stamp. Plate 2, Nos. 5 and 7. The threepenny 
stamp to be cut diagonally, and the half to be equivalent to 1 Jd. 

"The threepenny stamp alone to be used for that purpose." 

This I believe is the only known instance in which a half 
stamp was authorized as a permanent issue, and used for 
such a long period of time seven years 1854-1860. Other 



186 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

countries have authorized the use of bisected stamps, but only 
until a new one had been issued to meet the want of the new 
value. 

The order to divide the 3d. stamp alone was not adhered to, 
as I have seen several covers prepaid with half of a Is. and half 
of a 3d. stamp to make the rate; and I saw in an auction cata- 
logue of a sale in New York last winter, a cover described as be- 
ing prepaid 7jd., made up of a 6d. and a quarter of a sixpenny 
stamp. I have no doubt that the Id. was also used for the same 
purpose. The circular only permits the 3d. stamp to be cut; 
but the letters I saw prepaid with the cut Is. passed through 
Halifax and were not taxed, and I do not think that any letters 
so prepaid with cut stamps were taxed, even though such were 
not alluded to in the regulations. 

The discount of 5 per cent., that had been allowed to all pur- 
chasers of stamps to the value of 5 and upwards, did not appear 
to give satisfaction to the country postmasters, as in 1855 the 
Postmaster-General asked that this privilege should be can- 
celled. The report says, "When stamps were first introduced 
into this province not only were postmasters authorised 
to sell them on commission, but merchants, stationers, and 
others obtained a discount of 5 per cent, on their purchase on 
all sums of 5 and upwards. This was done with a view to 
their general circulation, and in the hope that in this manner 
the public would sooner perceive their utility and convenience. 
The object then sought having been to a great extent attained, 
and postage stlamps being now in circulation throughout the 
Province, I would therefore beg to suggest that in future the 
commission or discount, as the case may be, be confined to 
postmasters alone (including the Halifax office). This course 
would somewhat increase the postmasters' emoluments, and 
give them a privilege, which in my opinion they are fairly and 
justly entitled to." 

This not unreasonable request was acceded to. 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCO HA. 187 

That the use of stamps was largely increasing there is no 
doubt, as in the report for 1857 we find "The amount of post- 
age stamps sold during the year was 2,855 5 2 
In 1852 335 2 6 



Increase of 2,520 2 8 

good evidence, I coiiceive, of their convenience, and of their 
appreciation as such by the public generally. 

"A further supply of postage labels has been procured 
from England for the use of this Department, which for safe 
keeping are deposited with the Receiver-General, viz., 13,750 
sheets, valued at 40,000, the cost of which, including pre- 
mium on exchange on London, amounted to 120 16s. Id 
currency." 

The requisition for this supply is the only one I have been 
able to find. It is in one of the letter-books of the Post- 
office Department. 

"General Post-Office, Halifax, 
"July 2nd, 1857. 

"Sir, The stock of postage stamps procured from England 
some time ago being nearly exhausted, I have the honour to 
request that you will be good enough to issue the necessary 
directions to Mr. Stanford, No. 6, Charing Cross, London, for 
a further demand, viz., 

10,000 sheets of 3d. postage stamps, value 20,000 

2,500 " 6d. " " 10,000 

1,250 " Is. " " 10,000 

Each sheet to contain 160 labels of 3d., 6d., and Is. stamps, 

making each sheet of the value of 2, 4, and 8 respectively, 

and to be the colour of those affixed on the margin. 

"The last supply of stamps were furnished by Mr. Tre- 
lawney Saunders, who has transferred his business to Mr. 
Stanford. In applying for these postage labels, therefore, 



188 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

it will be necessary you should furnish Mr. Stanford with 
your authority to produce the key for opening the box con- 
taining the dies, which are now in the possession of the en- 
gravers, Messrs. Perkins, Bacon & Fetch, who are also in pos- 
session of a key for the safe custody of the dies. 

"It is particularly requested that the stamps may be for- 
warded at as early a period as possible, those remaining on 
hand being not only nearly expended, but much injured. 
When making the requisition it would be as well to caution 
the engravers not to pack the parcels too close, for when they 
are strictly confined they adhere and become useless, as was 
the case with some of the packages in the last supply furnished. 
I have, &c., &c., 

"(Sgd.) A. Woodgate. 
"The Hon. C. Tupper, M. D., M. P. .P., Halifax." 

I do not think that more than two supplies of stamps were 
ever sent from England. The accounts contain but two, 
there are two only mentioned in the reports, and there are 
but two distinct series of shades in the stamps. The fore- 
going applies to the three higher values alone. 

Although I can find no trace of any but the one charge 
for Id. stamps, I am inclined to believe that there was more 
than one supply, as there is more variety in the shades of 
paper and ink than in the other values pointing, I should 
think, to more than one printing. 

The bisecting of stamps in Nova Scotia was not authorized 
except in the case of the 3d., as before stated. But although not 
legalized it was a well-known and practised custom , Plate 2, Nos. 
3 and 6, and such stamps were always allowed to prepay postage. 
One peculiarity is th&t in both issues a stamp cut any way but 
diagonally is extremely rare. In the last few years I have seen 
and handled many covers prepaid by cut stamps, and I have 
only met with three divided otherwise. These were two 6d.cut 
perpendicularly.Plate 2,No. 4, and one 10 cents cut horizontally. 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 189 

I have been informed by an employe of the Nova Scotian 
post-office that those only that were cut diagonally were re- 
cognized, and if so the public and postmasters who did this 
bisecting were probably acquainted with this fact. 

Considering the length of time stamps were in use in Nova 
Scotia the number sold was not very great. The reports give 
the amounts for all except the last year. They were: 

s. d. 

During years 1851 and 1852 335 2 6 

" 1853 473 4 8 

" 1854 898 6 

" 1855 1656 14 3 

" 1856 2536 15 9 

11 1857 2855 15 2 

" 1858 3172 13 5 

" 1859 (to 30th Sept.) . . 3619 1 10 

The stamps issued by Nova Scotia are too well known to 
need any description. They are perhaps the handsomest of 
the many beautiful designs manufactured by Messrs. Perkins, 
Bacon & Co. for the British Colonies. There is one detail 
of which perhaps many collectors are not aware, and that is, 
that the fourth flower in the diamond is the May flower, the 
national emblem of Nova Scotia. It is one of the hardiest 
of wild flowers, its delicate pink and white blossoms perfuming 
the air long before the snow is off the ground. 

The 3d., 6d., and Is. stamps were printed in sheets of 
160, and the Id. in a sheet of 120 stamps, on a paper of very 
even weight, no varieties in thick or thin paper being found. 
The gum used for the first printing was of a very dark brown 
colour, and of a pliable nature, as even on unused specimens 
now it does not show any cracks, and it can be bent without 
cracking. 

The first printing of the 3d. was in a very dark blue colour 
on a clear blue paper, printing and paper varying slightly in 



190 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

shade. The 6d. is printed in a yellow-green on a bluish paper, 
printing and paper varying slightly in shade, as in the 3d. 
I have lately been shown an unused specimen of the 6d. printed 
in a pale yellow-green on an almost white paper, no trace of 
blue whatever, more yellowish-white than anything. If it 
had not been for the gum on the back, and its perfect unused 
condition I should say it had been treated to an acid bath. 

The Is. is in a light violet colour, on a very slightly bluish 
paper. The paper used for this value appears to be the whitest 
of the series. 

The Id. is found in three very distinct shades, both of 
paper and ink: 1st, a very dull reddish-brown tint on a pale 
blue paper; 2nd, a much richer tint of the same colour on a 
bluish paper; and 3rd (the scarcest variety), a very bright 
red-brown (showing little trace of brown at all) on bright blue 
paper. This shade is so marked that it can easily be recognised 
by any one. I had a specimen of the Id. in a distinct brick- red 
colour, but am not satisfied that it had not been changed in 
shade, although, if stich was the case, the change was confined 
to the ink alone, as the paper was of the normal tint. 

The second printing of the 3d., 6d., and Is. were issued 
about the end of 1857. For a long time past I have taken 
notes of the varieties and dates of postmarks on the covers I 
have seen, and it is somewhat uncommon to find the 3d., dark 
blue, or the 6d., yellow-green, used after the end of 1857. From 
that date the 3d., light blue, and the 6d., dark green, are the 
ones met with. 

This second lot is entirely distinct from the first. The 
paper is of a lighter shade, the colours are different, and the 
gum is yellowish-white and crackly. It is very brittle; if 
a stamp is bent the gum cracks all over, and in some cases the 
paper will nearly break. There are two varieties of paper, one 
almost white, the other bright blue. 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 191 

In the 3d. there are three distinct shades or varieties: a. 
On almost white paper, generally tinted on the face by the 
plate, printed in a light blue. b. Same paper and colour, 
but there is the appearance of a cloud or haze on the printing 
which gives it a cold look; the border lines also look as if print- 
ed in a deeper shade, c. On a bright blue paper, the impres- 
sion of a lighter shade than the paper. 

In the 6d. there are two varieties: a. Oh the same whitish 
paper as the 3d., printed in dark green, b. On the bright blue 
paper. There do not appear to be any shades in the ink of 
this valkie, as the green is of the same tint on both p'apers. 

The Is. is in three varieties: a. On the whitish paper of 
the other values, b. On same paper, but with the cloud over 
it like the 3d.; this is printed in a much deeper shade than the 
first, c. On the bright blue paper of the 3d. and 6d., the colour 
of this is a very deep mative. The last two shades are exceed- 
ingly rare. 

In the following list where the. paper is spoken of as being 
almost white it must be understood that there is always more 
or less of a bluish tint. This applies to the second printing 
only, as in the first the paper is more decided in colour. It 
would perhaps be more correct to describe it as being slightly 
bluish, but this would be misleading in the case of some, that 
show so little of the blue tint that it is rather suggested than 
seen.* 

REFERENCE LIST. 

1st Sept., 1851. 

3d., black blue on blue paper. 

3d., dark blue on blue paper (shades). 

3d. on sky-blue paper. 

6d., yellow-green on slightly bluish paper (shades) 

6d "on very 

6d. on yellowish-white paper. 



192 NOVA SCOTTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Is., violet on slightly bluish paper (shades). 

Is. " on very bluish paper. 

Is., cold violet on yellowish white pape"r. 

12th May, 1853. 

Id., dull reddish brown on pale blue paper. 
Id., deep " "on blue paper (shades). 

Id., bright brown-red on bright blue paper. 

Last quarter, 1857. 

3d., light blue on almost white paper (shades). 
3d. cloud on impression, almost white paper. 

3d. on bright blue paper. 

6d., dark green, on almost white paper. 
6d. on bright blue paper. 

Is., mauve on almost white paper (shades). 
Is. cloud on impression, almost white paper. 

Is., very dark mauve on bright blue paper. 

A list of the cut stamps of Nova Scotia can only be con- 
sidered as approximately correct, new varieties are liable to 
be unearthed at any time. I have thought it best to head the 
list with the official variety, and to give the full prepayment 
of the cover on which the cut stamps are found. The list 
could be very much extended by giving the different parts of 
the stamps used, as right-hand side, left-hand side, side, etc.; 
but this I think would be carrying the varieties to extremes, 
although I know more than one collector in the Provinces 
who is collecting in this manner. 

REFERENCE LIST. 
1854. 

7Jd., made up with a 6d., yellow green on slightly bluish paper, 

and half a 3d., black-blue. 
7Jd., made up with a 6d., yellow-green on very bluish paper, 

and half a 3d., dark blue on blue paper. 
7Jd., made up with two and a half 3d., dark blue on blue paper 

(shades) . 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 193 

7Jd., made up with a 6d., and a quarter of a 6d. 

7|d., " " the half of a Is., violet, and half a 3d., 

dark blue on blue paper. 
Is. lOfd., mada up with three 6d., yellow-green on very bluish 

paper, and one and a half 3d., dark blue on blue paper. 
4Jd., made up with one and a half 3d. dark blue on blue paper. 
3d., made of half a 6d., yellow-green on bluish paper (shades). 
3d., made of half a 6d., yellow-green on very bluish paper. 
3d. " quarter of a Is., violet on whitish paper. 

6d. " half a Is., violet on slightly bluish paper. 

9d., made up with one and a half 6d., yellow-green on bluish 

paper. 

1857. 

3d., made of half a 6d., dark green on whitish paper. 
3d. " " 6d., on bright blue paper. 

3d. " " 6d., 

perpendicularly. 
7|d., made up with a 6d., dark green on bright blue paper, 

and half a 3d., light blue on whitish paper. 
7Jd., made up with two and a half 3d., light blue on whitish 

paper. 

Before leaving the pence series, it is well to speak of some 
varieties of these stamps that have been found with a new 
value, in decimal currency, overprinted on them. 

Only two varieties of these have come under my obser- 
vation; the threepence, overprinted, or rather cancelled, 
with a large double-lined oval enclosing the value "5 c.," and 
the sixpence with a similar overprint of the figures "10," un- 
framed. 

Of the threepence, I have seen three covers mailed at 
Baddeck, C. B., Plate 2, No. 2, and postmarked January 13th 



194 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

and 20th, 1860 (the third date was illegible), and all three 
addressed to thesame person. 

As will be seen by the dates, these letters were mailed 
after the Decimal Currency Act went into operation, but before 
the new stamps were issued. 

As the then postmaster at Baddeck was still living, I wrote 
to him enclosing the covers, and he informed me that this 
overprint was used as a canceller, the stamps bearing no other 
cancellation than the oval described above. 

The sixpennies with the overprint were also on the original 
cover; there were two of them on a letter mailed from Why- 
cocomagh, C. B., Plate 2, No 1, postmarked February 29th, 
1860, but, as with the threepennies, there was no other can- 
cellation than the figures "10" on each of the stamps. 

Another manner in which these overprints might occur 
was in the stamping of the postage paid on the face of letters 
passing between Nova Scotia and the United States, as de- 
scribed earlier in this paper. 

Personally, I do not believe there ever was a stamp of the 
pence issue of Nova Scotia surcharged with a new value and 
sold in the Province; if there had been they would certainly 
have come to light in greater or less quantities before this, 
as the Province has been thoroughly overhauled for the old 
issues of stamps, and it is about cleaned out, and we have yet 
to see these surcharged stamps turn up. 

During the session of the Legislature for 1859 the Decimal 
Currency Act was passed. It was as follows: 

"Chapter 111. 

"Be it enacted, &c., the several coins hereinafter mentioned 
shall be legal tender at the following rates: 

"1. The gold sovereign of the United Kingdom at five 
dollars. 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 195 

"The silver coins of the United Kingdom at the following 
rates : 

Silver crown of the United Kingdom, one dollar and twenty- 

five cents. 

half-crown sixty-two and a half cents. 

florin fifty cents. 

shilling twenty-five cents. 

sixpence twelve and a half cents. 

fourpence eight cents. 

"5. In the laws of the Province now in force, whenever 
any fees, charges, or other sums in currency, are mentioned, 
the amounts so mentioned shall hereafter be competed and 
taken to represent dollars and cents in the following scale: 
a shall represent $4.00; a Is. shall represent 20 c.; a Id., 
2c. ; 2d., 3}c. ; 3d., 5c. ; 4d., 6Jc. ; 5d., 8}c. ; 6d., lOc. ; 7d., lljc. ; 
8d., 13c. ; 9d., 15c. ; 10d., 16f c. ; lid., 18c. ; 12d., 20." 



This Act made a complete change in the keeping of accounts, 
and necessitated the issue of a new series of stamps. It was 
put into effect in the Province before there were decimal coins 
ready to be placed in circulation, or stamps to be issued. This 
naturally created confusion and loss, especially to the Post- 
office, so much so that it was spoken of at some length in the 
Postmaster-General's report, dated January 20th, 1860, when 
the currency had only been changed 20 days. He says: 

"The Act to establish the 'decimal system of accounting/ 
published in the Royal Gazette on the 8th of November last, 
for the information of all public functionaries, was given 
practical effect to by this department on the 1st of January 
inst. the necessary instructions, together with the various 
forms of accounts, &c., having previously been issued by me 
to all Postmasters and way office keepers. Much difficulty 
however has already been experienced by the Postmasters 
in satisfactorily carrying out the provisions of the Act, owing 
to the want of proper coins to represent the decimal currency, 



196 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

a value, much beyond its intrinsic worth, having been given 
by the law to the copper coin, whereby the revenue of the 
Department will sustain a very material loss." 

The particular part of the complaint relates to a want of 
the proper copper coins, and to the excessive value attached 
to those in circulation. This, however, was to a certain ex- 
tent remedied by extra charging for letters prepaid in coppers, 
as in the postal notices which now appeared in the Royal 
Gazette I find one relating to the establishment of a book post 
to Bermuda and Newfoundland, where the rate of postage is 
given in coppers altogether. This was as follows: 

"Notice to the Public. 

"Book Post to Bermuda and Newfoundland. 
"The Government of this Province having consented to 
the establishment of a book post to Bermuda and Newfound- 
land, under an arrangement proposed by the Postmaster- 
General of England, said arrangement will come into operation 
on the 1st of June next. 

"The regulations for the transmission, &c and the 

rates of postage will be as follows: 

"Not exceeding 4 ounces 15 coppers. 

Above 4 ounces and not exceeding 8 ounces . . 15 

" 8 " " 16 " ... 15 

" 1 Ib. " l|lbs ... 45 

"The following condition must be observed: 

"1. The entire postage must be prepaid by postage stamps. 

"(Sgd.) A. Woodgate, P. M. G. 
"General Post-office, Halifax, llth May, 1860." , 

A better illustration of the extra amount charged for letters 
prepaid in copper coin is an advertisement relating to the dis- 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 197 

patch of an English mail by the way of Quebec, in the Royal 
Gazette of June 6th, 1860. 

" Notice to the Public. 

"Notice is hereby given that a closed mail for the United 
Kingdom and Europe by this channel will be made up at this 
office on Saturday next, 2nd inst., at 8 p. m., and on every 
alternate Saturday during the summer season. The postage 
on a letter not exceeding J an ounce will be 6d. sterling, or 
12J cents; when paid in copper coins 15 half-pennies. 

"(Sgd.) A. Woodgate, P. M. G." 

Toward the end of the year the new bronze coinage was 
issued and the old copper coins withdrawn, so that the post- 
office rates came down to their normal charge. The Royal 
Gazette for September 5th contains the notice to the public 
and instructions to postmasters relative to the new postal 
regulations, the chief one being the compulsory prepayment 
of postage. The notice says: 

"Notice to the Public and Instructions to Postmasters. 
"Compulsory Prepayment of Letters by Postage Stamps. 

"Commencing on Monday, the 1st day of October next, 
the postage on all letters posted in Nova Scotia, and addressed 
to any place in this Province, the other British North Ameri- 
can Provinces, and the United States, as well as to the United 
Kingdom, must be prepaid by stamps. 

"The design, colour, and value of each class of perforated 
stamps are as follows, viz. : 

Plate 3, Nos 1, 2, 3 and 4. 

"The 1 cent stamp, the Queen's head in profile, black. 

"5 " " . " . " blue. 

" 10 " " " full face, red. 

" " " " black. 



198 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

"Any letter which may be posted, prepaid, by the Nova 
Scotia stamps now in circulation, will be allowed to pass through 
the Post-office in this Province for one month after the system 
comes into operation. 

"Letters sent unpaid to any part of the above-named places 
will be charged with a double rate of postage. 

"The Postmaster-General would respectfully suggest to 
the merchants and others the expediency of their keeping 
themselves constantly supplied with postage stamps, to pre- 
vent disappointment and annoyance in the event of a post- 
master or way-office keeper being out of stamps when applied 
to. 

"It should be distinctly understood that no other stamps 
than those issued by the department are to be taken in this 
Province in prepayment of letters posted within the same. 

"These stamps can be had at the General Post-office, 
Halifax, and of all the postmasters and way-office keepers. 

"General Post-office, Halifax, August 22nd, 1860." 



"INSTRUCTIONS TO POSTMASTERS. 
'^Circular No. 9. 

"General Post-office, 

"Halifax, 22nd August, 1860. 

"Sir, The system of compulsory prepayment of letters by 
stamp having been adopted by the House of Assembly in the 
last session, and the necessary stamps, effectually to carry out 
the system, being now ready for circulation, I have to acquaint 
you that the compulsory prepayment of postage will commence 
on the first day of October next, under the following conditions, 
viz., The postage on all letters posted at any post or way office 
in Nova Scotia, addressed to the United Kingdom, the United 
States, or to any part of the British North American provinces, 
must be prepaid by stamp, otherwise the postage will be 
DOUBLED. 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTTA. 199 

"The design, colour, and value of the new stamps are as 
follows : 

"The Queen's Head (profile), black, 1 cent. 

blue, Scents. 
11 (full face) red, 10 " 

11 black, 12| cents. 

"Any stamps now in use, remaining in the hands of Post- 
masters, are to be returned to the head office at Halifax, and 
the amount to be taken credit for in account current for qtiar- 
ter ended 30th September. 

"All letters which may be posted at your office prepaid 
by the stamps now in use are to be allowed to pass, as at pre- 
sent, for one month after the system comes into operation. 

"To prevent as far as possible the possibility of a stamp 
being used a second time, Postmasters are particularly enjoined 
to be very careful iji examining the letters, to see that the 
stamps are effectually obliterated, either by using the oblitera- 
tion stamp, or by crossing the stamp with pen and ink. 

"(Sgd). A. Woodgate, P. M. G. 
"The Postmaster of ." 

In the Postmaster-General's Report for 1860 he gives the 
description and values of the new issue, including the 8J cents, 
which value was not in the list in the circular. He says: 

"Postage stamps of a hew design, and adapted to the deci- 
mal system, were obtained with the consent of the Governor in 
Council, from the New York Bank Note Co., and circulated 
on the 1st of October last. 

"The design, colour, and value of the stamps are as follows: 
"The Queen's Head (profile), black, 1 cent. 

blue, 5 cents. 
" (full face), green, 8} "Plate3,No.5 

red, 10 " 
" black, 12J " 



200 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

"A supply of 19,000 sheets or 1,900,000 heads, equal in 
value to $132,000, has been obtained from the above firm, 
costing for their manufacture and incidental expenses $991.50." 

In this Report the 8J cent stamp is described, although 
no mention is made of it in the "Instructions to Postmasters"; 
this was due to the fact that it was not ordered until some 
months after the other values were. 

The account for making the stamps shows the date : 

"Voucher M. 

"Amount of sums paid for postage stamps during year 
ended 30th September, 1860. 

"The American Bank Note Company of New York. 
"1860. 
"May 29. 

" Engraving steel plate, 100 stamps, 1 cent. $100 

100 " 5 " 100 

" i " 100 " 10 " 100 

100 " 12J " 100 

- $400.00 

Printing 2500 impressions, 100 stamps of 1 cent 
7500 " 100 " 5 " 

5000 " 100 " 10 " 

2000 " 100 " 12| " 



17000 impressions at 25 cents per 1000. 425 . 00 
"American Bank Note Company. 
"Oct. 6. 

Engraving steel plate, 100 stamps 8J cents 100.00 

Printing 2000 impressions of ditto 50.00 

$975.00 
"E. G. Fuller. 
"Expenses incurred in forwarding postage stamps 

by express from New York to Halifax 16 . 50 

$991.50 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 201 

There seems to have been some loss to the Post-office by 
the use of this value (8| cents) when first issued to the public, 
perhaps due to the lack of \ cent coins, although these should 
have been in circulation by this date. Whatever the cause 
was, the loss is frequently mentioned in the accounts for 
1861-2, as 

"Account for quarter ended 30th June, 1861. 

"Loss of lOd. a sheet on 25 sheets of 8J cent ' 

stamps $4 . 16." 

Again, in the accounts for the September quarter, there is 
"Loss on 31 sheets of 8J cent stamps, being lOd. on each sheet, 
$5.16." This loss did not occur in the country offices only, 
as in the accounts for the March quarter of 1861 there is "Loss 
on 8J cent stamps sold at Halifax office, $9.33." 

In 1863 the County Postage Act was introduced. This 
was designed for a reduction of the postal rates, but it never 
worked satisfactorily, the difficulty being in the smaller offices, 
which were not properly acquainted with the county limits. 
The Act is as follows: 

Chapter 23. Rev. Stat. 

Of the post-office. 
"Be it enacted, etc. 

"2. Letters mailed at any office in the Province for de- 
livery within the county in which the office is situated shall, 
if prepaid by stamp, be liable to a charge of 2 cents per \ ounce. 
If not prepaid such letters shall be subject to the ordinary 
rate." 

In his report for 1863 the Postmaster-General speaks very 
unfavourably of the change, saying: 

"To enable me to carry out that part of the Act passed 
during the last session, in reference to the Post-office, reducing 



202 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



the postage to 2 cents on a letter posted in the county for 
delivery within the same county, it is necessary to procure 
for the public convenience a stamp for the prepayment of this 
particular class of letters. Application was accordingly made 
to the American Bank Note Company for a supply, and 5000 
sheets, Plate 3, No. 6, were procured at a cost to the Depart- 
ment, including the die, of $226.00. 

"The reduced rate came into operation on the llth May 
last, and has yielded for the five months ended 30th September 
last (as far as I have been enabled to glean from the returns 
in my possession) a revenue of $450.00 a less amount, in my 
opinion, than would have been realized under the higher rate 
for the same period." 

This is the last report of any philatelic interest, and closes 
the official history of the stamps of Nova Scotia. 

The total number of the cents issue received from the makers 
is as follows : 





1 cent. 


2 cents. 


5 cents. 


8^ cents 


10 cents. 


12 cts. 


1860 
May 29. .. 
Get 6 


250,000 




750,000 


' 200,000 


500,000 


200,000 


1862 


400 000 




1,000,000 


400,000 


500,000 


400,000 


1863 




1,000,000 










1864. . 


500,000 




1,200,000 









1866. . . 






1,000,000 




.. 






1,150,000 


1,000,000 


3,950,000 


600,000| 


1,000,000 


600,000 



The second and last series of the stamps of the Province 
of Nova Scotia were manufactured by the American Bank 
Note Company of New York; they were engraved in taille 
douce and printed in sheets of one hundred, ten rows of ten 
stamps. 

They may be divided into two broad varieties, those on 
yellowish paper and those on white. The 1, 5, and 12J cents 
are found on some minor varieties of paper, which will be 
found in the reference list. The yellow tint of the paper may 
be due to some extent to the gum used, but I have seen unused 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 203 

copies on white paper with gum as brown as possible, and yet 
not tinting the paper in the slightest degree. 

The earlier printing of this issue was on the yellowish 
paper. The 5 cents is the only value that is rare on that 
paper, and it is exceedingly so, as I cannot find more than 
about one in a hundred of this variety. The 10 and 12J cents 
are probably the commonest values. 

The 1 and 12J cents are found on a distinctly grey paper, 
but these varieties are very rare. The 5 cents is found on a 
very distinctly blue-faced paper, but this I think is due to 
insufficient cleaning of the plate. This same value is also 
found on a very thin soft paper, and printed in a light milky- 
blue shade. The 5 cents is the only value of the set in wtiich 
the thickness of the paper varies ; it runs from a very heavy 
stiff paper to the thin soft one mentioned above. The set on 
white paper is the commonest of the series, indeed all the 
varieties spoken of above are more or less scarce. 

There is no great variety of shades to be found except 
from light to dark. The only value in which any distinct 
tints exist is the 2 cents, and varieties in the colour of this 
value might be expected. I have seen this stamp in a delicate 
pearl-grey tint, but believe this to be produced by exposure 
to light or by some chemical change. 

The perforation usually given for these stamps is 12, but 1 
have carefully measured a very large number of all values, 
and find that the guage varies from 11J to 12, simple and 
compound. The varieties of perforations are found on both 
the papers used. 

All the different varieties are given in the reference list, 
and in the case of compound perfs. the first measurement is 
for the top and bottom, and the second for the sides. 



204 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

REFERENCE LIST. 

October 1st, 1860. 

Yellowish paper. 

1 cent, black (shades grey to black), perf. 11J, 12 
5 cents, blue (shades light to dark), perf. 11 J, 12. 
8J cents, green (shades light to dark), perf. 12. 

10 cents, red (shades light to dark), perf. 11J, 12, 12x11^. 

12J cents, black (shades grey to black,) perf. 11J, 12. 

White paper. 

1 cent, black (shades grey to black), perf. 11J, 12. 

2 cents, mauve (many shades), perf. 12, 12x11 J. 

5 cents, blue (shades light to dark), perf. 11J, 12, 12x11^. 

8J cents, green (shades light to dark), perf. 11J, 12, 12xll. 
10 cents, red (shades light to dark), perf. 12, 12xllf . 
12 J cents, black (shades grey to black), perf. 11 J, 12. 

1 cent, black on grey paper, perf. 12.* 

5 cents, blue (shades), on blue-faced paper, perf. 11J,12.* 
12 J cents, black on grey paper; perf. 12.* 

As might be expected, the bisected stamps of this issue are 
not as numerous as those in the preceding one; there was 
not the same necessity, stamps being provided for all rates of 
postage. What varieties do exist are much rarer than in the 
pence issue, and some are nearly unique in their rarity. A 
cover with 12J cents, made up of two and a half 5 cent stamps, 
is now in the Tapling collection in the British Museum; this 
was the only such specimen known until a few months ago, 
when I procured a piece of an envelope with the same com- 
bination on it, prepaying it to England, for which purpose the 
12J cents stamps was issued. The 5 cents, made of two and 
a half 2 cents stamps, is equally rare; I know of only two 
specimens in existence. The two other varieties of 12^ and 
15 cents are, as far as I know, absolutely unique 



THE POSTAGE STAMPS OF NOVA SCOTIA. 205 

The 10 cents cut diagonally is the commonest variety; 
split in any other manner. It is rare. 

REFERENCE LIST. 

5 cents, made of half a 10c., cut diagonally, 

5 " " " 10 c., cut horizontally. 

5 " " " 10 c., cut vertically. 

5 " two 2 c., stamps, and half of a third, cut 

diagonally. 
12J cents made of two 5c. stamps and half of a third, cut 

diagonally. 
12J cents made of one 10 c., one 2 c., and half ale. stamp, 

cut diagonally. 
15 cents, made of one 10 c. stamp and half of another, cut 

diagonally. 



206 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

LIST OF DONORS AND BOOKS. 

Donated to the Library of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, 



American Historical Society: 

Annual Report. 
Atkinson, Mrs. Margaret Lindsay: 

Annual Report of Lindsay Association. 

Bent, Gilbert O: 

Literary Monthly (Sept. 1913) 
Boston Book Company: 

Annual Magazine Index. 
Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Society: 

Journal. 
Canadian Military Institute: 

Selected Papers. 
Chicago Historical Society: 

Charter, Constitution and List of Members. 
Cornell University: 

Catalogue of the Icelandic Literature. 
Department of Agriculture: 

Agricultural Gazette of Canada. 
Eaton, Rev. Arthur N. H: 

Alexander Me Nutt. 

Old Boston Families ( No 1) 
Elliot, Mrs. Charles: 

Maps of Halifax, 1758. 
Flint, T. B: 

Historical Colonial Elections. 

Recollections of Crimean Campaign. 

The Cruise of the Neptune. 

European Schools of History. 

Crown and Parliament of Sweden. 



LIST OF DONORS TO N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 207 

Gay, F. L: 

A Rough List of Transcripts Relating to the History of 
New England, 1630-1776. 

General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of United States: 

Archives. 
Halifax City Club: 

Evening Mail (eng) for 1815. 

Harvard University: 

Report of President and Treasurer of Harvard college 
1912-13. 

Kansas State Historical Society: 

Collections. 
Lawson, B. J: 

One Hundred years with Baptists of Amherst. 

McGill University: 
Calendar of University. 

MacKinnon, Jas: 

Report of Eastern Township's Bank, 1859-1912. 
Massachusetts Historical Society: 

Proceedings. 
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society: 

Collections. 

Nebraska State Historical Society: 

Collections. 
New England Historical Genealogical Society: 

Register. 
New York Historical Society: 

Collections. 
New York Public Library: 

Bulletin. 
New Berry Library: 

Report for 1913. 



208 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Queens University: 

Calendar of Faculty of Education. 

Calendar of College and University. 
Rhode Island Historical Society: 

Charter and By-Laws. Proceedings. 
Royal Colonial Institute: 

Year Book, 1914. 
Royal Commission on Industrial and Technical Education: 

Report. 
Royal Society of Canada : 

Transactions and Proceedings. 
Saskatchewan University : 

Calendar. 

"Shelburne Gazette." 
Toronto University: 

Review of Historical Publications relating to Canada. 
University of North Carolina. 

Publications. 
University of Trinity College: 

Calendar. 
Vermont Historical Society: 

Proceedings. 
Vickery, E. J : 

Kemptville. 

"Weekly Monitor" (Bridgetown). 
Western Reserve Historical Society: 
Wisconsin Historical Society: 

Collections. 

Catalogue of Newspapers in Library of Historical Society 
Wisconsin History Commission: 

An Artilleryman's Diary. 

Service with Third Wisconsin Infantry. 
Woman's Canadian Historical Society of Ottawa: - 

Annual Report, 1912-13 



LIST OF; PAPERS. 



209 



LIST OF, PAPERS. 

f. ' - , . / 

READ BEFORE THE NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL"SOCIBTY~JUNE 21, 1878, TO MAY, 1913. 



DATE. 



TITLE. 



WHENCE OBTAINED. 



(Published in 
Collections. 



1878. 
June 2 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov. 

1879. 



Inaugural Address 

i History of St. Paul's Church. Part I . . 
" Autobiography of Revd. Wm. Cochran 

Telegraphy in Nova Scotia and neigh- 
boring Provinces 



Hon. A. G. Archibald . Vol. i. o 

Rev. Dr. Hill I do. 

Rev. Dr. Cochran | 

r. E. Morton, Esq 



18. 
35 



Sin. 
ar. 

June 



Nov. 6 
1880. 



Sarly Settlement of Shubenacadie 

ournal of Colonel Nicholson at Siege o 

Annapolis 

Translation from the French, relating 

to the religious beliefs of the Indians 

prioi to the discovery by Cabot . . . 
ourney to Yarmouth in 1 7 by Mather 

Byles 



Hiss E. Frame . . 
T. B. Akins, Esq (Vol. i. p. 59 

Robt. Morrow, Esq. ..j 
Hon. Dr. Almon . 



Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 

May 

May 



June 
Nov. 1 



Dec. 



1S81. 



do. 



5 Early Journalism in Nova Scotia 

11 History of St. Paul's Church. Pts II III 
1 1 Govern or Cornwallis and the First 

Council 

Witherspoon's Journal of the Siege of 

Quebec 

Walter Bromley and his labors in the 

cause of Education, by late John 

Young. (Agricola) 

Sketches of the Winniett, DeLancy, 

and Milledge families |W. A. Calnek, Esq 

Revolutionary Incidents in Nova Scotia 

1776-1778 

Sketch of Brook Watson, by Revd. 

Hugh Graham 

Brook Watson's account of the Expul- 
sion of the Acadians 



. J. Stewart, Esq ... .Vol. vi. p. 91. 

*ev. Dr. Hill Vol. ii. p. 83. 

B. Akins, Esq Vol. ii. p. 17. 



Jan. 



Feb. 

Mar. 14 



Apr. 



May 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



Vol. ii. p. 31. 



Early History of the DissentingChurches 

in Nova Scotia Rev. Dr. Patterson . 

Biographical Sketch of Rev. Jas. Mur- 



T. Bulmer, Esq 



J. T. Buhner, Esq 



do. 



do. 



Vol. 
VoL 



ii. p. 135 
ii. p. 129. 



doch 

3 iogiaphical Sketch of Alexander Howe 
Account of the Manners and Customs o 
the Acadians, with remaiks on 
then removal from the Province; 

by Moses Delesderniei, 1795 

Letter (dated June 27, 1751) from Sur- 
veyor Morris to Governor Shirley, 
with a plan for the removal of the 

Acadians 

5 Extracts from the Boston News Letter, 
1704-1760. and from Halifax Ga 
zette 1752 

udge Croke (a Biography) 

Chapter from the life of S G W Archibald 

Government House 

richolas Perdue Olding, (a Biography) 

^etitions to the Council of Massachusetts 
Bay from residents of Yarmouth, 
and from Council of Cumberland . 

roposal of Capt. John Allen as to cap- 
ture of Halifax and conquest of 
Nova Scotia . . 



Miss E. Frame Vol. ii. p. 100. 

W. A. Catnek, Esq.... 



T. B. Akins, Esq 



do. 



\S. iss E. Frame .... 
Hon. Sir A. Archibald jVol. ii. p. 110. 

srael Longworth, Esq 
Hon. Sir A. Archibald I Vol. iii. p. 197. 
Rev. Dr. Patterson [ 



T. B. Akins, Esq . . 



do. 



.(Vol. ii. p. 11. 



210 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Continued.) 



DATS. 


TITLE. 


WHENCE OBTAINED 


Published in 
Collections. 


1882. 
Jan. 5 

Feb. 2 
Mar. 2 
July 3 
Oct. 5 

Nov. 2 
Dec. 7 

1883. 

Jan. 4 
Mar. 1 
Apr. 5 
May 4 
July 12 
Nov. 15 
Dec. 6 

1884. 
Jan. 3 
Mar. 6 

May 1 

Nov. 13 

Dec. 4 

1885. 
Feb. 5 

Mar. 12 
Apr. 9 

May 7 

Oct. 1 
Nov. 5 

Nov. 5 
Dec. 3 

1886. 
Jan. 7 
Feb. 11 

May 13 
Dec. 2 


Who was Lebel? 


Jas. Hannay, Esq. St 
John N. B 


Vol. xv. 
Vol.iii.p. 13. 

Vol. iv. p. 247. 
Vol. xvii. p. 111. 

Vol. ix. p. 119. 

Vol. vi. p. 123. 
Vol. iv. p. 11. 

Vol. iv. p. 64. 
Vol.vii.p. 129. 

Vol. vi. p. 137 
iVol. v. p. 11 


Nomenclature of the Streets of Halifax . . 
A visit to Louisburg 
History of St. Paul's Church. Part IV. . . 
Chapter in the Life of Sir John 
Wentworth 


Rev. Dr. Hill 
P. Lynch, Esq 
Rev. Dr. Hill 

Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
W. A. Calnek 


Edward How and his family 


M. S. Journal of Mr. Glover, Secretary 
of Admiral Cockburn, when con- 
veying Napoleon to St. Helena in 


Nepean Clarke, Esq . . . 

Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
P. Lynch, Esq 
Rev. Dr. Patterson . . . 
E. Hepple Hall, Esq . . 
Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
Rev. Dr. Hill 


The Province Building 


Early Reminiscenes of Halifax 
The Stone Age of the Micmacs 


Newfoundland, past, present and future 
Early Life of Sir John Wentworth 


Nomenclature of the streets of Hafx pt ii 
Tour with General Campbell, in July 
and August, 1875, along the 
coasts of Nova Scotia, by Lieut. 
Booth, R. E. .W 

Celebrated persons who have visited 
Nova Scotia 


T. B. Akins, Esq 
P. Lynch Esq . 


Ships of War wrecked on coasts of No- 
va Scotia and Sable Island in 18th 
century 


S. D. Macdonald, Esq . 
Israel Longworth, Esq 

T. B. Akins, Esq 
Rev. Dr. Patterson . . . 

do 


Hon. S. B. Robie (a Biography) 


Plans submitted to the British Govern- 
ment in 1783 by Sir Guy Carleton 
(1.) For the founding of a Seminary of 
learning at Windsor, N. S 
(2.) For the establishment of an Episco- 
pate in N. S 
Samuel Vetch. 1st English Governor 
of Nova Scotia 


Samuel Vetch. 1st English Governor 
of Nova Scotia. Part II 


Exodus of the Negroes in 1791, with 
extracts from Clarkson's Journal 
Saga of Eric the Red, with an account 
of the discovery of Vinland. Trans 
lated (by Capt. Ove Lange) 
Early History of St. George's Church 
Part I-II 


Hon. Sir A. Archibald 

P. Jack, Esq 

Rev. Dr. Partridge . . . 
Rev. A. W. H. Eaton. 

Hon. Dr. Almon 
Rev. Dr. Patterson . . . 

Hon. Sir A. Archibald 

T. B. Akins, Esq 
Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
Rev. Dr. Burns ... 


Old Churches of Cornwallis and Horton. . 
Letters from Rev. Jacob Bailey to Rev 
Mather Byles 


Letter from Duke of Kent to Dr. Wil- 
liam Almoii . . 


The League of the Iroquois 


Expulsion of the Acadians. Part I 
Method of the Acadian French in cul- 
tivating their land especially with 
regard to raising wheat . 


Judge Isaac DesChamps 1785 .... 
Bermuda 


Centennial Memories 






LIST OF PAPERS 211 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Continued.) 



DATE. 


TITLE. 


WHENCE OBTAINED. 


Published in 
Collections. 


1887. 

Jan. 14 
Feb. 3 
Mar. 3 
Mar. 16 

Apr. 7 
Apr. 7 

Nor. 10 
Dec. 8 

1888. 
Jan. 20 

Feb. 24 
Feb. 29 
Mar. 27 
Apr. 10 
Nov. 12 
Dec. 20 

1889. 
Jan. 15 
Mar. 12 

Apr. 9 
Nov. 12 
Dec. 10 

1890. 

Feb. 13 
Nov. 18 
Dec. 9 

1891. 

Jan. 10 
Jan. 15 
Jan. 20 
Feb. 10 

Mar. 20 

Nov. 10 
1892. 

Jan. 12 
Feb. 9 

Nov. 8 
Dec. 13 


Vinland 


Hon. L. G. Power .... 
P. Lynch, Esq 
Rev. Dr. Partridge . . . 

Judge R L Weatherbe 
Dr. Geo. Lawson 

Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
F. B. Ctofton, Esq.... 
J. J. Stewart, Esq .... 

John E. Orpen, Esq. . . 

D. Allison, Esq 
F. B. Crofton, Esq 
Dr. C. G. D. Roberts, . 
Hon. J. W. Longley. . . 
Rev. T. W. Smith .... 
Geo. Creed, Esq 

Lt.-Col. Wainwright . 

James Hannay, Esq., 
St. John, N. B . . . 
J. Mascarene Hubbard 
Boston . ... 


Vol. vii. p. 17. 
Vol. xvii. 
Vol. vii. p. 73. 

Vol. vi. p. 17. 
Vol. vi. p. 91. 

Vol. vii. p. 45. 
Vol. vi. p. 63. 

Vol. xvii. 
Vol. ix. p. 73. 

Vol. IX. 


Early Reminiscences of Halifax, Part II . 
Early Hist, of St. George's Church Pt. II. 
Acadian Boundary Disputes and the 


Colonist Plants of Nova Scotia 
Memoir of John Clarkson, by his bro- 
ther, (the celebrated) Thos. 
Clarkson 


A Study of ' 'Sam Slick' ' 
Early Journalism in Nova Scotia 

Statement with reference to "French 
Cross' ' at Aylesford 


The settlement of the early Townships, 
Illustrated by an old census 


T. C. Haliburton, Writer and Thinker.. 
The Aroostook War 


Howe and his contemporaries 


The Loyalists at Shelburne . 
Photographs on Rocks at Fairy Lake . 
North West Territory and Red River 
Expedition . . . 


The Early Settlers of Sunbury County . 
Memoir of Governor Paul Mascarene 

Legends of the Micmac Indians | 
United Empire Loyalists 


Rev. S. T. Rand 
C. F. Fraser, Esq 


Inquiries into the History of the Aca- 
dian District of Pisiquid 

History of Beaubasin 


H. Y. Hind... 

Judge Morse, Amherst . 
P. Lynch Esq 


Early Reminiscences of Halifax, Part III 
An Historical Note on ' 'John Crowne' ' 

Agricola by Joe Howe 


Prof. A. MacMechan . . 

Sydenham Howe 
Hon. L. G. Power .... 

Rev. Geo. Patterson . . 

Prof. Geo. Lawson .... 
Peter Lynch, Esq., Q. c 

Miss Eliza Frame 
Rev. Geo. Patterson 
D. D . 

Hon. W. J. Almon 
Israel Longworth 


Richard John Uniacke 


The Portuguese on the North East 
Coast of America, and the first 
European settlement there 
Pacts and enquiries concerning the ori- 
gin and early history of Agricul- 
ture in Nova Scotia 
Reminiscences of Halifax, Part IV 

Extracts from Old Boston Papers 
[looped Cannon found at Louisburg . . . 

Journal kept by Rev. Dr. Mather Byles 


Chapter in History of Onslow . . 






212 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Continued). 



DATE. 


TITLE. 


WHENCE OBTAINED. 


Published in 
Collections. 


1893. 
Jan. 10 

Feb. 14 
Apr. 27 

July 28 
Nov. 14 

Dec. 12 
1894. 

Feb. 13 
Mar. 20 

Nov. 27 
1895. 

Jan. 22 
Feb. 12 

Mar. 12 
Dec. 12 

1896. 

Feb. 11 
Apr. 23 

1897. 

Apr. 13 
Nov. 9 
Dec. 14 

1898. 

Jan. 21 
Feb. 17 
Mar. 15 

Apr. 12 
Nov. 8 
Dec. 13 

1899. 

Jan. 10 
Jan. 17 
Feb. 14 
Mar. 14 
June 21 
Nov. 16 
Dec. 12 

1900. 

Feb. 13 
Mac. 29 
Nov. 20 
Dec. 11 


Gambles among the Leaves of my Scrap 
Book 


W. H Hill .... 


Vol. X. p. 93. 
Vol. IX. 

Vol. IX. 

Vol. XIII. 
Vol. XIII. 

Vol. XVIII \ 
Vol. X. 

Vol. XII. 
Vol. XL 


The Log of a H alif ax Privateer in 1 7 5 7 . 
Sir William Alexander and Scottish 
Attempt to Colonize Acadia 


Archd. MacMechan... 
Rev. Geo. Patterson 
D. D... 


'Royal William- ' Steamship 
Voyages and Discoveries of the Cabots . 

Recollect Fathers in Canada 

Critical Observations on Evangeline. . . . 
Origin and History of Names of Places 
Nova Scotia .... . . . | 


Sir Sandford Fleming 
Rev. Moses Harvey . . . 

Geo. Patterson, M. A.. . 

F. Blake Crofton 
Rev. Geo. Patterson, 
D. D 




J. Plimsoll Edwards . . 

Hon. L. G. Power. . . . 
Charles Stubbing 

W. H. Hill 
W. L. Brown . . 


Irish Discovery of America 


History of the Dockyard, Halifax 

Early Military Life in Halifax 
Early Life in Halifax 

French Protestants in Nova Scotia 
Historical Gleanings 

History of Wilmot and Aylesf ord 
Reminiscences of N.W.Rebellion in 1885 
Loyalist Makers of Canada .... 


Rv. G. Patterson, D. D. 
Dr. H. Y. Hind 

Rv. E M Saunders D D 
Rev D M Gordon, D. D 
Sir J. G. Bourinot .... 

Mrs. Chas. Archibald 
Rev. W. O. Raymond 
Rev TW Smith, D. D 

Mrs. J. M. Owen 


Scottish Immigrants to Cape Breton . . . 
Benj. Marsden of Marblehead 
Slavery in the Maritime Provinces 

Early French Missionaries at Port Royal 
Hist, of the Courts of Judicature of N. S. 
History of the Law and Courts of N. S . . . 

Military History of Nova Scotia 
Origin of Nova Scotians 


Chf. Jus. Townshend . 
C. Sydney Harrington 

Harry Piers ... 


Sir John Bourinot . . 
Dr. A. H. MacKay . . 
Hon. Wm. Ross .... 
Jas. S. Macdonald . . 
Chf. Jus. Townshend 


History of Education in N. S 
Freemasonry in Nova Scotia 
Hon Edward Cornwallis 


Chancery Courts of Nova Scotia 
Military History of Nova Scotia. II 


Archd. MacMechan . . . 
Rev. W. O. Raymond . 
Rev. Dr. Brock 
Dr. Hannay . . 


Benjamin Marsden 


Legend of Evangeline 
The War of 1812 



LIST OF PAPERS. 213 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Continued). 



DATE. 


TlTLB. 


WHENCE OBTAINED. 


Published in 
Collections. 


1901. 
Jan. 15 

Feb. 26 

Nov. 26 

1902. 

Feb. 11 
Mar. 12 
Nov. 25 

Dec. 9 
1903. 
Jan. 23 

Feb. 10 
Mar. 10 

Apr. 14 
Dec. 15 

1904. 

Tan. 12 
Mar. 15 
Apr. 5 
Dec. 6 

1905. 
Jan. 11 

Mar. 28 
Dec. 5 

1906. 

Jan. 23 
Mar. 13 
Dec. 11 
1907. 

Mar. 1 
Apr. 9 
May 14 
Nov. 12 

Dec. 10 
1908. 
Jan. 14 
Feb. 25 

Mai. 24 
Apr. 21 
Nov. 1( 


Governor Lawrence . . 


Jas. S. Macdonald . . . 

Rev. T. W. Smith 
Archd. MacMechan . . . 

E. F. Hart . . . 
R. R. McLeod 
Chiefjustice Sir Chas. 
J. Townshend 


Vol. XII. 

Vol. XIV. 

Atlantic Month- 
ly, Feb. 1907. 

Vol. XVI. 
Vol. XV. 

Am. Hist. 
Review. 

Acadiensis. 
Vol. XIII. 
Vol. XVI. 

Vol. XII. 
Vol. XIII. 

Vol. XIV. 

Acadiensis, 
Ap. July, 1906. 

Vol. XVI. 

Vol. XIV. 
Vol. XV. 

Vol. XVII. 

A Pamphlet 
pub. by Society 


Capture of St. Pierre, 1795 
The Real Acadians 


Lord Charles Greville Montague 
Notes on North'n portion of Queens Co * . 
Hon Alex. Stewart 


John Cabot 


Senator Poirier 


Relations and Conditions of Halifax 
during Revolutionary War 
Hon. Joseph Howe 


Miss Emily Weaver . . . 
F Blake Crofton 


Periodicals of the Maritime Provinces 
from the earliest Times to the 
Present . 


D. R. Jack, St. John . . . 
Rev.E M Saunders, D D 
Prof. W. C. Murray . . . 

Jas. S. Macdonald .... 
Geo. E. E. Nichols 
A. Martin Payne 
J. B. Calkin 

Mr. Justice Longley . . . 
A. Martin Payne 
Archd. MacMechan . . . 

Jas. S. Macdonald . . . 
Dr.Geo.Johnstone.D.C.L 
Mr. Justice Longley . . 

Jas. S. Macdonald .... 
Rev. C. W. Vernon . . . 
W. C. Milner 

Miss Agnes Creighton 
Jas. S. Macdonald .... 

Major J. Plimeoll 
Edwards 

John Ervin 


Rev. John Wlswell and his Times 


History of St. Matthew's Church, Hal'x 

Richard Bulkeley 
Notes on Nova Scotia Privateers 
Duke of Kent ... 


Old Time Customs . 


Account of Celebration of Ter-Centen- 
ary of DeMont's Landing at An- 


Sir Samuel Cunard 


Halifax in Literature .... 


Lt.-Gov. Francklin 


Sir Guy Carleton ... . . 


Washington Treaty 1871 




Governor DesBarres and Sydney 
History of Beausejour ... . . 


Existing historic relics of the Town of 
Lunenburg 


Sir Geo. Prevost . . . . . 


The Militia of Nova Scotia, 1749-1830 
John Young, (Agricola) the Junius of 


Letters qf S.G.W. Archibald, 1800 & 1820 
Customs of the Micmac Indians 


Judge Patterson 
H. W. Hewitt 
| John S. McLennan 

I 







214 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE N. S- HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Continued). 



DATB. 


TITLE. 


WHENCE OBTAINED. 


Published in 
Collections. 


Dec. 8 

1909. 
Jan. 19 
Jan. 18 
Mar. 

Mar. 9 
Nov. 9 
Dec. 14 
1910. 
Jan. 18 
Mar. 8 
Apr. 12 

Nov. 4 
Dec. 2 
1911 
Jan. 20 
Feb. 14 

Mar. 10 
Mar. 21 
Nov. 3 

1912 
Dec. 1 
Jan. 5 
Feb. 2 
Mar. 1 

April 12 
May 3 

1913. 
Nov. 
Dec. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 
Feb. 

Mar. 

Mar. 
April 
May 

Nov. 

Dec. 

1914 
Jan. 

Feb. 
Mar. 

April. 
May 


Fisheries of British North America and 
^ e United States Fishermen 


Mr. Justice Graham . . 

Dr. R. C. Archibald . . 
Rev. John Forrest.D.D 

Judge Savary . . . . . . 


Vol. XIV. 

Vol. XVI. 
Vol. XVI . 

Vol. XVII. 

Vol. XVII. 
Vol. XVI. 

Vol. XVII. 
Vol. XVII. 

Vol. XVII. 

r ol. XVIII. 
ol. XVIII. 






Ancestry of the late Sir Fenwick 


Sea Fights, gleaned from Prov. Archives 


John Mullane 
Theodore H. Boggs . . 
H. B. Stairs 


S. African campaign and Contingent 

Capt. Jas. Cook, R. N 
Lt. Gov. Michl. Franklin (2nd paper) . 
Memorials of Grand Pre and Basin of 
Minas 


Lt. J. A. R. Jones . . . 
Jas. S. Macdonald . . . 

Geo. Johnson. D.C.L. . 
Hon. W. Ross 


i Free Masonry inN S Part II ... 


The Trent Affair 


Geo. Johnson, D.C.L . . 
5. Lawson Fenerty .... 
Judge Chesley 


The Old Mail Routes and Post Roads 
Temperance legislation for the past 100 
years in Nova Scotia 
Life of Hon. Judge William Blowers Bliss 
Early legislation in Nova Scotia 
History of the Militia of Nova Scotia, 
ii 1830-1867 


Sir Chas. Townshend . . 
Judge Russell 


Major J. Plimsoll Ed 
wards 


The early settlers of McNab's Island.etc. 
The inception of the Associated Press.etc . 
Life of Hon. James W. Johnston 
The Military Associations of Sir John 
Cope Sherbrooke 


H. W. Hewitt 


k>hn W. Regan 
John Y. Payzant 


David Allison, LL.D . . 
Donald A. King 


History of the N. S. Postage Stamps 


Motes on the French and Pre- Revolution 
settlements of Shelburne County. 

"Old Dartmouth" 


T. C. Lockwood, M. D 
Hon.Mr.Justice Russell 

George Mullane 


A Sketch of Lawrence O'Connor Dayle, 
a Representative of Halifax in the 
Early Forties 


Short Historical Note on the so-called 
'Norse Stone,' at Yarmouth 
Brief Historical Note on Thomas Wil- 
liams, grandfather of Sir Fenwick 
Williams 


Moses H. Nickerson. . . 

Capt. Jas. D.Ritchie.. 

Prof D. F. Fraser, M.D. 
Prof. J. W. Falconer. . 

Rev. John Forrest.D.D. 

H. N. Paint... 
Rev.A.W.Eaton,D.C.L. 
Hon.Mr.Justice Russell 

Rev. Allan Pollok.D.D. 

Archdeacon Armitage, 
M.A.,Ph.D . . 

A.C.Jost,Esq.,M. D. 

fohn Irvin, Esq., K. C. 
Jeckles Willson V 
Hon. Sir Charles Town 
-shend, D. C. L. V 
\. M. Payne 
iarry Piers 


An old Edition of Galen, by Laguna, 
1604, in the Cogswell Library 
The Historical Method 


Why the First Settlers came to Nova 
Scotia 


The Ancient French Cemetery near 
Rockingham 
The Finding of Alexander McNutt 
Reminiscences of the House of Assembly 
Reminiscences of a Long Life (John Mac- 
Kay, Esq., New Glasgow, 1772-1884) 
Charles Inglis, First Bishop of Nova 
Scotia 


"The Settlement of Guysboro' and Hallo- 
well Grant" 

"A Brief History of the Town of Bridge- 
town, illustrating the changes 
which have taken place in the 
manners, customs and habits of 
the rural population of Nova 
Scotia during the Century just closed 
with a Sketch of the career of Col- 
onel Poyntz, a Peninsula Veteran" 
'Wolfe's Men and Nova Scotia" 


'Jonathan Belcher" 


'The Earl of Halifax" . . 
'Artists in Nova Scotia" . . 



COLLECTIONS 215 



COLLECTIONS OF THE NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL 

SOCIETY. 
Vox,. 

I Inaugural Proceedings. History of St. Paul's Church. 
(I). Journal of Colonel John Nicholson at the Cap- 
ture of Annapolis. An Account of Nova Scotia in 1743. 
Diary of John Thomas. OUT OF PRINT. 

II. Proposals for Attack on Nova Scotia. The First Coun- 
cil. Journal of John Witherspoon. History of St. 
Paul's Church (II, III). Rev. James Murdoch. Sir 
Alexander Croke. The Acadian French. OUT OF PRINT. 

III. History of St. Paul's Church (IV). Journal of Col- 
onel John Winslow. Government House. 

IV. Hon. Samuel Vetch. Winslow' s Journal at the Siege 
of Beausejour. 

V. The Expulsion of the Acadians. Gordon's Journal at 
the Siege of Louisburg, 1758. OUT OF PRINT. 

VI. Acadian Boundary Disputes and the Ashburton Treaty 
The Loyalists at Shelburne. Early Journalism in Nova 
Scotia. King's College. History of St. George's Church 



VII. Vinland. General Return of Townships, 1767. His- 
tory of St. George's Church (II). Letters relating to Har- 
rison, Anwyl, Tutty. Deportation of Negroes to Sierra 
Leone. 

VIII History of Halifax City, by Thomas Beamish A kins. 



216 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



VOL 

IX. Voyages and Discoveries of the Cabots. The Township of 
Onslow. Richard John Uniacke. Ships of War Lost on 
the Coast of Nova Scotia and Sable Island. Louisbourg; 
an Historical Sketch. 

X. The Slave in Canada, by Rev. T. Watson Smith, D. D. 
XI. The War of 1812, by James Hannay. 

XII. Hon. Edward Cornwallis. Governor Lawrence. Richard 
Bulkeley, three portraits, by Jas. S. MacDonald. 

XIII Rev. John Wiswall. Recollections of Old Halifax. H. 
M. Naval Yard, Halifax. Nova Scotian Privateers. 

XIV. Tercentenary Celebration of the Founding of Annapolis. 
The British North America Fisheries and the United 
States Fisherman. Capture of St. Pierre, 1793. Gov- 
ernor Parr with portrait and Hatchment. 

XV. Hon. Alex. Stewart, C.B., with portrait, by Sir Charles 
Townshend. Records of Chignecto, Beausejour, Maps 
and portraits, by W. C. Milner. Nomenclature of the 
Streets of Halifax with portrait, by Rev. George W Hill, 
D.C.L. 

XVI . Memoir Lieut. -Governor Michael Francklin with portraits, 
by James S. Macdonald. The Trent Affair with portrait, 
by George Johnson, D.C.L. James William Johnston, 
First Premier of Nova Scotia under Responsible Govern- 
ment with portrait, by John Y. Payzant, M.A. Notes 
Historical and Otherwise of the Northern District of 
Queens County, by R. R. McLeod, M. A. History of St. 
Matthew's Church, Halifax with portraits, by Prof. 
Walter C. Murray, M.A., LL.B. Early Reminiscences 
of Halifax with portraits, by Peter Lynch. 



COLLECTIONS 217 

XVII. Memoir of the Life of the Honourable William Blowers 

Bliss, with portraits, by Hon. Sir Charles J. Townsend. 

Notes on Thomas Williams of Annapolis Royal, with 

portraits, by James D. Ritchie. A Short Note on the 

Yarmouth "Runic Stone," by Moses H. Nicker son. 

Remarks on the Fletcher and Related Stones of Yarmouth, 

N. S., by Harry Piers. The Fenwick Family in Nova 

Scotia, by Colonel G. C. Fenwick, Indian Army (retired.) 

The Militia of Nova Scotia, 1749-1867, with portraits, 

by Joseph Plimsoll Edwards. Early Reminiscenes of 

Halifax, by Peter Lynch, Q. C. "A Sketch of Lawrence 

0' Conner Doyle, a Member of the House of Assembly 

in the Thirties and Forties," with portraits, by George 

Mullane. Notes on Several Governors and Their Influence, 

by Joseph Howe. Statement Relative to the Introduction 

x and History of Responsible Government in Nova Scotia, 

by Rev. E. M. Saunders, D. D. Centennial Number of 

"Acadian Recorder" 

XVIII Wolfe's men and Nova Scotia, by Beckles Willson. Jon- 
athan Belcher, First Chief Justice of Nova Scotia, by Sir 
Charles Townshend, D. C. L. Dockyard Reminiscenes, 
by Charles Roche. Early Scottish Settlers in Cape Breton, 
by Mrs. Charles Archibald. Artists in Nova Scotia, by 
Harry Piers. History of NOT a Scotian Postage Stamps, 
by Donald A . King. 



218 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



INDEX. 



Abbott, T. and J. H 147 

Acadians .40,41,45 

Acres,]. E : 120 

Akins, Dr. t. B 147 

Amherst, Jeffrey 1, 2, 3, 15, 20 

Amherst, William .1, 2, 3 

Archibald, Mrs. Chas 69 

Archibald, Hon. S. G. W xxxv 

Armitage, Archdeacon . .xix, xxv. 

Armstrong, Hon. J. N . xxxvi. 

Art Exhibitions at Halitax 175, 162 

Artists in Nova Scotia . xxv - 

Barre 14, 24 

Barlett, W. H 145 

Beamis, J. (?) C 145 

Belcher, Andrew 27, 28 

Belcher, Andrew, Hon 57 

Belcher, Sir Edward. ^ 27, 28, 57 

Belcher, Jonathan. . x xxv, 25, 20, 37, 56 

Bell, Hon. Adam C ". . . .xxxvi. 

Bliss, Porter. xxvii. 

Blowers, Sampson 54 

Boscawen 16 

Bridgetown xxxv. 

Broke, Captain 60, 61 

Brown, Richard 73, 74 

Bulkeley, Richard 5, 6, 34, 36, 109 

Bury, Lord ... 6, 12, 13 



INDEX. 219 

Carleton, Guy 3, 14, 21, 24 

Carleton, Thomas 3, 21, 22, 24 

Champlain 102 

Chester, Family xxiii. 

Clow, J 146 

Collier, John 33 

Cornwallis, Edward 4, 6, 15, 22, 50 

Cotterell, (Sec) 6, 7 

Cossett, Ranna xxiii. 

Crane, Mrs. M. M 155 

Crawley . 162 

Crease, Major Gen 149 

Croke, Sir Alex 161 

Croke, B. G 110 

Crosskill, Herbert 155 



Daly, Monsignor xxxix. 

Davies, Capt. T. T 102 

Davison, Frank . . xxxviii. 

Day, Forshaw 154 

Deschamps, Isaac 54 

DesBarres, Colonel .xxxiv, 14, 18, 24, 34, 107 

Dixon, Jeremiah xxii. 

Douglas, Capt. B 155 

Drake, John P 121 

Dupont, John 36 

Drury, General C. W xxxvii. 



Eagar, William 141 

Eaton, Dr. A. W. H xxiv. 

Ellis, Hon. Senator xxxvi. 

Ericasson. . 69 



220 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Falkiner, Lieut. 67 

Farquharson, Rev. Alex 72 

Ferguson, Dr. Frank 98 

Fraser 15, 19 

Field, Robert : 112 

Finucane, Bryan , 23, 54 

Foulis, R 121 

Francklin 42, 43 

Ganong, Professor xxiv. 

Gellespie 123 

Gesner, Dr. A 145 

Gilpin, Dr. John B 153 

Gorham, John W t xxxvii. 

Gray, Capt. Thomas 6 

Greene, C. C 154 

Greenough, Greno & etc xxiv. 

Hankes 125 

Halifax, Earl of xxvi, xxxv. 

Hall, M. G 145 

Halliburton, Sir Brenton 54 

Hamilton, General Sir Ian xxxiii. 

Hardy, Major General 152 

Hicks, Lieut. Col. E . 108 

Hicks, Captain, R. N xxii. 

Hill, Albert J xxxiii. 

Hill, Rebecca Clements xxxiii. 

Hinchelwood, Lieut 6 

Hoit, Albert G ' 147 

Howard, John xxv. 

Hughes, Hon. Col xxxiii. 

Hunt, J. Johnston 



INDEX. 221 

Ince, Capt 103 

Inglis, Bishop Charles xxxv. 

Irvin, John xxxv. 

Irvine, Miss F. A 149 

Jack, David Russell xxii, xxvii. 

Jeffrey, Miss A. A 145 

Jones, W. H 123 

Jost, Dr. A. C xxxv. 

Kaulbach, Archdeacon xxxvii. 

Knox, Captain John 15, 20 

Lawrence, Captain 63 

Lawrence, Governor xxvii, 2, 11, 15, 17, 23, 25, 29 

Lawrence, John 2 

Le Chaudelec 147 

Leigh, Ernest E . . xxii. 

Legge, Governor 72 

Louisbourg 12 

Ludlow, Lieut 67 

Luquer, T. Y. P xxii. 

Lyttleton, Captain 152 

MacDonald, James S xxxiii, xxxviii, xxxix. 

Martin, Captain xxxi. 

Mason, Charles xxii. 

Mauger, Joshua 16 

MacCrae, George 109 

McDonald, Hon. James xxxviii, 55. 

McEachren, Rev. Father 75 

McKeen, Senator 84 

McLean, Hector 85 

McNutt, Alex 42 

McLeod, Norman 87 

Metcalfe. 120 



222 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Miller, Mrs. M ','. 137 

Millidge, Mrs. E 149 

Milner, W. C xxvi. 

Moorsom, Captain 124 

Moncton, Robert 3, 18, 25 

Moore, Samuel 112 

Morris, Charles . 33, 55, 72 

Morrison, Aulay 98 

Munro, Rev. Alex 95 

Murray, Alex 18 

Newton, Hon. Hy 109 

O'Brien, John 150 

Parkyns, G. J 110 

Parr's Portrait xxxix, xl. 

Parr's Governor 4, 22, 23 

Patridge 121 

Payne, A. M xxvi, xxxv. 

Pemberton, Jeremiah 54 

Petley, Major 141, 161 

Philatelic Society 167 

Phipps 124 

Pictou ! 13 

Piers, Major Henry 123 

Piers, Williams B. T 125 

Piers, Harry . xxxv. 

Pitt, William 1, 12 

Pontac 17 

Porter, Lieut 7 

Postage Stamps of N. S . , 167 



Quebec 13 



INDEX 223 

Rickson, Captain Wm 2, 4, 5, 6, 11 

Ross, Hon. Wm xxxvi, 98 

Rosse, Monsieur 146 

Rugeley 119, 120 

Rutherford, General xxxii. 

Sackville, Lord Geo 1, 2, 6 

Savary, Judge xxvii, xxxiv. 

Scott, Lieut 7 

Seager ' . . . . 146 

Short, Richard 103, 161 

Smithers, George 148 

Spilsbury, F. B. S 120 

Stannett, Ralph 120 

Stewart, Col. C. J xxi. 

Stewart, Rev. John 87, 89 

Ste Anne's Church Point xxi. 

Storm, Professor 69 

Strange, Thomas Andrew 54 

Stuart, Gilbert 107, 161 

Tablets, Historic 

Sir Provo Wallis xxxi. 

General Beckwith xxxii. 

Sir John Inglis xxxii. 

Cannon from "Shannon" xxxiii. 

Colonel F. W. DesBarres xxxiv. 

Admiral Phillips Cosby xxxiv. 

Admiral William Wolseley xxxiv. 

Hon. S. G. W. Archibald ./ xxxv. 

Townshend, Sir Charles xxxv, 55 

Townshend, George 3, 17 

Valentine, Wm 126 

Verrier.. 102 



224 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Victoria School of Art and Designs 159 

Vossnack, Emil 153 

Vroom, Canon xxi. 

Wallis, Provo xxxi, 66 

Warde, Collection 4 

Weatherbe, Sir Robert 65 

Weaver, J 110 

Willet, Miss M. I; Samuel and Jas xxiii. 

Willson, Beckles xxii, xxxv. 

Wilmot, Governor 71 

Wilson, Mrs. K. E 165 

Wolfe, Lt. Col. Edward 1 

Wolfe, General James .... 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 16, 17, 19, 25 

Woodgate, A 176, 179, 188, 196, 197, 199, 121 

Woolford, J. E 121 



Young, William Sir 54 



H 



COLLECTIONS 



OF THE 



Jlotoa Scotia 2|tsitorical Society 



0/ monuments, names, wordes, proverbs, traditions, 
private records, and evidences, fragments of stories, passages of 
bookes, and the like, we do save, and recover somewhat from the 
deluge of time. 11 Lord Bacon: The Advancement of Learning. 

"A wise nation preserves its records, gathers up its muniments, 
decorates the tombs' of its illustrious dead, repairs its great structures, 
and fosters national pride and love of country, by perpetual re- 
ferences to the sacrifices and glories of the past." Joseph Howe. 



VOLUME XIX 





PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY WM. MACNAB & SON, 
HALIFAX, N. S. 
1918. 



"The care which a nation devotes to the preservation of the 
monuments of its past may serve as a true measure of the degree 
of civilization to which it has attained." (Les Archives Principals 
de Moscou du Minister e des Affairs Etr anger es Moscow, 
1898, p. 3.) 

"To discover and rescue from the unsparing hand of time the 
records which yet remain of the earliest history of Canada. To 
preserve while in our power, such documents as may be found 
amid the dust of yet unexplored depositories, and which may 
prove important to general history, and to the particular history 
of this province." (Juebec Literary and Historical society. 

NATIONAL MONUMENTS. 

(By Henry Van Dyke}. 

Count not the cost of honour to the deadl 
The tribute that a mighty nation pays 
To those who loved he? well in former days 

Means more than gratitude for glory fled, 

For every noble man that she hath bred, 
Immortalized by art's immortal praise, 
Lives in the bronze and marble that we raise, 

To lead our sons as he our fathers led. 

These monuments of manhood, brave and high, 
Do more than forts or battle-ships to keep 

Our dear bought liberty. They fortify 

The heart of youth with valour wise and deep , 

They build eternal bulwarks, and command 

Eternal strength to guard our natite land. 




BEAMISH MURDOCH, Q. C., D. C. L.. M. L. A. 
Born about 1800; Died at Lunenburg, N. S., 9th February, 1876. 

Author of "Epitome of Laws of Nova Scotia" (1832), and 
"History of Nova Scotia" (1865-67). 



[From a photograph.] 



[Frontispiece.] 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Title Page, i 

Contents, iii 

Objects of Collections, v 

Act of Incorporation vii 

Act Amalgamating Libraries, Management, etc., viii 

Rules and By-laws, ix 

Officers and Members, 1917, xi 

List of Presidents, 1878-1917, xvi 

List of Vice-Presidents, 1878-1917, xvii 

Council, 1878-1917, xix 

Report of Society, xxi 
Papers, 

Our First President, The Hon. J. W. Ritchie, by Hon. 

L. G. Power, K. C, 1 
Recollections of Sixty Years Ago, by Rev. Allan 

Pollok, D. D., 17 

History of Bridgetown, by John Irvin, K. C., 31 
The Early Post Office in Nova Scotia, by William 

Smith, I. S. O., 53 

Life of Sir Samuel Cunard, by A. Martin Payne, 75 
The Inception of the Associated Press, by John W.. 

Regan, 

List of Donors to N. S. Historical Society, 206 

Papers read before the Society 1878-1917, 209 
List of Collections of Nova Scotia Historical Society, 

Vols., I to XIX, 215 






OBJECTS OF COLLECTIONS. 

1. Manuscript statements and narratives of pioneer sett- 
lers, old letters and journals relative to the early history and 
settlement of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland 
and Prince Edward Island, and the wars of 1776 and 1812; bio- 
graphical notes of our Indian tribes, their history, character- 
istics, sketches of their prominent chiefs and warriors, together 
with contributions of Indian implements, dress, ornaments 
and curiosities. 

2. Diaries, narratives and documents relative to the Loyal- 
ists, their expulsion from the old colonies and their settlement 
in the Maritime Provinces. 

3. Files of newspapers, books, pamphlets, college cata- 
logues, minutes of ecclesiastical conventions, associations, con- 
ferences and synods, and all other publications relating to this 
Province, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and New- 
foundland. 

4. Drawings and descriptions of our ancient mounds and 
fortifications, their size, representation and locality. 

5. Information respecting articles of pre-historic antiqui- 
ties, especially implements of copper, stone, or ancient coins or 
other curiosities found in any of the Maritime Provinces, to- 
gether with the locality and condition of their discovery. The 
contribution of all such articles to the cabinet of the society 
is most earnestly desired. 

6. Indian geographical names of streams and localities, 
with their signification, and all information generally respect- 
ing the condition, language and history of the Micmacs, Mali- 
eetes and Bethucks. 

(v) 



v i NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

7. Books of all kinds, especially such as relate to Canadian 
history, travel, and biography in general, and Lower Canada 
or Quebec in particular, family genealogies, old magazines, 
pamphlets, files of newspapers, maps, historical manuscripts, 
autographs of distinguished persons, coins, medals, paintings, 
portraits, statuary and engravings. 

8. We solicit from historical societies and other learned 
bodies that interchange of books and other materials by which 
the usefulness of institutions of this nature is so essentially en- 
hanced, pledging ourselves to repay such contributions by 
acts in kind to the best of our ability. 

9. The Society particularly begs the favor and compli- 
ments of authors and publishers, to present, with their auto- 
graphs, copies of their respective works for its library. 

10. Editors and publishers of newspapers, magazines and 
reviews, will confer a lasting favor on the Society by contri- 
buting their publications regularly for its library, where they 
may be expected to be found always on file and carefully pre- 
served. We aim to obtain and preserve for those who shall 
come after us a perfect copy of every book, pamphlet or pap- 
er ever printed in or about Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince 
Edward Island and Newfoundland. 

11. Nova Scotians residing abroad have it in their power 
to render their native province great service by making dona- 
tions to our library of books, pamphlets, manuscripts, etc., bear- 
ing on any of the Provinces of the Dominion or Newfoundland. 
To the relatives, descendants, etc., of our colonial governors, 
judges and military officers, we especially appeal on behalf of 
our Society for all papers, books, pamphlets, letters, etc., which 
may throw light on the history of any of the Provinces of the 
Dominion. 






ACT OF INCORPORATION. 



I CHAPTER 87. 

SECTION . SECTION . 

1. Incorporation. 3. Property vested in cor- 

2. May hold real estate. poration. 

An Act to incorporate the Nova Scotia Historical Society. 
(Passed the 17th day of April, A. D., 1879). 

Be it enacted by the Governor, Council, and Assembly, as 
follows : 

1. The Honourable John W. Ritchie, the Reverend George W. 
Hill, the Reverend Thomas J. Daly, the Honourable William J. 
Almon, Thomas A. Ritchie, William D. Harrington, George E. 
Morton, and John T. Bulmer, and their associates, members of the 
Nova Scotia Historical Society, and such other persons as shall be- 
come members of such society, according to the rules and by- 
laws thereof, are hereby created a body corporate by the name 
of the Nova Scotia Historical Society. 

2. The said corporation may purchase, take, hold, and en- 
joy real estate not exceeding twenty thousand dolars in value, 
and may sell, mortgage, lease, or otherwise dispose of the same 
for the benefit of the corporation. 

3. Upon the passing of this act the property o* the said Nova 
Scotia Historical Society, whether real or personal, and all debts 
due thereto, shall vest in the said Nova Scotia Historical Society 
hereby incorporated. 

(vii) 



Viii NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

AN ACT. 

To provide for the Amalgamation of the Library of the Nova 
Scotia Historical Society with the Legislative Library 
and the Management of the Joint Collection. 
(Passed the 10th day of April, A. D., 1881.) 
Be it enacted by the Governor, Council, and Assembly, as 
follows : 

1. The Library of the Nova Scotia Historical Society shall 
be amalgamated with the Legislative Library of Nova Scotia, 
and the regulation and management of the Joint Collection and 
any additions that may be made thereto is hereby vested in a 
commission of nine persons to be called the Nova Scotia Library 
Commission, of whom the Lieutenant-Governor of the Province 
for the time being shall ex officio be one, and the remainder of 
whom shall be appointed annually, one half by the Nova Scotia 
Historical Society and the other half by the Governor in Council. 

2. The Lieutenant-Governor for the time being shall be ex 
officio the President of the Commission. 

3. Should the Nova Scotia Historical Society at any time 
fail to appoint any or all of the Commissioners whom said So- 
ciety are hereby authorized to appoint, the rights and powers 
vested by this Act in the Commission shall devolve upon the 
other members of the Commission. 

4. The Librarian shall be appointed by the Governor in Coun- 
cil, and shall be such person as the Commissioners shall nomi- 
nate, and shall hold office during good behaviour. 

5. The Commissioners may make bye-laws from time to time 
for the regulation and management of the Library and prescrib- 
ing all matters necessary for the control thereof, but such bye- 
laws shall not go into force until approved by the Governor in 
Council. 

6. The Commission shall make an annual report of the ex- 
penditure, the general state of the Library, and on all such mat- 
ters in connection therewith as may be required by the Govern- 
or in Council, which report shall be laid upon the table of each 
ranch of the Legislature during the session. 



RULES AND BY-LAWS. 

REVISED MAY 27, 1910. 

1. The Society shall be called the Nova Scotia Historical 
Society. 

OBJECTS. 

2. The objects of the Society shall be the collection and 
preservation of all documents, papers and others objects of in- 
terest which may serve to throw light upon and illustrate the 
history of this country, the reading at the meetings of the Society, 
of papers on historical subjects, the publication, as far as the 
funds of the Society will allow, of all such documents and papers 
as it may be deemed desirable to publish, the formation of a lib- 
rary of books, papers and manuscripts, affording information, 
and illustrating historical subjects. 

MEMBERS. 

3. The membership shall consist of Ordinary, Life, Corres- 
ponding and Honorary Members. The Ordinary or resident 
members, shall pay at the time of admission, an entrance fee of 
Five Dollars, and Two Dollars after each succeeding annual 
meeting. The Ordinary Members residing outside the limit of 
15 miles from the city, may become members on payment of 
Two Dollars entrance fee, and One Dollar annually thereafter. 
Any Ordinary Member may become a Life Member by the payment 
of Forty Dollars. The Corresponding and Honorary Members, 
shall be elected by the unanimous vote of the Society, and are 
exempt from all dues. 

4. Candidates for membership may be proposed at any 
regular or special meeting of the Society by a Member. The pro- 
position shall remain on the table for one month, or until the 
next meeting, when a ballot shall be taken, one black ball in 
five excluding. No person shall be considered a member until 
his entrance fee is paid, and if any member shall allow his dues 
to remain unpaid for two years, his name may be struck from 
the roll. 

(ix) 



X NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

MEETINGS, OFFICE-BEARERS, ETC. 

5. The regular meetings of the Society shall be held at 8 
p. m., on the first Friday of each month, from November to May, 
both months inclusive, and special meetings may be convened on 
due notification of the President, or in case of his absence, by the 
Vice-President, or on the application of any five members. 

6. The annual meeting of the Society shall be held at 8 
p. m., on the first Friday of April, at which meeting there shall be 
chosen a President, three Vice-Presidents, a Corresponding 
Secretary, a Recording Secretary, a Treasurer, and two Auditors, 
and a Council of four members, who with the foregoing shall 
constitute the Council of the Society. The election of members 
to serve on the Nova Scotia Library Commission, under the pro- 
visions of Chapter 17, N. S. Acts of 1880, shall take place at the 
annual meeting, immediately after the election of office-bearers 
and Council. 

7. All communications which are thought worthy of pre- 
servation, shall be minuted in the books of the Society and the 
originals kept on file. 

8. Seven members shall be a quorum for all purposes at or- 
dinary meetings, but at the annual meeting, in April, ten members 
shall form a quorum. 

9. No article of the constitution nor any by-law shall be alter- 
ed at any meeting when less than ten members are present, nor 
unless the subject has either been discussed at the previous 
meeting, or reported on by a committee appointed for that purpose. 

10. The duties of the Office bearers and Council shall be the 
same as those performed generally in other Societies. 

11. The Publication Committee shall consist of four mem- 
bers and shall be appointed by the Council, to them all manu- 
scripts shall be referred, and they shall report to the Council 
before publication. 

ELECTION OF OFFICERS. 

12. All elections of officers shall be made by ballot, and a 
majority of those present shall be required to elect. 



OFFICERS AND MEMBERS 

OF THE 

NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, 
1917. 



PRESIDENT. 
David Allison, LL. D. 

VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

Hon. Mr. Justice Russell. Hon. Mr. Justice Chisholm. 

His Honor Judge Savary. 

CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

Harry Piers. 

RECORDING SECRETARY. 
William L. Payzant, M. A., LL. B. 

TREASURER. 
George E. Nichols, LL. B. 

AUDITOR. 

Col. F. H. Oxley. 

OTHER MEMBERS OF COUNCIL. 

Major J. P. Edwards. George W. T. Irving. 

A. H. MacKay, LL. D. George Mullane. 

LIBRARY COMMISSIONERS. 

Hon. Mr. Justice Chisholm. J. J. Hunt, D. C. L. 

Rev. J. Forrest, D D. A. H. MacKay, LL.D. 

LIBRARIAN. 

Miss Annie Donahoe. 

(ID 



Xll 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



THE TREASURER'S LIST OF MEMBERS 

who have qualified by paying their entrance fees as required by Nos. 3 and 4 of the 
Rules and By-Laws. 

Allison, David, LL.D., (Halifax, N. S.) 

Allison, J. Walter, (Halifax, N. S.) 

Archibald, L. B., (Truro, N. S.) 

Archibald, Charles, (Halifax, N. S.) 

Archibald, Mrs. Charles, (Halifax, N. S.) 

Archibald, Wm. C., (Wolfville, N. S.) 

Archibald, Chas. C., M. D., (Bear River, 
N. S.) 

Armitage, Ven. Archdeacon, Ph.D., (Hali- 
fax, N. S.) 

Armstrong, F. W., (Glace Bay, C. B.) 

Armstrong, M. E., M. D., (Bridgetown, N. 

Baird, Rev. Frank, (Woodstock, N. B.) 
Baker, G. Prescott, (Yarmouth, N. S.) 
Barnes, H. W., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Bayne, Chas. H., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Bent, Barry D., (Amherst, N. S.) 
Bissett, Dr., M. P. P., (Arichat, C. B.) 
Bell, Charles, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Bernasconi, G. A., (N. Sydney, C. B.) 
Black, W. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Blackadar, H. D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Blagdon, J. F., (Weymouth, N. S.) 
Borden, Sir Robert, K. C., D. C. L., (Ot- 
tawa, Ont.) 
Bourinot, John C., (Port Hawkesbury, N. 

Bout ierr, Arthur, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Breck, Edward, Ph.D., (Washington, U, 

S. A.) 

Bremner, J. J. Col., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Brookfield, S. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Brown, Richard H., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Browne, Rev. J. D. H., (Santa Monica, 

Cal.) 

Bryden, Rev. C. W., (Shellbrook, Sask.) 
Buchanan, G. O., (Vancouver, B. C.) 
Buckley, A. H., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Burchell, C. J., K. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Burpee, L. R., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
Cahan, C. H., K. C., (Montreal, Q.) 
Calkin, Hugh E., (Londonderry, N. S.) 
Cantley, Thos., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Cameron, H. W., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Campbell, A. J., (Truro, N. S.) 
Campbell, Dr. D. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Campbell, Dr. Geo. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Campbell, Geo. S., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Carson, Rev. G. S., D. D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Carter, R. S., (Maccan, N. S.) 
Chambers, R. E., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Chipman, L. deV., (Annapolis Royal, N. S.) 
Chesley, A. E. H., (Kentville, N. S.) 
Chesley, Judge S. A., K. C., (Lunenburg, 

N. S.) 
Chisholm, Hon. Mr. Justice, (Halifax, 

N. S.) 

Chisholm, J. Scott, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Christie, Loring C., (Ottawa) 
Chute, Rev. A. C., D. D., (Wolfville, N. S.) 
Clarke, M. S., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Clarke, Willard G., (Bear River, N. S.) 
Cobb, A. R., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Cohoe, Rev. A. B., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Comeau, T. G. J., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Congdon, Fred T., (Toronto, Ont.) 



Covert, W. H., K. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Cowie, Dr. A. J., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Cox, Dr., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Cox, Geo. H., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Cox, Rob., M. D., (Upper Stewiacke, N. S.) 
Connolly, E. W., Prof., (Truro, N. S.) 
Covey, Mrs. L. E., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Crane , J. Noble, Col., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Crisp, Rev. J. O., (Portsmouth, Ont.) 
Crowe, Harry J., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Crowe, Geo. R., (Winnipeg, Man.) 
Crowe, Walter, K. C., (Sydney, C. B.) 
Crowell, Rev. Edwin, (Yarmouth, N. S.) 
Gumming, M. Prof., (Truro, N. S.) 
Curry, J. M., (Amherst, N. S.) 
Cutten, Rev. Geo. B., D. D., (Wolfville, 

N. S.) 

Cutler, R. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Cutler, Mrs. R. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Dawson, Mrs., (Montreal, P. Q.) 
Dawson, Robert, (Bridgewater, N. S.) 
Daniels, Hon. O. T., K. C., M. P. P., 

(Halifax, N. S.) 

Davison, Frank, (Bridgewater, N. S.) 
DesBarres, Rev. F. W. W., (Sackville, 

N. B.) 

DeCarteret, Capt. W. S., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Dickie, Alfred, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Dickson, Dr. M. S., (Dartmouth, N. S.) 
Dickson, W. A., (Pictou, N. S.) 
Dimock, W. D., (Truro, N. S.) 
Doane, H. L., (Truro, N. S.) 
Donaldson, Rev. L. J., M. A., (Halifax, 

N. S.) 
Douglas, John C., M. P. P., (Glace Bay, 

C. B.) 

Doull, Very Rev. A. J., (Victoria, B. C.) 
Driffield, Rev. William, (Digby, N. S.) 
Drysdale, Hon. Mr. Justice, (Halifax, N. 

Dumaresq, S. P., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Eagar, W. H., M. D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Edwards, Major, J. P., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Elliott, Dr. C. S., (New Westminister, B. C.) 
Elliot, Mrs. F. E., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Falconer, Rev. Prof. J. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Faulkner, Hon. Geo. E., M. P. P., (Hali- 
fax, N. S.) 

Faulkner, Prof. J. A., (Madison, N. J.) 
Fenerty, E. Lawson, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Ferguson, Wm. McM., (Truro, N. S.) 
Fergie, Chas., M. E., (Montreal, P. Q.) 
Fielding, Hon. W. S., D. C. L., (Ottawa, 

Ont.) 

Flemming, H. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Flint, Thos. B., LL.D., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
Forrest, Rev. John, D. D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Fortier, L. M., (Annapolis Royal, N. S.) 
Francis, Thos. H., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Frame, Joseph F., (Regina, Sask.) 
Fraser, A. L., Rev., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Fraser, D. Stiles, Rev., (Elderbank, N. S.) 
Fraser, Rev. W. M., (St. Andrews, N. B.) 
Fraser, Sir C. F., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Fraser, Mrs. D. C., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Fraser, A. S. M., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Friel, James, (Moncton, N. B.) 



MEMBERS. 



Xll 



Fielding, Mrs. J. N., (Windsor, N. S.) 
Gillis, Rev. D. C., Ph.D., (Antigonish, N. 

S.) 

Gilpin, Edwin L., (Sydney, N. S.) 
Gisborne, F. H., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
Gordon, Rev. Principal, D. M., D. D., 

(Kingston, Ont.) 

Graham, Geo. E., (Kentville, N. S.) 
Grant, Mrs. MacCallum, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Harrington, G. S., (Glace Bay, N. S.) 
Harris, Hon. Mr. Justice, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Harrison, Major H. J., (Maccan). 
Hart, Miss H. L., (India). 
Harvey, W. C., (London, Eng.) 
Hattie, R. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Hebb, Willis E., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Hemeon, Rev. D. B., (St. Johns, Nfld.) 
Henderson, D. H., (Two Rivers, Wash., 

U. S. A.) 

Henderson, George, (Montreal) 
Hendry, A. W., (Liverpool, N. S.) 
Hensley, Mrs. G. W., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Hetherington, J. L., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Heward, Major S. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Hewitt, H. W., (Saskatoon, Sask.) 
Hill, Arthur E. B., (Vancouver) 
Hill, Albert J., (New Westminister) 
Hill, A. Ross, (Columbia, Mo., U. S. A.) 
Howe, Sydenham, (Middleton, N. S.) 
Hoyles, N. W., K. C., D. C. L., (Toronto, 

Hunt! Dr. J. J., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Hunt, Dr. Louis, (London, Eng.) 
Irvine, J. A., (Calgary, Alta.) 
Irving, Geo. W. T., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Jack, Rev. T. C., D. D., (N. Sydney, N. S.) 
James, Rev. Willis G., (Calgary) 
Jamison, Clarence, M. P., (Digby, N. S.) 
Jeffers, Rev. E. T., D. D., (York, Pa.) 
Jeffery, Rev. S. (Port Dufferin, N. S.) 
Jenks, Stuart, K. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Jennison, J. L., K. C., (Calgary, Alta.) 
Jennison, H. V., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Jones, Herbert L., (Weymouth, N. S.) 
Jones, Jas. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Jordan, Rev. Louis H., (Eastbourne, Eng.) 
Jost, Dr. A. C., (Guysboro, N. S.) 
Jost, Rev. Roland M., (Arcadia) 
Kaulbach, R. C. S., (Lunenburg, N. S.) 
Keator, J. Gillis, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Kennedy, Prof. W. M. P., F. R., H. S., 

(Antigonish, N. S.) 
Kent, W. G., (Halifax, N. S.) 
King, Donald A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
King, Rev. W. B., M. A., (Cambridge, 

Mass.) 

Knight, J. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Knight, Rev. M. R., (Saskville, N. B.) 
Laing, Rev. Robert, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Lane, Charles, W., (Sackville, N. B.) 
Lawson, Rev. G. A., (Moncton, N. B.) 
Leckie, Brig. General R. G. E., (Vancouver 

B. C.) 
Lockhart, Rev. Arthur John, (Winterport, 

Maine) 

Laurie, Miss M., (Oakfie'.d, N. S.) 
Levatte, Hon. H. V. C., (Louisburg N. S.) 
Lockwood, Dr. T. C., (Lockport, N. S.) 
Logan, Daniel, (Honolulu) 
Logan, J. D., Ph.D., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Logan, J. W., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Longard, E. J., (Halifax, N. S.) 



Longley, Hon. Mr. Justice J. W., (Hali- 
fax, N. S.) 

Lugar, Mrs. E. L., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Lumsdon, Rev. James, (Gabarus) 
Mader, Dr. A. I., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Margeson, J. W., M. P. P., (Bridgewater, 

Marshall, W. E., (Bridgewater, N. S.) 
Martell, Archdeacon, D. C. L., (Windsor. 

N. S.) 

Masters, C. H., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
Masters, John F., (Boston, U. S. A.) 
Mathers, Isaac H., R. St. O., (Halifax, N. 

Milner, F. L., (Amherst, N. S.) 
Milner, W. C., (Halifax. N. S.) 
Miller, Rev. W. F., (Herring Cove, N. S.) 
Miller, Rev. G. W., (Wolfville, N. S.) 
Mills, Col. D. A., (Beaulieu, Hants, Eng.) 
Minard, Asa R., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Mitchell, Archibald S., (Halifax N S ) 
Mitchell, C. H., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Mitchell, G. MacG., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Moberly, Thos. E., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Moffatt, T. I. D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Morrow, Mrs. Geoffrey, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Morse, Herman C., (Bridgetown, N. S.) 
Morse, Rev. Wm. T., (Lynn, U. S. A.) 
Morton, Rev. A. D., (Sackville, N. B.) 
Muir, Mrs. H. A., (Shelburne, N. S.) 
Mullane, George, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Murray, H. V., M. D., (Honolulu) 
Murray, Prof. D. A., (Montreal, P. Q.) 
Murray, President Walter C., LL.D., 

(Saskatoon, Sask.) 
Muir, Rev. W. Bruce, (Annapolis Royal, 

Mylius, L. J., (Winnipeg) 
McClare, Chas. H., (Cambridge, Mass.) 
McCurdy, F. B., M. P., (Halifax, N. S.) 
McGillivray, H. J., (Halifax. N. S.) 
McCallum, J. D., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
MacDonald, Daniel F., (New Glasgow, N. 

S.) 

MacDonald, E. M., K. C., (Pictou, N. S.) 
MacDonald, J. A., "The Globe,", (Tor- 
onto, Ont.) 

MacDonald, Jas. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
MacDonald, Margaret, (Quebec, P. Q.) 
MacDonald, Mrs. J. G., (Nelson, B. C.) 
MacDonald, Hon. James, M. P. P., (West 

Bay, C. B.) 

MacDonald, John D., (Pictou, N. S.) 
MacDonald, Roderick, (Halifax, N. S.) 
McGregor, Hon. J. D., (New Glasgow, N. 

S.) 
McGregor, Hon. R. M., M. P. P., (New 

Glasgow, N. S.) 

Mclnnes, Hector, K. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
MacKay, A. H., LL.D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
MacKay, Prof. E., Ph.D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
MacKenzie, President A. S., D. C. L., 

(Halifax, N. S.) 

MacKenzie, Wm. F., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
MacKinlay, Andrew, (Halifax, N. S.) 
MacKinnon, Prof. C., D. D., (Halifax, N. 

S.) 
Macintosh, Rev. John, (Whitney Pier, N. 

S.) 
McLean, Jas. A., K. C., (Bridgewater, N. 

S.) 
MacLean, Hon. A. K., (Halifax, N. S.) 



XIV 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



McLennan, Daniel, K. C., (Port Hood, C. 

B.) 

McLennan, Chas. A., (Truro, N. S.) 
McLennan, S. D., (Truro, N. S.) 
McLeod, John D., (Pictou, N. S.) 
Macnab, Brenton A., (Val Morin, P. Q.) 
Macnab, William, (Halifax, N. S.) 
MacPhie, Rev. J. P., (Monrovia, Cal.) 
McNeil, Archbishop, (Toronto, Ont.) 
McRae, Dr. A. O., (Calgary, Alta.) 
Nicolson, C. B., (Detroit) 
Nichols, E. Hart, (Digby, N. S.) 
Nichols, Geo. E. E., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Nicolls, Rev. W., (Mulgrave, N. S.) 
Orde, J. F., (Ottawa. Ont.) 
O'Dwyer, J. S., (Moncton, N. B.) 
O'Mullin, J. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Outram, Capt., (S. S. Alsatian) 
Owen, D. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Owen, Mrs. J. M., (Annapolis Royal, N. S.) 
Oxley, Col. F. H., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Paint, Henry N., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Parker, Rev. Lewis W., (M. Stewiacke, N. 

S.) 

Paton, V. J., K. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Patterson, His. Hon. Judge Geo., (New 

Glasgow, N. S.) 

Payzant, J. Y., K. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Payzant, W. L., (Halifax, N. S. 
Perrin, Frederick, (MacNabs Island) 
Piers, Harry, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Pollok, Rev. Allan, D. D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Pope, Miss Georgina, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Power, J. U., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Power, Hon. Senator L. G., K. C., (Hali- 
fax, N. S.) 

Powell, W. R., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Prescott, C. A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Primrose, James, (Pictou, N. S.) 
Putnam, Harold, (Truro, N. S.) 
Pyke, John Geo., (Liverpool, N. S.) 
Ralston, J. L., M. P. P., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Ralston, Mrs. J. L., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Rand, Mrs. C. D., (Vancouver, B. C.) 
Reid, Robie L., (Vancouver, B. C.) 
Regan, John W., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Richardson, Ven. Archdeacon, D. C. L., 

(London, Ont.) 

Richardson, H. A., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Ritchie, Miss Eliza, Ph.D., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Ritchie, James D., (Head St. Margaret's 

Bay) 

Ritchie, Reginald L., (Montreal) 
Ritchie, W. B. A., K. C., (Vancouver, B. C.) 
Roberts, Arthur, (Bridgewater, N. S.) 
Robertson, T. Reginald, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Robertson, Wm., (Halifax N. S.) 
Rogers, T. Sherman, K. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Ross, Senator W. B., K. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Ross, Edwin B., (Vancouver, B. C.) 
Ross, H. S., K. C., (Montreal, P. Q.) 
Ross, H. T., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
Rowley, C. W., (Winnipeg, Man.) ' 
Ruggles, J. R., (Lockeport, N. S.) 
Rutherford, R. W., General, (Halifax, N. 

S.) 

Sterling, Dr. J. W., (Montreal, P. Q.) 
Shreve, Rev. R., D. D., (Quebec) 
Salter, Frank, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Sedgewick, Rev. T., D. D., (Tatamagouche, 

N. S.) 
Saunders, Miss M., (Halifax, N. S ) 



Savary, His Hon. Judge A. W., (Annapolis 

Royal, N. S.) 

Shand, F. A., (Windsor, N. S.) 
Shatford, A. W., (Hubbards, N. S.) 
Shatford, Rev. A. P., (Montreal, P. Q.) 
Schwartz, W. E., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Silver, A. E., K. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Silver, Dr. L. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Sinclair, John H., M. P., (New Glasgow,. 

N. S.) 

Slayter, Maj. J. M., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Smith, C. R., K. C., (Amherst, N. S.) 
Smith, Edmund A., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Smith, F. P., M. D., (Mill Village, N. S.) 
Smith, L. Mortimer, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Smith, Dr. M. A. B., (Dartmouth, N. S.) 
Soloan, David, LL.D., (Truro, N. S.) 
Smithers, Canon A. W., (Fredericton, N_ 

B.) 

Sedgewick, F. R., (Granville Ferry, N. S.) 
Sponagle, Dr. J. A., (Middleton, N. S.) 
Stairs, Miss A. P., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Stanfield, Walter G., (New Glasgow, N. S.) 
Starr, C. C., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Starr, Mrs. F. N. G., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Steele, Rev. D. A., D. D., (Amherst, N. S.) 
Sterling, Dr. J. W., (Montreal, P. Q.) 
Stewart, Rev. John H., (Upper Stewiacke,. 

N. S.) 

Stewart, W. B., (Digby, N. S.) 
Stewart, W. D., (New Glasgow. N. S.) 
Stuart, Geo. W., (Truro, N. S.) 
St. Louis Mercantile Lib. Asso., (St. 

Louis, Mo.) 

Studd, W. H., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Sumichrast, Prof. F. J. de., (Boston, 

Mass.) 

Tanner, Senator, C. E., (Pictou, N. S.) 
Theakston, Major, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Thompson, Alfred, M. P., (Ottawa, Ont.) 
Thompson, Very Rev. A., D. D., (Glace 

Bay, N. S.) 
Thomson, Arthur, M. B. C. M., (Strat- 

ford-on-Avon, Eng.) 
Tory, President H. M., LL.D., (Edmonton, 

Alta.) 

Tory, Mrs. John A., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Tory, J. A., (Toronto, Ont.) 
Tremaine, R. A., (Truro, N. S.) 
Tory, James C., M. P. P., (Guysboro, N. 

S.) 

Townshend, Sir C. J., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Trefry, J. H., (Halifax, N. S.) 
Townsend, Rev. W. T., (Carcross, Y. T.) 
Trueman, Mrs. Margaret, (Halifax, N. S.) 
Tufts, Prof., J. F., D. C. L., (Wolfville, N. 

S.) 
Tupper, Hon. C. H., K. C., (Vancouver, B. 

C.) 

Vickery, Edgar, J., (Yarmouth, N. S.) 
Vidito, Lt. Col. I. W., (Halifax. N. S.) 
Walker, E. M., (Dartmouth, N. S.) 
Walker, Smith L., M. D., (Truro, N. S.) 
Wallace, O. C. S., Rev. (Westmount, P. Q.) 
Warman, Charles, (Liverpool, N. S.) 
Webster, D/. David, (New York, U. S. A.> 
Webster, H. B., (Kentville, N. S.) 
Whidden, C. Edgar, (Antigonish, N. S.) 
Willson, Beckles, (Windsor, N. S.) 
Whitman, A. Hanfield, (Halifax, N. S,) 
Whitman, C. H., (Canso, N. S.) 
Whitman, E. C., (Canso, N. S.) 



MEMBERS. XV 

Whitman, F. C., (Annzpolis Royal, N. S.) Woodbury, Dr. Ralph H., (Halifax, N. S.) 

Wilson, Canon W. Chas., (Springhill, N. S.) Woodworth, J. E., (Berwick, N. S.) 

Wiswell, William H., (Halifax, N^ S.) Worrell, Archbishop Clare L., (Halifax, 

Warner, F. A., (Halifax, N. S.) N. S.) 

Wilson, J. T., (Halifax, N. S.) Yorston, Fred., (Montreal, P. Q.) 

Willis, A. P., (Montreal, P. Q.) Young, Mrs. Frank, (Dartmouth, N. S.) 

Willis, Rev. J. J., (Westmount, P. Q.) Zwicker, Edward J., (Cape North, C. B.) 

Wood, Geo. M., (Halifax, N. S.) Zwicker, Rupert G., (Cape North, C. B.) 
Woodbury, Dr. F., (Halifax, N. S.) 

Life Members. 

Whitman, Wm., (Boston, Mass.) Curry, Hon. Nath., (Amherst, N. S.) 
Ellis, Hon. J. V., (St. John, N. B.) 

Corresponding Members. 

Adams, Chas. Francis, (Boston) Goldsmid, Edmund F. R. S., (Edinburgh) 

Bryce, Rev. Geo., D. D., (Winnipeg) Griffin, Martin J., M. G., (Ottawa) 

Doughty, Arthur G., LL.D., C. M. G., Prowse, Judge D. W., (St. Johns, Nfld.) 

(Ottawa, Ont.) Ward, Robert, (Bermuda) 

Eaton, Rev. Arthur Wentworth, D. C. L., Wrong, Prof. Geo. M. A., (Toronto) 

(Boston, Mass.) 
Ganong, Prof. W. F., (Northampton, 

Mass.) 

Honorary Members. 

Eaton, Rev. Arthur Wentworth Hamil- Raymond, Ven. Archdeacon, (St. John 

ton, D. C. L., (Boston) N. B.) 

Doyle, Sir Canon, (London) Roberts, Chas. G. D., (London) 



PRESIDENTS. 

THE NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
1878-1917. 



HON. MR. J USTICE JOHN W. RITCHIE 1878-1879 

REV. GEORGE W. HILL, D. D 1880-1881 

THOMAS B. AKINS, D. C. L 1882-1883 

REV. GEORGE W. HILL, D. D 1883-1885 

Lx.-Gov. SIR A. G. ARCHIBALD 1886-1892 

Lt.-Gov. M. H. RICHEY 1893-1895 

HON. MR. JUSTICE WEATHERBE 1896-1897 

HON. MR. JUSTICE LONGLEY 1897-1904 

Rev. JOHN FORREST, D. D 1905-1906 

PROF. ARCHIBALD MACMECHAN, M. A., PH. D. . . . 1907-1909 

JAMES S. MACDONALD 1910-1911 

YEN. ARCHDEACON W. J. ARMITAGE, M. A., PH. D. . 1911-1917 

DAVID ALLISON, LL. D... . 1917 



VICE- PRESIDENTS. xvh 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 

NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY 
1878-1914. 



REV. G. W. HILL, D. D 1878-1879 

DAVID ALLISON, L . D 1880-1881 

REV. GEO. W. HILL, D. D. . . . 1882 

HON. SENATOR W. J. ALMON, M. D 1883-1889 

THOMAS B. AKINS, D. C. L 1890 

1891. 
THOS. B. AKINS, DAVID ALLISON, L/L.D., MR. JUSTICE WEATHERBB. 

1892. 

MR. JUSTICE WEATHERBE, HON. SENATOR POWER 

HON. M. H. RICKEY. 

1893-1895. 

MR. JUSTICE L/ONGLEY. HON. SENATOR POWER. 

REV. JOHN FORREST, D. D. 

1896-1897 

HON. SENATOR POWER. REV. PRINCIPAL FORREST, D D. 

OR. A. H. MACKAY. 

1898-1901. 

HON. SENATOR POWER. MR. JUSTICE TOWNSHEND. 

DR. A. H. MACKAY. 

1902-1904. 
W. H. HILL. MR. JUSTICE TOWNSHEND. HON. SENATOR POWER. 

1905-1906. 

MR. JUSTICE L/ONGLEY. SENATOR POWER, 

MR. JUSTICE TOWNSHEND. 

1907-1909. 

MR. JUSTICE L/ONGLEY. SENATOR POWER. 

VEN. ARCHDEACON ARMITAGE. 



XV111 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

1910. 

MR. JUSTICE LONGLEY. YEN. ARCHDEACON ARMITAGE. 

DR. M. A. B. SMITH. 

1911. 

MR. JUSTICE LONGLEY. LT.-COL. F. H. OXLEY. 

A. H. BUCKLEY, PH. M. 

1912. 

DAVID ALLISON, LL. D., JOHN Y. PAYZANT, M. A., 

A. H. BUCKLEY, PH. M. 

1913-1915. 

DAVID ALLISON, LL. D. MAJOR J. PLIMSOLL EDWARDS. 

J. A. CHISHOLM, K. C. 

1915. 
DR. DAVID ALLISON. J. A CHISHOLM, K. C., JUDGE SAVARY. 

1916. 
DR. DAVID ALLISON. MR. JUSTICE CHISHOLM. JUDGE SAVARY. 

1917. 

MR. JUSTICE RUSSELL. MR. JUSTICE CHISHOLM. JUDGE SAVARY. 



COUNCIL, 1878-1917. 



1878. 

Dr. W. J. Almon. 
Jas. S. MacDonald. 
Rev. T. J. Daly. 
Geo. E. Morton. 

1879. 

Dr. W. J. Almon. 
Rev..T. J. Daly. 
Geo. E. Morton. 
W. D. Harrington. 

1880. 

Dr. W. J. Almon. 
J. J. Stewart. 
G. E. Morton. 
Wm. Compton. 

1881. 

Dr. W. J. Almon. 
G. E. Morton. 
J. J. Stewart. 
Joseph Austin. 

1882. 

Hon. Senator Almon. 
Dr. J. R. DeWolf. 
James S. Macdonald. 
Peter Ross. 

1883. 

Hon. Senator Power. 
Peter Lynch. 
R. J. Wilson. 
Peter Ross. 

1884. 

Hon. Senator Power. 
W. D. Harrington. 
Dr. D. Allison. 
F. B. Crofton. 

1885. 

R. J. Wilson. 
Dr. D. Allison. 
F. B. Crofton. 
W. D. Harrington. 

1886. 

Sir Adams Archibald. 
T. B. Akins. 
Dr. David Allison. 
Rev. Dr. Forrest. 

1887. 

Judge Weatherbe. 
Dr. D. Allison. 
Peter Lynch. 
Rev. Dr. Pollok. 



1888. 

Peter Lynch. 
Thos. Bayne. 
Dr. Pollok. 
PeterlRoss. 

1889. 

Hon. Dr. Almon. 
Thos. Bayne. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 
Peter Lynch. 



Hon. Senator Almon. 
Peter Lynch. 
Dr. A. H. MacKay. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 

1891. 

Hon. Dr. Almon. 
Dr. A. H. MacKay. 
J. J. Stewart. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 

189\. 

Hon. Dr. Almon. 
J. J. Stewart. 
Dr. Pollok. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 

1893. 

Hon. Dr. Almon. 
J. J. Stewart. 
Dr. A. H. MacKay. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 

1894. 

Hon. Justice Townshend. 
J. J. Stewart. 
Dr..A. H. MacKay. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 

1895. 

Hon. C. J. Townshend. 
J. J. Stewart. 
Dr. A. H. MacKay, 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 

1898. 

J. J. Stewart. 
Mr. Justice Townshend. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 
Prof. A. McMechan. 

1897. 

J. J. Stewart. 
Mr. Justice Townshend. 
Prof. A. McMechan. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 



1898. 

Rev. Dr. Forrest. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 
Prof. A. McMechan. 
Rev. Dr. Saunders. 



Rev. Dr. Forrest. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 
Rev. Dr. Saunders. 
Prof. A. MacMechan. 

1900. 

Rev. Dr. Forrest. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 
Rev.. Dr. Saunders. 
Prof. A. MacMechan. 

1901. 

J. J. Stewart. 
Rev. Dr. Saunders. 
Rev. T. W. Smith. 
Prof. A. MacMechan. 

1902. 

Rev. Dr. T. W. Smith. 
J. J. Stewart. 
Prof. A.. MacMechan. 
Rev. Dr. Saunders. 

1903. 

Archibald Frame. 
Prof. A. MacMechan. 
J. J. Stewart. 
Rev. Dr. Saunders. 

1904. 

Rev. Dr. Saunders. 
Prof. A. MacMechan. 
Arch. Frame. 
J. J. Stewart. 

1905. 

Rev. Dr. Saunders. 
Dr. A. MacMechan. 
J. J. Stewart. 
Archibald Frame. 

1906. 

Dr. A. MacMechan. 
J. J. Stewart. 
Archibald Frame. 
Harry Piers. 

1907. 

J. J. Stewart. 
J. P. Edwards. 
A. H. Buckley. 
Archibald Frame. 



1908. 1911. 1914. 

James S. Macdonald. G. E. E. Nicholls. A. H. McKay, LI.' D. 

A. H. Buckley. J. H. Trefry. G. W. T. Irving. 

Archibald Frame. Jas. S. Macdonald. W. C. Milner. 

G. W. T. Irving. Dr. John Forrest. George Mullane. 

1909. 1912. 1915. 

Archibald Frame. G. E. E. Nicholls. Dr..A. H. MacKay. 

A. H. Buckley. G. W. T. Irving. George W. T. Irving. 

G. W. T. Irving. Dr. M. A. B. Smith. George Mullane. 

J. H. Trefry. W. C. Milner. Rev. Dr. Forrest. 

1910. 1913. 1916. 

G. E. E. Nichols. A. H. Buckley. Dr. A. H. MacKay. 

A. H. Buckley. G. W. T. Irving. George W. T. Irvine. 

Dr. A. MacMechan. W. C. Milner. George Mullane. 

G. W..T. Irving. Hon. Mr. Justice Russell. Rev. Dr. Forrest. 

1917. 

Major J. P. Edwards. 
Dr. A. H. MacKay. 
George W. T. Irving. 
George Mullane. 



. 



REPORT OF THE NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY. 

For the Years 1914-15-16. 



The Meetings have been held regularly and as a rule well 
attended. 

There have been 71 persons elected as members. 

Rev. Dr. Arthur Wentworth Eaton, Martin J. Griffin and 
Dr. John Reade, F. R. S. C., were elected Honorary Members. 

We have sustained serious loss in the death of the following 
members: 

James S. MacDonald, at one time President, Sir Wallace 
Graham, W. L. Brown and Sir Frederick W. Borden. 

The following portraits and photographs have been pre- 
sented to the Society: 

Chief Justice Jonathan Belcher. 

Dr. John Garvie, presented by Mr. Guy L. Mott. 

Judge in equity John Ritchie, in 1858 and 1868, presented 
by Miss Eliza Ritchie; and Judge J. Norman Ritchie, presented 
by Miss Eliza Ritchie. 

Photograph of Dr. Slayter. 

Photograph of Sir Robert Weatherbe, presented by Lady 
Weatherbe. 

Photograph of Dr. Thos. B. Akins and Beamish Murdoch, 
both presented by Mrs. Beamish. 

Photograph of W. J. Tempest, presented by Ven. Arch- 
deacon Armitage. 

Photograph of William Best, presented by George Mullane. 

(xxi) 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Tablets have been erected as follows: 

To the memory of the Hon. S. G. W. Archibald in the 
Assembly Chamber, Province^Building. 

On the gate-post of the light-house at the old Government 
House, Annapolis Royal, commemorating the birth-place of 
Sir Charles Darley. 

To the memory of the Rev. James McGregor, former Pres- 
byterian missionary, at Pictou. 

At Pictou Academy and at New Ro*s. 

No further tablets commemorating historic sites have 

been erected, for lack of funds. 

/ 

A Committee was appointed to go through the Archives 
and to select unpublished documents relating to the Acadians. 

By-laws have been passed denning the qualifications of 
corresponding and honorary members. 

Volume 18 has been published. 

Representatives were sent to Annapolis Royal to attend the 
celebration commemorating the Baptism of che MicmacChief, 
Membertou, June 1610. 

The Society has joined the Historic Landmarks Associa- 
tion of Canada. 

The following presentations have been made: 
Two scrap books, containing extracts from the "Liverpool 
Advance" from the Journal of Col. Simeon Perkins 1779-1806, 
presented by his great-grandson Rev. J. N. Perkins, of New 
York. 

A copy of the "Nova Scotia Gazette," July 22nd, 1806, and 
the parchment certificate of D. D. conferred upon Simon 
Bradstreet Robie in 1822, presented by Mrs. Robie Uniacke. 

Fifteen or twenty drawings relating to different parts oi 
the Province, by Albert J. Hill. 



REPORT. XX111 

Photograph of the old church at Bedford, presented by 
C. C.Blackadar. 

At the Annual Meeting held April 13th, 1917, the following 
resolution was passed to the retiring President : 

"Resolved that the warmest thanks of the Nova Scotia 
"Historical Society are due and are hereby tendered to the 
"Venerable Archdeacon Armitage, for the untiring zeal and 
"care and the unfailing courtesy which, as President, he has 
"devoted to promoting the interests of the Society. 

"That his success in adding largely to our membership, 
"and in maintaining the regularity of our meetings is the more 
"remarkable when we take into consideration the number of 
"calls made upon his time and energy by other occupations. 

"And that the outgoing President may feel assured that the 
"members of the Society shall be slow to forget the great obli- 
gations under which he has placed them during his term of 
"office." 




HON. JOHN WILLIAM RITCHIE, 

Born 1808, died 1890. 

Judge in Equity, Supreme Court of Nova Scotia; 
First President of th N. S. Historical Society. 

[From a photograph.] 

[To face page 1.] 



OUR FIRST PRESIDENT, 

THE HONORABLE JOHN WILLIAM RITCHIE, 1808-1890. 
By the HON. LAWRENCE G. POWER, K. C., Halifax. 
(Read, 3rd December, 1915). 

Theophilus Parsons, who was many years ago Dane Pro- 
fessor of Law in Harvard University, delivered about once a 
year an address to the students, on the great lawyers whom he 
had known. I had the pleasure of hearing the address which 
has neyer altogether left my memory. I still recall some of the 
things he told us of men like Pinckney and Jerry Mason; but 
nothing so vividly impressed itself on my mind as a quotation 
which he used. "Gentlemen," the old Professor said, in a 
rather tremulous voice, "The names of our profession are 
written in water." The object of the yearly address was to 
preserve from oblivion the names and the deeds of the leaders 
of the profession with whom in his earlier days he had been 
more or less closely associated. He pointed out that, no mat- 
ter how able or successful a lawyer might be, if he confined 
himself to the work of the profession and did not enter public 
life, he was sure to be forgotten, except of course, by the mem- 
bers of his immediate family, very shortly after quitting the 
scene of his labors. 

I had long realized the soundness of the views set before the 
law students by Professor Parsons ; and I had felt for some time 
that it was in a sense the duty of the society to pay a tribute to 
the memory of its first President, while it was also the duty of 
such of our members as belong to the legal profession to place 
before the public an appreciation of the character and works 
of one who, whether as a practising barrister, or as a judge, had 
no superior. The performance of this duty has been too long 
delayed; and, during the twenty-five years that have passed 
since Judge Ritchie's death, most of those who knew him best 
have followed him into another world. Then again, the sub- 



2 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ject of this paper never kept a diary and, having lived almost 
continuously in Halifax, did not leave behind him many such 
letters as might be used to eke out a biography. Under all 
the circumstances, I trust that the members of the Society will 
be a little blind to the shortcomings of this paper. 

If we have little information as to the record of Judge 
Ritchie, we are better off as to his forbears. A deal of valuable 
information with respect to his father is to be found in the 
History oj Annapolis County by the late Mr. Calnek and His 
Honor Judge Savary, while the small volume, Recollections of a 
Georgia Loyalist by Mrs. Elizabeth Lichtenstein Johnston, is 
replete with curious and interesting knowledge as to his mat- 
ernal ancestors. 

John William Ritchie, eldest child of Thomas and Eliza- 
beth Ritchie, was born at Annapolis March 26th, 1808. His 
father, Thomas Ritchie, was at that time a successful barrister 
and a member of the Provincial Legislature. The father of 
Thomas Ritchie was John Ritchie, a gentleman of Scottish 
birth who came to Annapolis from Glasgow by way of Boston, 
not later than 1774, went into business as a merchant, married 
Alicia Maria Le Cain, became a captain of volunteers, was 
elected in 1782 to fill a vacancy in the House of Assembly and 
died in July, 1790, at the early age of forty-five. Thomas Rit- 
chie was the second son of John Ritchie and was born in 
Annapolis, 21st September, 1777. He studied law in the 
office of Thomas Barclay and was admitted to the bar before 
the close of the century. Shortly afterwards, upon Mr. Bar- 
clay's appointment as British Consul-general at New York, 
he succeeded to that gentleman's large practice. In 1806 he 
was elected as one of the County representatives in the House, 
of Assembly. He was elected without opposition and con- 
tinued to be so chosen until his elevation to the Bench in 1824. 
There is, I believe, no other instance in our provincial history 
where a member has been elected without a contest at four suc- 
cessive general elections. From this circumstance alone we 
can gather that Thomas Ritchie was a notable man, both for 



OUR FIRST PRESIDENT. 3 

character and ability. He married, on July the twenty-seventh 
1807, Elizabeth Wildman, fifth child and second daughter of 
Doctor William Martin Johnston of Liguana, Jamaica. 

In the Legislature, he helped in the consolidation and 
revision of the law relating to the Militia. He became Leiu- 
tenant Colonel of one of the Annapolis Regiments and so con- 
ducted himself in that capacity as to receive in 1827 the special 
thanks of Sir James Kempt, the Lieutenant Governor of the 
time. 

In 1834 Thomas Ritchie was appointed President of the 
Inferior Court of Common Pleas for the Western District, 
which embraced the present counties of Annapolis, Digby, 
Yarmouth and Shelburne. Beginning with 1824 the President 
of this court had to be a barrister, although there were appar- 
ently four lay members. It was Judge Ritchie's custom to 
submit to the Lieutenant-Governor after the close of each term, 
a detailed report of the business of the courts over which he 
had presided and of other local matters of interest to His 
Excellency. On the 17th of March, 1828, he was appointed 
President of the Court of Sessions, and in 1832 he became 
Gustos Rotulorum. 

In 1830 he was a candidate for the office of Attorney" 
General, made vacant by the death of Richard John Uniacke- 
At page 396 of the History oj the County of Annapolis we read 
the following: In a document found in the public archives, 
dated October of that year, his public services are thus sum- 
marized: "The public were largely indebted to him for the 
consolidation and amendment of the Militia Laws; he was the 
originator of the treasury note system which had proved so- 
beneficial to the country since 1812; the loan bill introduced 
by him to alleviate the distresses caused by the change from 
war to peace, which became law in 1819 and had produced the 
results intended, was his work; as chairman of the Committee 
on the Consolidated Revenue Acts, he had done good service; 
he had been offered the Speakership of the House, but felt it 
his duty to decline, and he was then the oldest member of the 



4 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

bar after the chief Justice and the Master of the Rolls and 
Judges Wilkins and Wiswall". Judge Thomas Ritchie died 
in 1852 being then in his 76 year. 

John W. Ritchie's mother was Elizabeth Wildman, fifth 
child and second daughter of Doctor William Martin Johnston 
and Elizabeth Lichenstein Johnston, both of Georgia. Doctor 
Johnston was a son of Doctor Lewis Johnston a native of 
Scotland and at one time a surgeon in the Royal Navy, who 
was a considerable land owner in Georgia, and Laleah Peyton 
of Saint Kitts. William Martin Johnston was a student of 
medicine in Philadelphia when the revolutionary war broke 
out. He became a captain in the New York Volunteers, after- 
wards the Third American Regiment, a loyalist corps which 
saw much service during various campaigns. William Martin 
Johnston made a distinguished record in the course of the war, 
showing a courage and resourcefulness not exceeded by his 
border ancestors in Annandale. After the close of hostilities, 
he went to Edinburgh, where in 1784-5 he continued his medical 
studies. He afterwards went to Jamaica and practised his 
profession there up to his death in December, 1807. His 
wife, the author of the Recollections of a Georgia Loyalist was 
the only child of John Lichtenstein (anglicized Lightenstone) 
a native of Cronstadt and said to be of Austrian descent. 
He died in Annapolis in 1813, at a ripe old age. Mrs. Licht- 
enstein Johnston was a woman of great energy and ability, 
devoted to her family and exceedingly religious. She died at 
Halifax, 24th September, 1848. It will have been noticed 
that both of John W. Ritchie's grand-fathers were Scottish 
or of Scottish extraction. Speaking of his mother, Mrs. 
William Martin Johnston says, at page 132 of the Recollections, 
""If I were called upon to bear testimony whose individual 
character I had ever known most free from selfishness, I could 
with truth and boldness say it was my beloved Eliza's. In 
early childhood she evinced the disposition to impart to others 
whatever she had, and the disposition grew with her growth." 
She died 19th June, 1819. If I seem to have dealt at undue 
length with the histories of Judge Ritchie's ancestors, it is 



OUR FIRST PRESIDENT. 5 

partly because there is so little to be known about his own life 
and partly because much as to his character and abilities can 
be gathered from what we know of those who had gone before 
him. That the character and abilities were largely hereditary 
is indicated by the facts that while John W. Ritchie ended his 
professional career as Judge in Equity of his native province, 
the third brother in the family, William Johnstone Ritchie, 
was successively puisne judge and Chief Justice of New Bruns- 
wich and a Judge and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of 
Canada, and that Joseph Norman Ritchie was for several 
years a Judge of our Supreme Court. George Wildman died 
before attaining the age looked upon as qualifying for a seat 
on the Bench, and James J. disqualified himself by giving up 
law for the higher calling of divinity. He however left two 
sons, who became prominent members of his original profession, 
and one of whom occupies, to the great satisfaction of suitors 
and counsel, the judicial position which seems to be in some 
sort a belonging of the Ritchie family. 

Turning now to the more immediate subject of this paper, 
we learn from the Recollections of a Georgia Loyalist that, 
when Mrs. William Martin Johnston returned from Jamaica 
to Annapolis in 1810, she found that "My Eliza had two dear 
boys. John was two and a half years old, Thomas, a stout 
boy, ten months old." Further on we are told, "As soon as 
I went to housekeeping I relieved her (Mrs. Thomas Ritchie) 
of part of her care by having John stay with us." We are 
also told that John was a special favorite of his great-grand- 
father John Lightenstone. At page 124 of the Recollections, 
Mrs. Johnston says that, "Until John was three years of age, 
he lived with me, and from an old fashioned prayer-book with 
large print I taught him his letters and to spell little words." 
Mrs. Ritchie died on the 19th of June, 1819, when John was 
something over eleven years of age. In connection with her 
daughter's death we have the following from Mrs. Johnston. 
"I soon broke up housekeeping to live with Mr. Ritchie and 
Watch over his children's health and morals. I stood to them 



6 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

now in the place of their dear mother, for I knew well her 
wishes, plans and hopes for her children. Her great principle 
was to exact from them implicit obedience, and those who 
were old enough at her death evinced by their conduct the 
benefit they derived from her discipline." 

For many years after this somewhat indirect mention, 
there is not, as far as I know, any written or printed record 
dealing with the history of John W. Ritchie. I have learned 
from a member of his immediate family that he did not go to 
college, but was educated at home under the care of tutors 
provided by his father. As to this point, I made a mistake in 
stating in the memorial appended to the seventh volume of 
our Collections, that Mr. Ritchie was educated at the Pictou 
Academy. His brother William did study at that excellent 
and well known school. 

In due course, he was articled as a clerk to his Uncle James 
W. Johnston, and, after the usual term of service, was admitted 
as an attorney of the Supreme Court on the twenty-fifth of 
January 1831 and as a Barrister on the twenty-fourth of the 
same month in the following year. 

For some time clients were exceedingly few; and Judge 
Ritchie told me that for ten years after his admission to the 
bar he had had almost no practice. Wiser than most young 
lawyers, he devoted his abundant leisure "to patient and thor- 
ough study of the law. The result of this quiet work, com- 
bined with great business capacity and a most honorable and 
upright character, was that, when practice came it found him 
admirably prepared, and increased rapidly, so that in a com- 
paratively short time he took his place amongst the leaders of 
the profession." 

At the general election held in November 1836, young 
Ritchie was a candidate with W. H. Roach for the County of 
Annapolis. Their opponents were, William Holland of Wil- 
mot and Frederick A. Robicheau of Clare; and, notwithstand- 
ing the personal popularity of Mr. Roach, who had repre- 



OUR FIRST PRESIDENT. 7 

sented the County for eighteen years, and the high respect 
in which he and his youthful colleague were held, the opposition 
was successful. The History of the County of Annapolis speaks 
of the result of the election as being due to the wish of the 
people of the eastern and the western ends for a division of 
the County. No doubt this had not a little effect; but the 
fact that before Mr. Robicheau, no Acadian candidate for the 
House of Assembly had come forward was probably an equally 
important factor. Possibly also the reform movement cham- 
pioned by Howe and others was beginning to make itself felt 
throughout the Province. Mr. Ritchie himself credited the 
Acadians with his defeat. 

He never afterwards appealed to the electorate and often 
expressed the opinion that his defeat in the Annapolis election 
was a blessing in disguise. There is no doubt that to a man 
of his tastes, habits, and character the position of a member 
of the Provincial Legislature would have offered few attractions 
and would have presented many drawbacks. 

In 1838 Mr. Ritchie married his handsom.e cousin Amelia, 
eldest daughter of the Honorable Doctor Wi Ham Bruce Almon. 
The young couple lived in a house on the west side of Hollis 
Street, north of what is now the annex to the Queen Hotel, 
in which was the bridegroom's office. The Union begun in 
1838, lasted without flaw or cloud for over half a century; 
and, as Judge Ritchie died the year after his wife, it can be 
said that in death they were not divided. 

One finds that in the Session of 1840 John W. Ritchie was 
Law Clerk of the Legislative Council, having been appointed 
probably in 1839. The position, which he held for twenty- 
four years, was one well suited to a man of his training and cast 
of mind and one which enabled him to do a deal of valuable 
though unobtrusive legislative work. Were we in a position 
to learn, we should probably find more than traces of his handi- 
work in many of the acts passed during his term of office. His 
appointment is not a matter of surprise, because apart from his 



8 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

special qualifications for the position, he was the son-in-law of a 
prominent member of the Council and the nephew of a leader 
of the Government in that House. In 1850 and the two 
following years he was associated with the Honorable William 
Young, Jonathan McCully and Joseph Whidden, Clerk of the 
House of Assembly, in preparing the First Series of the Re- 
vised Statutes, a masterpiece of its kind. No similar Legisla- 
tive work was undertaken, until after the lapse of some years, 
by any other British Colony. Mr. Ritchie undoubtedly found 
it most congenial. 

In 1764 the Island of St. John, afterwards of Prince Edward, 
and at that time part of Nova Scotia, was divided into 67 
Lots or Townships of about twnety thousand acres each, which 
with the exception of three small reservations intended for three 
county towns and the two lots 40 and 59, were disposed of in 
London by lottery before the Board of Trade and Plantations 
in one day. In August 1767 Grants were ordered to the several 
allottees. These Grants were in the form of long leases and 
contained provisions for the payment of quitrents and the 
placing of settlers on the lands, under penalty of forfeiture. 
As time went on much confusion and dissatisfaction arose in 
the Island as a result of these leases. The Proprietors, as the 
allottees and their successors in title were called, failed to carry 
out the conditions of the leases; while the tenantry did not, as 
a rule, pay the rent due to the Proprietors. By the middle of 
the last century, things were felt to call for some effective action. 
The Island Legislature attempted to deal with the matter in 
the interest of the tenantry, but its Acts were disallowed in 
London, and the Imperial Government declined to declare 
the leases forfeited for non-performance of the conditions 
by the Proprietors. After much correspondence, a. Commission 
was on the 25th of June, 1860, issued by the Government to 
John Hamilton Gray of New Brunswick, nominated by the 
Duke of Newcastle, Secretary for the Colonies, the Honorable 
Joseph Howe, nominated by the Prince Edward Island Assemb- 
ly, acting on behalf of the tenantry, and John William Ritchie, 



OUR FIRST PRESIDENT. 9 

nominated by the Proprietors. With respect to the differences 
which had arisen between the Proprietors and the Tenantry, 
the three gentlemen named were "to be our Commissioners for 
inquiring into the said differences, and for adjusting the same 
on fair and equitable principles." 

The commissioners met at Charlotte town, on September 
the fifth, 1860, and continued to sit until October the first. 
They travelled through all parts of the Island and saw for 
themselves the exact condition of things; and in December 
they adjourned to Halifax where their report was prepared. 
It bore date the eighteenth day of July, 1861, and submitted 
a thorough, practical, just and effective scheme for settling 
existing differences. What is unusual in such cases, the report or 
award was unanimous and, if acted upon, would have brought 
the differences to a speedy end. His Grace the Duke of New- 
castle "said that he was desirous of expressing his appreciation 
of the painstaking, able and impartial report which the com- 
missioners had furnished, a report which would derive addi- 
tional weight from its unanimity, and which was the result 
of an investigation so complete that it had exhausted the mate- 
rial for inquiry into the facts of the case." 

Notwithstanding his high opinion of the report, the 
Duke refrained from allowing it to go into operation. The 
reasons alleged for this course strike one as being extremely 
technical, if not flimsy. One cannot go further into the his- 
tory of the matter and must be contented with saying that 
the settlement of this urgent question was postponed for 
fifteen years, at the end of which time it was dealt with by 
what is sometimes spoken of as the Childers' Commission . 

For several years Dalhousie College was in a moribund, or, 
to speak more accurately, a comatose state. In 1863 a Statute 
was passed. Chapter 24 of the Acts of that year, entitled "A 
act for the regulation and support of Dalhousie College," 
which infused a new and permanent vitality into the old in- 
stitution and caused it to enter on the career of successful 
development of which each succeeding year offers additional 



10 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

proofs. This Act placed the control of the renovated Univer- 
sity in the hands of a Board of six Governors. The following 
were the gentlemen named in the first section, The Honorable 
William Young, the Honorable Joseph Howe, Charles (after- 
wards Sir Charles) Tupper, S. Leonard Shannon, John W. 
Ritchie and James F. Avery, Esquires. His appointment to 
such an important position goes to show the esteem in which 
the modest lawyer was held by those best able 'to judge of his 
qualifications. As to the way in which he discharged the 
Duties of Governor, I am pleased to be able to quote the Rever- 
end Doctor Forrest who was associated with him for some eleven 
years. "When Dalhousie College was reorganized in 1863, Mr. 
John W. Ritchie was one of the Board of Governors appointed 
by the Act. He remained in active connection with the College 
till the time of his dearth and always took a deep interest in 
its affairs. Regular and attentive to all the meetings of the 
Board his judgment could always be depended upon, and he 
exercised a great influence in developing the reconstructed 
College. No one seemed so quick and alert in grasping any 
matter proposed. He seemed always ready with a suggestion 
which presented the line of action which was best in the cir- 
cumstances. His judgment was almost invariably deferred 
to because he seemed always to be right. There was nothing 
at all overbearing in his manner. He was considerate and 
courteous. With strong opinions of his own he was willing 
to listen to the views of others, and the large influence which 
he exercised was clearly due to his sound judgment, courteous 
manner, and clear presentation of his case. Brought in close 
touch with him for many years in connection with College 
affairs, I was convinced that no institution could have had an 
abler or more judicious governor. To me he seemed the very 
ideal of what a judge ought to be". 

From 1864 to 1867 he was a member of the Legislative 
Council and Solicitor General. In these capacities he con- 
tinued the work to which he had probably devoted part of 
his time as Law Clerk, that is, bringing the law of the Pro- 




OUR FIRST PRESIDENT. 11 

vince on various subjects up to that of the Mother Country. 
One example of this legislation is Chapter 10 of the Acts of 
of 1865, entitled, "An Act to amend the Laws affecting Trade 
and Commerce," which followed the lines of the English Mer- 
cantile Law Amendment Act of 1856; another is Chapter 12 
of the Acts of 1866, intended to assimilate the law of this 
Province with regard to the limitation of actions to that of 
England. 

In the Fall of 1866, Mr. Ritchie was appointed one of the 
Delegates from Nova Scotia to the Conference which met at 
London for the purpose of arranging the terms of Union between 
Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. It was under- 
stood that no radical change was to be made in the Resolutions 
adopted by the Conference held at Quebec in October, 1864, 
but that the phraseology might be altered and certain com- 
paratively small modifications made in their substance. His 
co-delegates were the Honorable Charles Tupper, Provincial 
Secretary, the Honorable William A. Henry, Attorney General, 
the Honorable Jonathan McCully and the Honorable Adams 
G. Archibald. The Conference met at the Westminster 
Palace Hotel on the fourth of December, and sat almost con- 
tinuously until the twenty-fourth of that month when the 
Resolutions were adopted. After that date, there were made 
at least five drafts of the Bill, which afterwards became the 
British North America Act, 1867. The final draft was sub- 
mitted as a revise on the ninth of February, 1867. 

We may assume that owing to his legal knowledge and 
ability and to his long experience as a legislative draftsman, 
Mr. Ritchie took an active part in the work of the Conference, 
and for this opinion we find confirmation in the very imper- 
fect report of the proceedings of the Conference, prepared by 
the Secretary, Mr. Bernard, and, fortunately, made accessible 
in the volume of Confederation Documents published by Mr. 
(now Sir Joseph) Pope. 

In 1867 Mr. Ritchie was appointed to the Senate of Canada, 
in 1870 he became a judge of the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia, 



12 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



and in 1873, upon the declination of the office by the late Sir 
Adams Archibald, was chosen to succeed his uncle, the Honor- 
able James W. Johnston, as Judge in Equity. In 1882 Judge 
Ritchie had a slight stroke of paralysis and decided to retire 
from the Bench. The First Minister of that day, Sir John A. 
MacDonald, wrote to him trying to induce him to retain his 
position, intimating that it was not necessary that he should 
work hard and expressing the opinion that by devoting half 
his time to the duties of his office he would render as great 
service as the ordinary judge who gave all his time. Not- 
withstanding this and notwithstanding that his faculties were 
impaired only slightly, Judge Ritchie persisted in resigning. 
In abandoning his high position, because he thought that he 
should give his country none but the best of his intellectual 
work he showed the loftiness of his character and "set an ad- 
mirable example for succeeding judges." The fact that in 
1878, when he was seventy years of age, he took part in the 
founding of this society goes to show that he had inherited 
the unselfish spirit and the desire for the welfare of others which,, 
in a passage already quoted, Mrs. William Martin Johnston 
described as characteristic of his mother. 

Judge Ritchie spent the eight years following his retire- 
ment from the Bench at his historic home of Belmont, devoting 
no doubt great part of the time to calm preparation for hi& 
departure from this life. He died on the eighteenth of Dec- 
ember, 1890, aged eighty-two years and nearly nine months. 

It would seem fitting to add to the foregoing imperfect 
sketch of Judge Ritchie's career some little statement of the 
light in which he presented himself to his associates and fellow- 
citizens. 

He was somewhat below the middle height and remarkably 
well proportioned. His hair was dark and his nose aquiline,, 
and there was a fair amount of color in his cheeks. Taking 
him altogether, he was a handsome man. I have fancied that 
I saw in the portrait of Judge Bliss in the Law Library, a marked 
resemblance to Judge Ritchie. 



OUR FIRST PRESIDENT. 



13 



In his earlier days He was fond of shooting and riding, and 
during his whole professional career was alert and quick in his 
movements. He usually walked to and from his office, at 
which he arrived comparatively early and in which he generally 
remained until the close of the business day. In the office 
of J. W. & J. N. Ritchie, in which I served my apprenticeship, 
there was no coming back at night; but, as the senior partner 
did not as a rule leave the building during the day, luncheon 
being with him almost a matter of form, and as the work went 
on continuously from comparatively early in the morning till 
fairly late in the afternoon, there was perhaps as much accom- 
plished as under what are supposed to be the more strenuous 
modern methods. John Ritchie sat by himself in the inner of 
the two offices and Norman, who was 26 years younger than he, 
with the clerks in the outer. Although the senior member of 
the firm was always courteous and affable, there was a certain 
element of dignity and aloofness about him which hindered us 
from being as free and familiar as we were with the junior. 
John W. Ritchie's attitude towards his clients was almost 
judicial: unless a case was legally and morally good, he would 
not undertake it; and he could be very clear and emphatic in 
the expression of his opinions of those whose cases did not 
measure up to a fairly high moral standard. The firm were 
noted for the moderation of their charges for professional work, 
.a characteristic which, if it did not receive the unqualified 
approval of their brethern of the profession, was very favorably 
looked upon by their numerous clients. 

I was not often a witness of Mr. Ritchie's conduct of a 
case in Court. He had no gifts of eloquence and was troubled 
with a slight hesitation of speech, but he was effective even in 
addressing a jury, because of his evident and well known regard 
for truth and because his speeches were earnest and to the 
purpose. In speaking to the Bench he was of course, entirely 
in his element. 

There was about him in Court as elsewhere a complete 
absence of vanity and conceit. As to his qualities as a judge, 



14 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

others, and particularly Mr. Justice Russell, are better quali- 
fied to speak than I. One cannot help, when reading his 
decisions as given in that learned gentleman's volume of equity 
cases being struck by their clearness and comparative brevity. 
They carry conviction to the readers' intellect as he goes along 
and are evidently the productions of a mind thoroughly satu- 
rated with the principles of law and familiar with its practical 
working. 

From the Memorial of 1890, I may quote the following: 
"In the preface to the volume containing his decisions as Judge 
in Equity, the learned reporter, Mr. Russell, describes the 
Court during his term of office as in the language of Chancellor 
Kent, presenting the image of the sanctity of a temple where 
truth and justice seemed to be enthroned and to be personified 
in their decrees; and in the resolution of the Nova Scotia 
Barristers' Society, unanimously adopted just after Judge 
Ritchie's death, the following eloquent language is used with 
respect to the Equity Court: To the discharge of its duties 
he brought faculties and attainments of the highest order, and 
those judicial virtuefe without which even faculties and attain- 
ments of the highest order are no sure guarantee of success. 
Patient to listen and weigh, keen to detect fallacy, merciless 
in the exposure of fraud, severe and exacting with seniors, 
but gracious and condescending to juniors, he discharged for 
eight years the duties of his high judicial office with an un- 
bending integrity, which is happily not exceptional, but also 
with an unquestioned authority, which is almost without a 
parallel in the judicial annals of the Province. After a long 
and busy career, crowded with the niost useful and most fruit- 
ful activities through many years, in which he wore the white 
flower of a blameless life, he has gone from our midst, leaving 
to the generation that follows him a noble example of high 
devotion to professional and public duty, and to those that 
were privileged to know him intimately the memory of his 
many endearing qualities of head and heart". 



OUR FIRST PRESIDENT. 15 

John W. Ritchie's domestic life hardly comes within the 
province of the writer, but it may be said to have been almost 
ideal. 

As a rule, in papers such as this, it is not customary to deal 
more than very briefly with the subject of religion; but Judge 
Ritchie's case was exceptional. He seems in early life to have 
taken to heart the lessons taught by his grandmother Johnston, 
and he was throughout his whole career a practical and devoted 
Christian. He really "reverenced his conscience as his King." 
He did not belong to what is known as the "Broad" section of 
the Church of England, birt was a strenuous and sincere 
supporter of the views held by the administration of St. Paul's 
Church in this city. Indeed the first occasion on which, as 
far as I remember, I heard him speak in public was in 1863 
when the Chapter of the Third Series of the Revised Statutes 
"Of the Church of England" was before the Legislative Council. 
Bishop Binney advocated the claims of the episcopate, which 
Mr. Ritchie on behalf of the parishioners at St. Paul's and 
those who felt with them strenuously resisted : The handsome 
stained glass window and the monument in that Church in- 
tended to honor his memory are not misplaced. 

While a firm believer in the doctrines of his own faith and 
strict and scrupulous in the practice of his religion, he wa$ no 
bigot, was not one who thought that all who did not agree 
with him were afe the Heathen and Publican, and were on the 
path of perdition. 

A touching illustration of this characteristic took place when 
Judge Ritchie was on his death-bed. An old Irish Catholic, 
who had for several years been employed in work that brought 
him t;o Belmont, was dying at the same time; and the Judge 
sent a message to him to the effect that he hoped they would 
soon meet again in a better world. 

I conclude, with the expression of my regret at the imper- 
fect nature of this humble tribute to the memory of one wh o 
was a great lawyer, an admirable judge, an ideal husband and 
father, and in the best sense of the words, a Christian gentle- 
man. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF SIXTY YEARS AGO. 17 



RECOLLECTIONS OF SIXTY YEARS AGO. 

By the REV. ALLAN POLLOK, D. D., Halifax. 
(Read April 9, 1915). 

I was one of three young ministers who sailed from Liver- 
pool for Nova Scotia on Christmas, 1852. The passage was 
long and stormy and we did not land till the 9th of January. 
The vessels were strong but far from being as comfortable as at 
present. My two companions were, Mr. G. W. Sprott, 
Christian name George W., from Musquodoboit and Mr. Mac- 
lean, Christian name Alexander, from Pictou. We came by 
appointment of the Colonial Committee of the Church of 
Scotland. Mr. Sprott remained in Halifax to assist the minis- 
ters of St. Matthew's and St. Andrew's congregations. Mr. 
Maclean and I went to Pictou and Wallace. All three were 
alive till the threefold cord was broken by the death of Dr. 
Sprott three years ago. Dr. Maclean is still alive and well at 
the age of ninety-four. He has been known for many years as 
an eloquent preacher in Gaelic and English in Pictou, Cumber- 
land and Prince Edward Island. Dr. Sprott, after returning 
from Ceylon, where he held a Chaplaincy for seven years, be- 
came minister, first, of the Chapel of Garioch and then of North 
Berwick. He is reputed to be a high authority in the Church 
History of Scotland subsequent to the Reformation. The 
Book of Common Order contains more from him than from 
any other Contributor and he is the author of several works 
on the Worship and Rites of the Church of Scotland. 

One of the best views of Halifax is that from the harbor. 
To a stranger as I was and wholly ignorant of Nova Scotia and 
its cities that view was neither attractive nor encouraging. 
As the boat passed slowly to the dock on that cold winter day 
one might see a succession of wooden piers, crowned with ragged 

and unshapely buildings; said to be stores and offices. They 
2 



18 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



need no description; as they or structures like them, are there 
still. The people who waited for the arrival of the steamer on 
the Cunard wharf looked very cold. The "Waverley" to 
which we drove the building still may be seen at the south- 
west corner of Harrington and Blower Streets did not show 
a very attractive exterior; but was as comfortable as it could 
be made in such cold weather. We found within three gentle- 
men who were said to frequent this house every winter. They 
seemed to be on the best of terms with themselves and with 
each other. They were very considerate and kind to us young 
men and made us feel much at home. As we landed on the 
Sabbath, we went in the afternoon to St. Matthew's, which was 
not far distant. I remember well the pew in which we sat and 
the lady and gentleman who were in it. They were afterwards 
married and they are now both dead. The service was at 
3 o'clock in the afternoon; a very convenient hour for many. 

On Monday morning we found that it had snowed during 
the night and I heard sleigh bells for the first time. On further 
inspection the city did not appear to extend in one direction 
much beyond Morris St., though some well-known houses 
might be seen further south. Toward the west, South Park 
St., down which a brook ran, might be the boundary with 
scattered houses beyond. St. Matthews' was in Hollis St., 
at the corner where the offices of The Eastern Trust Co. 
offices are now situated. St. Andrew's was right above St. 
Matthew's on Harrington St., looking across to St. Paul's 
on the opposite corner. The building is still there and no one, 
regarding its commercial transformation, would ever suspect 
that it had been a church. St. Matthew's was entered by a 
porch with an outside stair. The first object that me,t the eye 
on entering was a huge stove, which created such heat as I had 
never felt in church before. On cold days in Scotland we al- 
ways expected to have cold feet. When the heart was warm 
and the feet were cold it was more meritorious. The sides of 
the church, the gallery and the pulpit were high and the pulpit 
had a canopy; which aids the voice and is a comfort to many; 



RECOLLECTIONS OF SIXTY YEARS AGO. 19 

while it helps to fill a bare space. The choir was in the front 
gallery and was assisted by no organ. 

In referring to the churches I must speak as I found them 
within a few days. Where there is no knowledge there can be 
no partiality. Of the four Presbyterian churches, St. Matt- 
hew's was the oldest. It began with the city, was built at the 
same time with St. Paul's and, as appears by prints in existence, 
of much the same shape. The frames of both had been 
brought from New England. By law it was designated for the 
use of Protestant Dissenters a phrase meant to describe all 
such as did not belong to the Church of England and were 
Protestants. This comprehensive title, whether the wor- 
shippers liked it or not, must have called for some mutual 
toleration. At the commencement of the city it was probably 
that or nothing. St. Matthew's was originally not Presby- 
terian but Congregationalist, like the churches of New Eng- 
land and continued long to call their ministers from the Eastern 
States. When, however, the American Revolution severed 
Halifax from the United States, the congregation no longer 
desired any connection with the revolted colonies and applied 
to the Church of Scotland for ministers. Even then they for- a 
long time came under no presbytery and when I came to this 
country they were using Watt's version of the Psalms as a 
mark of their Independent origin. 

The first sight which I had of the Rev. John Scott was as 
he appeared in the pulpit of St. Matthew's on the 9th January, 
1853. He must have then been between fifty and sixty years 
of age. His complexion was pale, his features somewhat 
angular and his whole appearance delicate. Within the sphere 
of duty which he laid down for himself no one could be more 
strict and conscientious. In dress, manners and deportment 
he was a cleric of the old school. His address was stiff not 
from pride but modesty and difidence. Mr. Scott might not 
have the affability of some but he felt more kindness than he 
could show or express. Such a manner he carried into his 
conduct of the services of the Church, which, though plain 



20 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

always, in his hands were especially so. His sermons were care- 
fully prepared, elegantly composed and read without the least 
action in a level voice. He had belonged to the Moderate 
Party in the church; who affected philosophy and literary 
style and despised popular preaching, which they called 
highflying. Perhaps his solemn tones and the regular cadence 
of the sentences might have a somnolent effect upon some, but 
those who chose to listen w r ould be instructed. Unlike many 
of the Moderate Party, Mr. Scott w r as decidedly evangelical. 
I cannot but remark that he was very kind to myself. In no 
church had I ever seen so many venerable heads or expressive 
and thoughtful faces. The aged and not the young seemed to 
predominate and the quiet service, free from all excitement, 
harmonized with the maturity of the worshippers. 

St. Andrew's had a different origin and history. In contrast 
with St. Mathew's it was Presbyterian from the first. With- 
out entering into the terrible history of Scottish schisms, I 
may merely mention that this church was organized in 1818 in 
connection with the Scottish Synod of Relief and was united 
to the Church of Scotland soon afterwards, when Mr. Martin 
was sent out to take charge and remained its minister till 
1856. He had been a Covenanter, but he ceased to be one from 
circumstances which I had from himself. When he was a 
young man, Dr. Chalmers was electrifying Scotland with his 
eloquence and Mr. Martin could not resist the temptation of 
going to hear him. But the stern Covenanters could not 
tolerate such lax conduct. They allowed no such misdemeanor 
as occasional hearing. When he applied for license, objection 
was made to his conduct; when he took up his hat and left 
them. The Church of Scotland never had a more devoted, 
zealous and active minister. Shortsightedness caused his 
peculiar manner of peering into the faces of those whom he met. 
He was a man of vast information and edited the Guardian and 
the Monthly Record of the Church of Scotland for many years. 

As my theme limits me to personal reminiscence, I can only 
mention other churches. Chalmer's Church on Barrington St. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF SIXTY YEARS AGO. 21 

enjoyed the ministration of Dr. Alexander Forrester, whose 
name is indelibly associated with the revival, extension and 
improvement of our Common School System. He was a large 
man with pronounced Scottish features and a huge unkempt 
head of hair. I made the qcquaintance of Dr. P. G. Macgregor, 
the youngest son of Dr. James Macgregor, the distinguished 
scholar, poet, preacher and missionary. His son in Poplar 
Grove Church was an able preacher and laborious pastor for 
many years, who made for himself many friends by his atten- 
tion to the sick and dying. Archibishop William Walsh occu- 
pied the Roman Catholic See of Halifax. Since his death four 
prelates have ruled that Diocese. Bishop Hibbert Binney 
occupied the Anglican See. He was but recently appointed 
and two have followed. Archdeacon Robert Willis was 
minister of St. Paul's. I attended a meeting in the Grafton St. 
Methodist Church; which appeared to me to be quite luxuri- 
ously fitted up for the comfort of the worshippers. Of the 
mutual relations which existed among the churches I can say 
nothing. I cannot affirm that there was much intercourse 
but there was certainly quite as much as I had seen among 
the churches in Scotland. 

The manner in which political questions appeared to be 
discussed at that time might admonish me not to attempt to 
describe the political situation. I was astonished at the 
violent philippics of the daily papers, and the freedom with 
which public men were handled. Writers in the British Press 
generally practised some restraint, while saying all they 
wished to say. Since Confederation has widened the political 
sphere, there has been some improvement in this matter. In 
matters of expediency there must be room for difference of 
'opinion and in matters of opinion for mutual toleration. But 
few are patient and keep their temper when they meet with 
difference in opinion. They seem to consider their understand- 
ing to be impeached and take it for a personal offence. A 
difference in judgment is made a moral trespass and then an 
opponent is pelted with the hardest names, and names well- 



22 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



chosen do the best work. They are better than arguments 
and are easily and widely bandied about. They are the hand- 
grenades that scatter the enemy's ranks. I had the good 
fortune to be able to see the opening of The House. Joseph 
Howe was introducing his railway measures. Excitement 
was intensified by the report that a well known Conservative 
was to give him the support required for his success. Mr. 
Howe was pointed out to me. He seemed to be a bright, 
burley, fresh looking man of medium height with a good 
humored expression of face. He might be taken for a farmer 
who enjoyed the benefit of pure country air. Besides elo- 
quence he made friends by frankness of address and agreeable 
manners. The Conservatives regarded him as a mob orator 
of doubtful loyalty, which was certainly a false description. 
He had fought a hard fight, fought it successfully and had hosts 
of warm friends and supporters. The leader of the opposition 
was J. W. Johnstone. His body was spare, his face pale, his 
features sharp and finely chiselled and his hair bushy and 
snow-white. It would be difficult to find a more venerable 
figure. I had seen only one such before. He recalled to me 
Dr. Brown of Broughton St., Edinburgh; one of a remarkable 
family of Browns in the United Secession Church. I was 
prepared to hear that, while Mr. Howe was the popular man 
and the popular orator, Mr. Johnstone was of a different type. 
His sharp features would lead one to expect keen logic, clear 
expression and luminous and impassioned exposition. The 
Attorney General was Mr. Uniacke, a tall man with aristo- 
cratic features; said to be one of the most accomplished speakers 
in the house in his best days. 

In this room where we are now met, we cannot but think of 
the battles fought and won within these walls. We can look 
back and view them through the mists of many intervening 
years. Ossian pictures the ghosts of his heroes appearing 
among the mists of the night and mingling with the clouds of 
the sky. Their shadowy forms are as real to the soul of the 
seer as if they were still in the fight. If there were any truth in 




RECOLLECTIONS OF SIXTY YEARS AGO. 23 

supernatural visitations, this house should be full of ghosts. 
Drawing the line at Confederation ; before that time how many 
reputations were torn to pieces, how many passions were roused, 
how many fierce fires enkindled, how many friendships blasted, 
how many ambitions desolated, how many hopes destroyed! 
Some trod these halls long enough to be accounted old warriors, 
heroes of a hundred fights and others blazed a short while and 
disappeared, like shooting stars amid the darkness of the night. 
Many eloquent voices have been heard within these walls; 
such as would have commanded attention in any part of the 
world. All the oratory was not party warfare to be employed 
for partizan purposes but it rose into higher strains; but the 
speakers are now silent. We may, however, now pause to re- 
member them for a few moments. 

It might have been expected that after a century of existence 
a city, situated like Halifax, might be larger in population and 
grander in structure. Its opportunities for enlarged trade and 
commerce seem to be quite exceptional. The presence of the 
imperial army and the visits of the navy were special advan- 
tages. The fortifications must have caused the expenditure 
of vast sums of money; though all this tended to restrain in- 
dividual and independent enterprise. It also created a stan- 
dard of life and manners, which was unfavorable to habits 
of honest industry. The army and navy became the 
sphere of all human ambition for both aexes. The foresight 
of the man who chose the site of Constantinople has been ap- 
plauded by all historians. He called it, New Rome, but by a 
spontaneous impulse the world has named it Constantinople: 
thus blending the name of the City with the name of the 
'founder for all time. It would be absurd to compare the site 
of this city with one which holds the gate of two great conti- 
nents and two great oceans. But in all North America there 
is no such harbor as ours and in spite of all competition it 
must become the gate of Canada and we now hope that the 
future will be very different from the past. 



24 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



St. Matthew's Church was burnt about midnight, 1857-58. 
It was a pity that the old church should thus disappear. Like 
St. Paul's, it was a much revered memorial of a past age. 
Some well known men and many venerable heads might 
be seen within its walls. Joseph Howe was frequently a wor- 
shipper there. Mr. George Thomson, who was Rev. Mr. 
Scott's executor, told me that he found among Mr. Scott's 
papers a bank cheque signed by Mr. Howe, which Mr. Scott 
had never presented for payment. On some occasion Mr. 
Scott had told Mr. Thomson that he knew that Mr. Howe 
needed money more than he did. Mr. Scott, left all his money, 
amounting to two thousand pounds of the old currency, to St. 
Matthew's. Mr. John Watt, whose duty it was to count and 
take charge of the collections, was never absent. I remember 
him very well also Mr. William Murdoch, Mr. Robert Noble, 
Mr. William Young, Mr. George Mitchell, Mr. Archibald 
Scott, Mr. William Sutherland, the Hon. James McNab, Dr. 
Avery and Mr. David Allison grand and venerable looking 
men. Like the old church itself, they have all passed away. 
J. J. Bremner and two ladies, whose names I might give still 
survive. 

I wish that I could describe appropriately some of the men 
whom I saw at that time. Mr. J. B. Uniacke, a fine looking 
man, who was then the Attorney General, I saw in the house 
and at the table of the most hospitable man that ever lived in 
this city; the Honorable Alexander Keith. He was a Scots^ 
man from Caithness, a man who was of a most generous dis- 
position. He dispensed much of what he acquired in business 
in entertaining friends, visitors and especially officers of the 
Army and Navy. He was a great friend of Mr. Martin; to 
whom both he and Mrs. Keith, who was a most charitable wo- 
man, were most kind and attentive to the last moment of his 
life. In the house which, after being enlarged, is now the 
"Elmwood" Hotel (at the northwest corner of South and Plea- 
sant Streets). I met Mr. William Murdoch, his brother 
Charles, Mr. Archibald Scott, Mr. William Sutherland, the 



RECOLLECTIONS OF SIXTY YEARS AGO. 25 

Hon. Alexander (-) McDougall and Miss Murdoch, by no 
means the least important of the company. Mr. William 
Murdoch was tall and portly, strong featured, large-headed 
and Scottish in appearance, speech and address. In finance he 
was reported to be quite a genius, and he made a large fortune. 
He was ready to help young men in business with money and 
advice. Excellent portraits of all the men mentioned above 
will be found in Jas. S. Macdonald's "Annals of The North 
British Society." 

It ought to be mentioned that Mr. Murdoch was one of 
many who have remembered in his gifts Halifax charities and 
institutions. Scotsmen have been credited with being fond 
of money and of the business of making it. Certainly they 
figure largely in banks and other financial societies. William 
Paterson, a Scot from Dumfrieshshire, was the founder of the 
greatest bank in the world. The English were glad on that 
occasion to avail themselves of his genius in making a note-of- 
hand without endorsement legal tender. Looking at the his- 
tory of this city, Scotsmen have no reason to be ashamed. 
Mr. Murdoch gave to the School for the Deaf, the Blind Asylum 
and the Dispensary ; one thousand pounds to the North British 
Society and three thousand pounds to St. Matthew's Church. 
Sir William Young gave $10,000 to the North British Society 
and $70,000 to Dalhousie University. Alexander Macleod 
gave an equal sum to Dalhousie University. George Munro, 
a Nova Scotian from Pictou, but the son of a Scotsman, pre- 
served and perpetuated that University by gifts approaching 
half a million. Sir Sandford Fleming has lately given a most 
charming park for the recreation of our citizens, and we have a 
Scotsman living among us who has bestowed half a million 
and more upon the Patriotic Fund in this great crisis of our 
history. Among other national emblems the thistle need not 
hide its head. 

Many will know and some may remember the route by, 
which on Monday, the 17th January, 1853, we travelled to 
Pictou, and the kind of conveyance. The old American coach, 



26 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



hung upon thick straps of leather, was neither smooth nor com- 
fortable. It crossed to Dartmouth at 7 o'clock in the morning 
and after a run of 17 miles arrived at what was called Shultze's 
Inn between 9 and 10 oclock. This old-fashioned tavern 
now passed away was beside Grand Lake Station or else Oak- 
field. I have often tried to identify its site from the railway. 
It was an unshapely old house, where a comfortable warm 
breakfastal ways awaited the passengers, who, while they had 
passed alongside of lake scenery which for quiet beauty can 
hardly be excelled, were always hungry and generally cold in 
winter. If they wished to reinforce the breakfast, they could 
always do it at Shultze's. I need hardly follow the details 
of my journey to New Glasgow, which was reached by sleigh 
from Truro at midnight. The complete novelty could not 
but make it interesting to a stranger. The stars were visible 
in the misty night. The jingle of the bells was pleasant amid 
the silent woods. Tall blasted trees stretched out their bare 
crooked arms between us and the sky. The sleigh was smooth 
and noiseless. A number of tall stalwart men met us at Mount 
Thorn and took away my friend Maclean. These were his 
brothers who are all now dead. To my surprise I was soon 
told that I was on the ice of the East River and at New Glas- 
gow where I was to dwell for twenty years. 

On the following day the scene which presented itself for 
the first time contrasted with much that I had ever seen before. 
The town, now a considerable city with a busy population, 
was decidedly small. The Highland people called it "the 
little," but small as it was it was not long since it had been 
much smaller. Only two or three houses were on the west side 
of the river. Like all rural villages, its unpaved streets were 
quiet. There was a hill behind and a mountain in the distance. 
The houses all over the country were of wooden frame; the 
old log hut had almost disappeared. But the cheerful old 
log fires were still common. I have slept in the log-house, 
which might have been tolarated, had it not often been, like 
Julian the Apostate's beard, populous. The country was quite 




RECOLLECTIONS OF SIXTY YEARS AGO. 27 

picturesque with hills and hollows, rivers, brooks and mea- 
dows. The people were here, and in the whole country, al- 
most all Highlanders, who had been coming out in waves of 
migration, to these forest lands for nearly a hundred years. 
They nearly all retained the Gaelic language and spoke it. 
They came mostly from Inverness shire, Sutherlandshire 
Rosshire and Caithness. They had undergone in coming 
and in pioneer work great hardships, but they were strong, 
patient, industrious and sober. God had prospered their 
labors and themselves. They left poverty behind. 

Why I should be there a stranger amid scenes so new de- 
mands some short explanation. The Scottish people, since 
the Reformation, have always taken a disproportionate inter- 
est in Church Government, not from any peculiar turn of 
mind but because they were never let alone. Interest was 
created by interference. They were at first half Presbyterian, 
then Presbyterian, then Prelatist, then Presbyterian, then 
half Puritan or Cromwellian, then Prelatist, then Presbyterian. 
Was ever any people so tormented ? This was chiefly the work 
of the Stuart Kings who wished to promote despotic govern- 
ment with the help of the Church, and to make the Church a tool 
of the State or themselves. A fairly good system was secured 
by the Resolution Settlement in 1690; which was again upset 
by the Act of Queen Anne in 1712 restoring lay-patronage. 
The seceders began furious attacks upon this in 1732 which 
ended in the Disruption of 1843. Lay-patronage was the 
bugbear. Doubtless it was not satisfactory. But, neither 
is popular election of ministers always satisfactory. The late 
Dr. Macgregor of St. Cuthbert's, Edinburg, in preaching to 
the parish of Monimail, to which he had been presented, took 
for his text; "Not this man but Barabbas. Now Barabbas 
was a robber." The people in Nova Scotia and Cape Breton 
were not unmoved by this agitation which goes under the 
name of the "Ten Years Conflict." Of 1,200 ministers, 652 
remained in the church and 451 seceded. Unfortunately the 
ministers in Pictou were drawn away to supply Scottish parish- 



28 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

churches and when I came to that county there would be about 
twelve large vacant congregations and two settled ministers. 
One of these, Dr. A. Macgillivray, with the concurrence of 
his own people, circulated among those congregations, preach- 
ing in Gaelic and English. Every summer, communions which 
were attended by thousands of people kept alive a kind of union 
among the different congregations. The whole depended upon 
the life and labor of one man who had remained when the other 
ministers left. His name must ever be mentioned with affec- 
tion and reverence in the County of Pictou. I was settled 
in New Glasgow where I remained for twenty years. My con- 
gregation covered a space of about twenty miles and involved 
much fatigue of all kinds. The external result was four more 
congregations. My great trouble was the constant home 
mission work extra required by vacant congregations. In 
four years with long rides on horseback in cold winter weather 
at all hours I was disabled by rheumatism, but a voyage to 
Scotland, which lasted for twenty-six days, drove it all out 
and I have had none since. Of the kindness of those dear old 
Highland people I could write volumes. 

In Nova Scotia sixty years ago the population was small, and 
there were few industries. The greatest activity was in wooden 
ship-building, for which an amazing number of harbors offered 
peculiar facilities. New Glasgow was a centre of industry not 
surpassed in the province. The coal railway had been opened 
in 1839. It was engineered and constructed upon plans pre- 
pared by Peter Crosar, grandfather of Mrs. MacKeen, of 
Maplewood, Halifax, who had never seen a railroad. Before 
that time money had been very scarce. The building of that 
road and the working of the coal caused a larger circulation 
of money than in any other part of the Province. The coal 
brought a large number of ships to the harbor. There was an 
iron foundry at the mines. The shipbuilding was most ex- 
tensively prosecuted in New Glasgow. I can recall the ship- 
yard bell : which served the purpose of a town clock to rouse us 
in the morning and announce the close of the day. The sounds 



RECOLLECTIONS OF SIXTY YEARS AGO. 29 

of innumerable hammers tapping on the sides of vessels and 
the noise of coal trains were very familiar. The old locomo- 
tives, the "Samson" and "Hercules," were quaint and peculiar. 
The engineer stood upon a kind of shelf in front. Among 
the many notable men in New Glasgow, the figure and seaman- 
like characteristic of Capt. George MacKenzie can never be 
forgotten. 

In these sketches I might have been tempted to contrast 
things sixty years ago with our present state. But I have left 
my hearers to indulge in such interesting reflections for them- 
selves. To compare the present with the past is a pleasing 
recreation while mere reminiscence is not always so. Mark 
Twain called it humiliation, with an adjective prefixed which I 
shall not repeat. I don't suppose that I have told you anything 
new. I am not a novelist and I cannot make bricks without 
straw. When I have to rake amid the ashes of the dead past, 
I must bring up a good deal that is of small value, but what is of 
little interest to others is often of painful interest to .myself, 
for the faces and forms of dear friends, whom I shall see no 
more here, pass across the stage; beautified and spiritualised by 
the witchery of thought and affection. One thing I desire, 
that the present, as compared with the past, may awake great 
hope for the future. May it deepen your love for your native 
land! May it cause you to feel that there is none better and 
that it is a beautiful country to live in and worth dying for if 
loyal affection should ever demand such a sacrifice! 

I can scarcely close without some reference to the religious 
and moral condition of the people. The congregations had 
been vacant for ten years and it might be inferred that religious 
apathy would be the consequence, that the Sabbath would be 
profaned and that the religious life of the people would deterior- 
ate. So it would be anywhere else. But the circumstances 
were peculiar. Scottish clanship kept them together. Even 
the language helped in preserving their integrity. The sum- 
mer Communions, attended by many thousands, promoted a 
spirit of unity. There was a deep religious spirit among them 



30 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



as the result of awakenings in the North Highlands from which 
they had come. Their teachers had been faithful in feeding 
them with the strong meat of Puritan theology as found in the 
Westminster Shorter Catechism; acquaintance with which 
was almost universal. So also was family-worship. In fact, 
religion was a predominant part of their daily life. Perhaps it 
was quickened by party spirit and polemic. The hardships of 
their early settlement and the solitude of the primeval forest 
solemnized their minds, and the thought of the homes which 
they would never see again lifted their minds to that home 
where for good men human misery comes to an end. 



HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 



31 



HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 

A Brief Historical Sketch of the Town of Bridgetown, Nova Scotia, 
Illustrating the Changes which have taken place in the Man- 
ners, Customs and Habits of the Rural Population of Nova 
Scotia During the Last Century; with a Sketch of Lieut. 
Colonel James Poyntz, a Peninsular War Veteran. 

By JOHN IRVIN, K. C., Bridgetown, N. S. 
(Read 2nd January, 1914). 

The genesis of the Town of Bridgetown, in Annapolis 
County, must be placed somewhere between the years 1800 
and 1816. At the first date there were just seven houses with- 
in the area embraced by the site of the present town, now con- 
taining over 150 substantial dwellings, public buildings, and 
stores, and a population of one thousand souls. 

Of these seven houses one deserves more than a passing 
notice. It stood at the end of the road now known as Queen 
Street near the Ferry as there being then no bridge crossing 
the Annapolis River. It was a large one-story building and 
familiarly known as the "Mud House," having been built of 
dried clay and rubble-stones. The walls were four feet thick 
and evidently intended to stand a seige. It was supposed to 
have been built during the troublesome times of the American 
Revolution. Its purpose being a place of safety to which the 
scattered population of that early period, might retire in case 
of an attack from an enemy. At any rate it must have been a 
large and roomy house : as for many years before and after 1816 
it was used as an inn and was known by the name of the ' 'Tav- 
ern House." It was set back from the road a considerable dis- 
tance, and in front was a large green, which at times presented 
an animated appearance. 

Here would meet the forefathers of the present generation, 
to discuss the politics of the day, the latest news from the seat 
of war. (such news being several months old.) Saturday was 



32 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

a red-letter day at the old Mud House or Tavern. On Satur- 
day afternoons the farmers of the surrounding district would 
gather on the green in fine weather, or on inclement days in the 
large tap-room, and spend a holiday time after the strenuous 
labor of the week on the farm. Many came from long dis- 
tance, even as far as twenty miles and over, to do business or 
meet relatives. Each would bring his quota of interesting 
news of the happenings: deaths, marriages, or the arrival of 
the last baby in his neighbourhood. It was in this way that 
news was then circulated. In the very early years of the cen 
tury most of them would come on horseback with saddle- 
bags. Those who drove, came in two- wheeled chaises or gigs 
of all sorts and conditions. They were very strangly built, 
being intended to last for generations. Some of them had 
evidently served the fathers and grandfathers of the then own- 
ers. Four-wheeled waggons were unknown. I have been 
told that at this early period there was only one four-wheeled 
waggon in the county, and that had been brought by a family 
from New York. 

Here at the old "Mud House Tavern" would bivouac the 
troops on their way to and from Halifax, when relieving the 
detachments at that time stationed at the town of Annapolis 
Royal. This was of annual occurrence, and the arrival of the 
soldiers at Bridgetown was eagerly looked for and considered as 
a holiday. Leaving Halifax several days previously, the 
troops would march through the country, stopping at certain 
towns for rest and refreshment, and would arrive at the old 
Tavern House about the middle of the afternoon. Their ar- 
rival would be heralded by an advance guard, and for days 
previously great preparations would be made to entertain them. 
Bright English shillings, half-crowns and crowns would be 
exchanged for fresh butter, cheese, poultry and other farm 
products. It was a great day when the troops arrived. The 
country people for miles would ride or drive into the town, with 
their families, to see the soldiers. Many of them had been 
members, or their descendants, of a regiment of Scotch who 



HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 



33 



had been disbanded at the close of the last American war; 
others again had belonged to those stout German troops which 
had fought under England's banner in her long struggle with 
France, and later during the American War. They too had 
been disbanded when the peace came, and some of them had 
accepted grants in the lower part of the county; their place of 
settlement to be ever afterwards known as the Hessian and 
Waldack Lines. All of these people dearly loved the sight of a 
red coat: many of them had worn it, and loved to hear again 
the martial strains of Britain. 

One summer afternoon a large detachment of troops en 
route for the fort at Annapolis, headed by a military band, 
marched through the town, and took up a position on the green 
in front of the old tavern. Here, arms were piled and pre- 
parations made for the usual halt until the next morning. 
In the evening, after tea, the people having flocked to the town 
in great numbers, the officers ordered the band to play for the 
amusement of those present. Among the sight seers was a 
farmer named Rice, who had ridden into town on an old horse 
which had formerly been a military charger. Hitching him 
slightly to a fence, half way between the Tavern House and the 
corner of Queen and Granville Street, Mr. Rice strolled leisurely 
towards the troops. Directly the band struck up the old 
charger was seen to tug at his fastenings, and making his escape, 
trotted down the street with head and tail erect, and wheeling 
into the green took up a position beside the band in review 
order, the strains of martial music recalling to his sub-con- 
cious memory the manoeuvers of his military days. 

In 1805 the first bridge was built, prior to which a ferry 
had been kept by a man named Hicks, who owned a tract of 
land fronting on the south bank of the river opposite the town, 
and which connected the main road, leading from Halifax to 
Annapolis, with both sides of the river. The building of the 
bridge gave a great impetus to the town, so that by 1825 it was 
fast becoming a place of note in the county. Judge Savary, the 



34 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

editor of Calneck's History of Annapolis County, tells us that 
"a village sprang up like magic." Business was centering at 
the place, and as it was the head of navigation of the Annapolis 
River, the farmers brought here the produce of their farms to be 
shipped by small schooners to Saint John, Halifax and Boston. 
Immense quantities of cordwood were shipped to the latter 
place. 

The year 1825 is notable for the fact that the first vessel 
ever built in the town was launched that year. It was the first 
of a great and long flourishing industry, bringing wealth and 
importance to the place. 

A little later the first hotel was opened. It was named 
"Quirk's Hotel" after the proprietor. It was there that the 
coaches stopped at the last stage between Halifax and Anna- 
polis. 

Prior to the early period first referred to there resided 
in the vicinity of the town a number of families belonging to the 
Society of Friends or Quakers. They were the ancestors of 
the Hickses the FitzRandolphs, the Greens and others. Some 
of them were very wealthy, but all were thrifty and well-to-do. 
They preserved for a long period the traditions of their peculiar 
sect, its manners and customs, and adhered in all its simplicity 
to the peculiar garb of the Quakers. The men wore broad- 
brimmed hats and snuff-brown suits, with coats of ample 
skirts, and knee-breeches; while the women on ordinary oc- 
casions arrayed themselves in unassuming grey. But the 
quality of the cloth of their holiday attire made up for its 
sombreness in color; for on Sunday, and when in town on 
business, the texture of the clothing worn by the men was of 
the finest quality; while the grey silks and satins of the wo- 
men rustled against the counters of the country stores. 
Though grave in deportment and decorous in speech, they were 
withal a gentle and courtly mannered people. Their "thee" 
and "thou" and "friend" were kindly spoken, and evinced the 
spirit of goodwill in which they daily sought to live. Occasion- 



HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 35 

ally they were visited by leading friends from the state of New 
York, who would hold forth in preaching among them; but 
no great accession to their number ever taking place, they grad- 
ually disappeared as a sect. Their names and families still 
remain, but their manners and customs have departed. The 
tide of population that during the last ninety odd years has 
ebbed and flowed through the valley, has entirely effaced the 
tenets of their faith, so that they remain no longer as a factor 
in the religious life of the people. 

If a denizen cf the valley, of one hundred years ago, were to 
visit it now, how astonished he would be at the physical changes 
which have taken place since he left. He would miss the vast 
forest of timber and hardwood which covered the slopes of the 
Noith and South Mountain ranges, and he would observe the 
shrinkage in the size of the brooks and rivulets, tributaries of 
the river, caused by the clearing away of the forest, the drain- 
ing of the swamps and the cultivation of the soil. 

Especially would he wonder if he were in Eden, because of 
the difference in the climate as he remembered it one hundred 
years ago. Agricola in his Letters, tells us that at the period 
in which he writes "the snow seldom dissolves till April, and 
that for several months before it covered the ground to a great 
depth, while, too, the vernal blush of spring is of short duration, 
and almost instantaneously lost in the ruddy and full blaze of 
summer." In old books of French geography published many 
years previously, Acadia is described as "sterile and joyless in 
the utmost degree, and as region of perpetual fogs and frost.'* 
When this province was granted in the time of James the First , 
its winters were remarkable for their length and the intensity 
of the cold. 

In the year 1794, just one hundred and twenty years ago, 
when Halifax was divided and apportioned, the features of 
the climate were harsh and rugged and the oldest inhabitants 
of Agricola's time who recalled the severity of the winters 
fifty years previously, narrated with a kind of touching pathos, 



36 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

their sufferings from the rigour of the weather. The snow 
generally set in about November and continued often until 
May; the harbour was frozen over every winter at Halifax, 
and waggons and loads of hay, oxen and horse teams and the 
stage-coach, crossed it without the least danger. The penin- 
sula of Halifax was so deeply buried in snow that fences were 
overtopped and no trace left of the inequality of the ground, the 
whole being one even glassy surface without break or impedi- 
ment. The winter was steady and invariable, without any 
of the alternations of frost and thaws as observed at the period 
when he wrote, and he claimed that during the previous fifty 
years the climate had greatly meliorated, from various causes, 
chiefly because of the clearing of the land and the access of 
population, and yet at that time the population scarcely num- 
bered 80,000. 

From information gleaned from very old people some 
twenty-odd years ago, the winters in the early years of the 
century were very severe. The snow came in November and 
continued till the last of March, so that our dweller in the 
valley, who went to sleep a century ago, would experience a 
different climate on waking up at the present time, when we 
hardly have any snow till after Christmas, and your noble 
Harbour has long been freed from its icy fetters. 

Some few remaining houses buift in the early days of the 
century, tell us the sort of shelter which our forefathers had. 
Most of the houses were of one story, and low ceilinged, with 
very small windows. They had mostly high, pitched roofs 
giving an attic room', in which were stored the large spinning 
wheel and weaving loom. Some were lo)ng rambling structures, 
and appeared to have been added to from time to time, as the 
family increased in size. 

But whatever the size of the dwellings, there was one 
feature which charactized them all. The kitchen was gener- 
ally the largest and most important room in the house. Its 
floor was kept as white as sand and soap, with constant scrub- 



HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 37 

bing, could make it. It was a matter of pride to keep it so, 
and on the floor would be laid platted mats, not hooked as now. 
They were circular in shape and displayed the good housewife's 
skill as one of the articles of domestic manufacture. In one 
corner stood the small spinning wheel for winter spinning. 
Among the few articles of tin-ware, then in general usje, was the 
candle-mould, for making tallow candles, the only light then 
known, in the country districts, except a lamp made of brass 
or other metal, containing seal oil, which was used only on 
rare occasions. Near the fireplace was a small closet, high up 
out of the smaller children's reach, in which was kept a mis- 
cellaneous collection of dried herbs and other simples, in case 
of sickness, a botcle of opodeldo for aches and pains, some 
senna leaves and epsom salts, with perhaps a package of sul- 
phur, to be used in the spring, with molasses, for cleansing the 
blood. On a shelf over the huge fireplace would be a pair or 
two of metal candle-sticks, with a tray and snuffers to match. 
The very well to do people had brass candlesticks of various 
patterns, which were kept brightly burnished by constant 
polishing. 

A clock was rarely to be seen; a few families had eight-day 
ones, which were heir- looms in the family and stood as an 
ornament in the hall or otherwise in the best room. Sun-dials 
were used by some, and there are a few yet preserved as relics 
by descendants of some of the old families. Watches were not 
so common as now, few except the head of the family possessed 
one, and it was probably handed down from father to son, 
usually where there was no clock in the house, the watch hung 
on a nail over the kitchen fireplace. From thence on Sunday, 
it would be transferred to the pocket of the satin vest of the 
owner and piously carried to church. 

The kitchen fire place remains to be described. Modern 
people can have no idea of this huge cavern for the consumption 
of wood. Three or four ordinary persons might comfortably 
seat themselves in some of them and yet not be crowded. In 
some of the very old houses scattered here and there through 



38 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

the country they have been bricked up or removed to make 
way for modern requirements. At one side of the fireplace 
was attached an iron bar called a "crane," which swung in 
and out of the fireplace. It had iron hooks attached to it 
upon which were suspended iron pots for cooking purposes. 
Meats, game and poultry were not baked as at present, but 
roasted before the fire. The piece or round of beef, goose or 
turkey would be suspended on an iron spit made to revolve slow- 
ly before the fire. Back of the roast was placed a large tin 
shield, concaved to the fire, its polished surface reflecting the 
heat; while underneath was placed a large pan to catch the 
fast-dripping gravy, from which the cook from time to time, 
would baste the roast. 

In winter, just before dark, the kitchen fire would be made 
up to last the next twenty-four hours. First a large hardwood 
log from three to four feet in length and about two feet thick 
would be rolled in, and placed comfortably at the back of the 
fireplace. This was called the back-log. On top of this, and 
resting against the back of the fireplace, was laid an ordinary- 
sized cordwood stick. In front and at some little distance 
from the back-log, supported on andirons, was placed another 
ordinary-sized cordwood stick. Under this would be raked 
the hot embers; a few dry chips thrown on them, and soon it 
would burn briskly, and the immense back-log, catching fire, 
would blaze away merrily, sending forth both light and heat 
through out the apartment, and from thence through the house. 

In winter the evening meal was partaken of quite early, 
usually at about five o'clock, a long evening being desired. 
A favorite dish at this meal was composed of Indian cornmeal 
boiled with milk, which was called "saupon." Its excellence 
consisted not so much in its ingredients as in the manner of its 
preparation, which began immediately after the dinner. A 
goodly sized pot was nearly filled with sweet milk, into this 
was stirred meal made from home-grown corn sufficient to 
make a stiff batter, seasoned with salt. The pot was then 
hung on the crane over the fire, and allowed slowly to boil and 




HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 39 

bubble all the afternoon till tea-time. It was then served 
with sugar and cream or milk. This with bread, made from 
wheat grown on the farm, carriway-seed biscuit, freshly baked, 
and home-made cheese, with milk as a drink for the younger 
members of the family, and a great dish of tea for the seniors, 
comprized the evening meal. 

After tea on very cold or stormy nights all the family gather- 
ed in the kitchen, the cheerful glow from the fireplace furnishing 
light enough for the different occupations to which the evening 
hours were devoted. The boys did little or nothing except to 
dry and grease their coarse heavy boots in preparation for the 
next day's work in the woods, getting out timber and firewood. 
It was at this period that the districts of Granville and Clarence 
began to be cleared of the mighty trees, the beeches, the birches 
and the rock-maples, giving place later on to cultivated fields 
and mil^s and miles of orchard which now cover the slopes of 
the North Mountain range. But the boys were full of the 
lure of the wild and the incidents of the day in the snow-laden 
forests, and upon these their converse would run. One had 
discovered the lair of a fox and was going to set a trap the next 
day : another had seen the track of a racoon, or he had observed 
a wild-cat spring upon a luckess rabbit, he had not his gun with 
him or he would have had such a fine skin. Another with a sly 
look at Sister Susan busy at her spinning-wheel, would tell how 
Jim Bolzer, a neighbor's son, had met him on the way home 
with the last load of wood, and had said he intended being at 
the singing class next night, white Susan pretended not to hear 
the mention of her sweetheart's name as the blush on neck and 
cheek fival/ed the red gold of her locks. Ah, happy Susan, 
pleasant be your dreams when you fall asleep thinking of the 
next singing class. 

But knitting was the chief occupation of the female portion 
of the family. They knit the most beautiful socks and stock- 
ings, mits and gloves and underwear, of the softest yarn, spun 
from the wool of the flock on the farm . All the girls were taught 



40 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



to knit and took pride in it, an accomplishment which today 
has almost ceased to exist. 

There was very little reading matter. in the majority of the 
houses, and but few books beyond the family Bible, the Book of 
Common Prayer in some instances, or Wesley's hymns and 
sermons, and mayhap a copy of the Pilgrim's Progress. In later 
years came Belcher's Farmer's Almanac, and in many houses 
some carefully preserve copies of Agricola's Letters. Among 
the generality of the people very little was known of the outside 
world, or even of our own province for that matter. Letter 
writing was very little practiced, postage was very expensive 
and was regulated by the distance. Tne postage on a letter 
from Annapolis to Halifax cost sixpence, from Halifax to 
Quebec, 1 s. 8 d., to Montreal 2 s. 1 d., and to Toronto 2 s. 9 d. 

Singing classes, as they were called, were a great source of 
amusement and recreation for the young people. Hence 
nearly all could read music, and there was no difficulty in con- 
gregational singing. The class would meet weekly at the 
different houses in the settlement and practice singing by nota- 
tion. Generally in each settlement there would be some one 
advanced enough in music to be able to teach singing, and 
classes would be formed every winter for practice, sacred music 
being principally used. There were no organs, so the tuning- 
fork set the pitch of the tunes. 

Besides the singing classes there were other gatherings of 
the people for the amusement and pleasure of both youth and 
age, but their character differed according as the company 
viewed the question of dancing. Among the staid and sober- 
minded fiiends the strict Baptists and Methodists, the after- 
noon tea was the fashion for the middle-aged and elderly 
people. The function was very unlike the afternoon teas of 
modern society. Very early in the afternoon, near three o'clock, 
the matrons would meet at the house to which they were in- 
vited, knitting or other light work in hand, bedecked in white 
lace caps and best gowns, the gown being made of silk, coboury 



HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 41 

cloth or alpaca, according to the opulence of the wearer. The 
afternoon would be spent in pleasant gossip until tea was 
served at the usual family tea hours, at which time the matrons 
would be joined by their husbands and all would partake of the 
repast. After tea the men would quietly withdraw to the kit- 
chen, when pipes and tobacco would be produced, and amid 
a halo of tobacco-smoke conversation became general. It 
would simply be local affairs and agricultural matters that 
would be discussed. Of the great world outside, little would be 
heard. There were then no daily morning newspapers of the 
city delivered at noon in the country post-office as we have 
them today. The Halifax "Herald" had not been born and its 
older rival, the "Morning Chronicle," was still in the womb of 
time. Nor can I learn of any newspaper circulating in the 
province, except it might be a stray copy of the "Acadian Re- 
corder." 

Evening parties for the young were held after tea, at which 
games and forfeits were the dissipation indulged in. But 
among that class of people who did not regard dancing as wick- 
ed, "frolics" as they were called were frequently held, at which 
dancing was the chief, if not the only pastime. Round dances 
were unknown, but "eights" and "reels" and "fours" were in- 
dulged in with a zest that nothing seemed to tire. The 
"frolic" began early and was kept up till a late hour. There 
was generally in the neighborhood some one who could play the 
violin, and whose stock of tunes consisted of "The Flowers of 
Edinboro," the "Soldier's Joy," "Old Dan Tucker," and "Catch 
the Squirrel." At .midnight there would be a halt in the 
dancing and supper would be partaken of, and oh, such a 
supper, the biggest turkey, the fattest goose, with roast 
chickens and a round of beef, flanked on each side by huge 
piles of mashed potatoes and gravy, followed by delicious mince 
and apple-pies, displaying the culinary perfection of the rural 
hostess. And such appetites, such fun and jollky, such joking 
and rare country wit, followed by explosions of hearty laughter 
as would make the rafters in the old kitchen ring again! Such 



42 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



ogling on the part of the country swains, such flirting on the 
part of the rural belles! Oh dear, I wonder if our modern balls 
and dances can shew the like as compared with the old-time 
frolic? 

After supper for a half hour or so, would come the oppor- 
tunity of the old folk to shew their accomplishment in dancing, 
while the younger people looked on. The oldest of the guests 
would take their place on the floor in eights and fours. Mat- 
rons of three-score-and-ten would vis-a-viz with octogenarian 
patriarchs, and to them for a short while the days of youth 
would seem to come back as three-score-and-ten curtesyed with 
old-time grace to octogenarian bows. And how the youths 
and maidens would laugh and clap their hands as the old folk, 
galvanized by the excitement and pleasure of the moment, 
would show the young folk how much better and prettier the 
dances were stepped in their day than in that modern time! 

But there were other gatherings of a different character. 
Death would visit the neighborhood, and again the old farm- 
house would be filled with self-invited guests. It was then con- 
sidered a sacred duty to attend the funeral of a neighbor. 
There were no flowers used to relieve the gloom of the occasion, 
but no deeper sympathy could be shown. Nor was there any 
regular undertaker in those early days. The local carpenter 
would make the coffin generally of pine- wood stained with black. 
Nor were there stately hearses with sable plumes such as you 
find in the country today; but kind neighbors bore the re- 
mains on a simple hand-bier to the newly-made grave close 
by in the little graveyard on the farm. On many old farms in 
the country, can yet be seen those little cemeteries where sleep 
the dust of generations of owners. This old custom of burial 
on the farm has been given up and public cemeteries are now 
used. 

The limit of this paper will not permit me to give at any 
length many more of the customs of the olden time. A re- 
spectable volume could be written from material gathered 



HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 43 

many years ago from old people who have since passed away. 
Otherwise I might tell you of the weddings in the rural district 
a century ago; of the material of the bride's dress and its cost; 
of the wreath of artifical flowers, prepared by the hands of her 
maiden friends, which crowned the bride in lieu of a bridal 
veil. How the bride was taken home the morning after the 
evening wedding, with a great procession of relatives, friends 
and neighbors, mounted on horseback or riding in the vehicles 
of the time. How on the day following, would be sent from 
the old homestead to the bride's new home, the bride's dot or 
portion as it was named, being so many milch cows, sheep, pigs 
and poultry, half a dozen chairs, and a miscellaneous collection 
of articles to set up housekeeping, according to the wealth 
of her family and relatives; also the boxes of linen sheets, 
pillow-cases and table linen, all homemade from flax grown on 
the farm, by frequent bleaching made as white as the driven 
snow, and redolent with the perfume of the dried sweet-grass 
plucked during the last autumn from the neighboring woods; 
of the feather beds and pillows; of the counterpane and quilts, 
the latter made by the bride's own hand many years previously 
in anticipation of the event. 

Then I should like to tell you of the pedlar period, especially 
of the one on foot with a pack on his back, travelling from house 
to house with his wares of ribbons, laces, pins, needles, spools of 
thread, and cheap jewelry. He was always a welcome guest, 
not alone for the useful articles he supplied, but for the news 
of the countryside which he brought with him. Of the clock 
mender, the original of "Sam Slick" of the wool buyer with his 
great caravan of tin-ware, giving it in exchange with cash for 
the wool of the farmer which was exported from the country 
to supply foreign lands, of the cattle buyer or driver for the 
city. 

Then I would like to describe the manner of conducting 
policical elections in the old time; of the open houses where 
meat and drink was supplied at the cost of the unfortunate 
candidate for parliamentary honors; of voters stolen from the 



44 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



other side of hiding them in attics and barns, getting them 
drunk and keeping them so until the day of the election, when 
they would be produced and made to vote against their own 
party; of the bloody fights in the vicinity of the poll while the 
election was proceeding, produced by the distribution of free 
rum which was then permitted; of the flags, the ribbons and 
the mottoes; of the cheering of the crowd as the state of the 
poll was announced from time to time, because it was open 
voting then. 

Also reference should be made to trips at intervals during 
the year; to the market in Halifax to sell the produce of the 
farm, especially in the winter time. Of the preparations 
made the day before, for the start in the early morning hours, 
long before daylight, with the stars gleaming in the clear cold 
atmosphere and the frosty snow crunching under the iron-shod 
runners of the sleds, loaded to their utmost capacity. Of the 
two or three days journey going and coming from the city. 
Of the wayside Inns along the country roads and their comfort 
and convenience for the traveller. Then the week or so spent 
by the farmer at the country market in the role of his own sales- 
man, his own commission merchant. How in the latter years 
of the century about the seventies, there arose a class of people 
called "middlemen," speculators who bought out the farmers' 
products wholesale and retailed them at a profit, whereat great 
complaints were heard on the part of the citizens of Halifax 
at the practice. Articles appeared in the press condemning 
this practice, and it was seriously thought of passing a law to 
prevent it. Vain idea, it could no more be stopped than the 
resistless tide. It was trie march of progress; it was the in- 
evitable change in the mode of commerce between the town and 
country, consequent upon the introduction of railways with 
increased transportation facilities and the extension of branch 
banks to every town in the province. To the middleman, 
succeeded the produce-buyer and commission agent of the 
present day, with greater facilities for insuring a constant 
supply of the country produce and food for the consumption 




COLONEL JAMES POYNTZ, Late H. M. 39th Regt. 
Born 1799, Died 1889. 

[From photograph taken about 1879]. 

[To face page 46. 



HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 45 

of the city and relieving the public from the fear of a shortness 
of country produce which often occurred when depending upon 
the haphazard journeys of farmers in taking his own produce 
to market. Today the farmer never carries his products to 
the market; he sells it right at the farm, and ships it at the 
nearest railway station to his agent in Halifax, then goes to 
one of the Branch banks, makes a draft on his consignee and 
in a day or two draws his money, so that the modern way of 
doing business between town and country is alike preferable 
to the agricultural classes in the country, as well as of advant- 
age to the consumer in the city. 

But to return to Bridgetown. The town had advanced 
with the growth of the country, and the period of the forties 
had arrived. At this period there was in the town a refined 
and cultivated society whose leaders set an example and exer- 
cised an influence for good which more or less affected all 
classes. Among the acknowledged leaders were three ladies 
preeminent for their good works. First there was a Mrs. 
Haszard, a Scotch lady of large means; second her daughter, 
Mrs. Robertson, wife of the Revd. Dr. Robertson, at that 
time acting episcopal minister in the town; and third Mrs. 
Poyntz, wife of Lieutenant Colonel James Poyntz, a retired 
army officer. To these ladies was mainly due the pleasant 
condition of affairs which happily existed. The cultivation of 
literature and music among ;the younger portion of society was 
encouraged and stimulated by the musical and literary parties 
held at the houses of these, and other residents. 

In winter these weekly entertainments were varied by 
parties at which, after supper, dancing was moderately indulged 
in by the youthful members, while the elders lingered at the 
table and related stories and witty anecdotes or sang some of 
the long old-fashioned ballads which existed in that day. 
Each guest was expected to contribute something to the 
evening's amusement, Colonel Poyntz being stn excellent per- 
former on the flute, frequently delighted the guests with his 
skill on this instrument. 



46 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Biographical Sketch of Lieut. -Colonel James Poyntz, 1799-1889. 

It is fitting that I should close this paper with a sketch of 
this familiar figure in the social life of the town some sixty odd 
years ago. On all sides I have heard the highest encomiums of 
this gentleman, his kindly manner, his friendly greeting to all 
and hearty handgrasp on meeting even casual acquaintances, 
have been spoken of by those who remembered him. Of a ripe 
experience, gained through travel in many lands and long 
acquaintance with men of all ranks, Colonel Poyntz's advice 
was sought by his friends on occasions of difficulty and his 
readiness to help and assist those in trouble endeared him to all. 
Of a robust constitutipn, he was abroad in all weathers and was 
frequently met taking his constitutional up the mountain side 
or along the dykes of the river, the latter being his favorite 
walk. All the country side knew the tall military gentleman 
who walked the country roads as though on the line of march. 
Then a certain romantic interest attended him. The Peninsula 
War was not so far off as now he had fought in the wars, had 
served under the great Wellington, and had helped to defeat 
Bonaparte. Besides he had memories to relate of Albuera, of 
Busaco, and the deadly breach at Badajoz, names glorious on 
Britian's roll of honor. This gave him an interest which other- 
wise would have been wanting. 

Colonel Poyntz had been a soldier from early youth. His 
family had long been connected with the army. His birth 
took place in the English Channel, on board a troopship, in the 
year l<99,while his father and mother were on their way to a 
government appointment, and at the time when Europe was 
the theatre of the French Revolutionary wars, and England was 
contending with a world in arms. 

In 1811 he had grown to be a youth of twelve; strong, 
hearty, and giving promise of a vigorous manhood. His 
predilections were all for the army. His first breath had been 
drawn amid preparations for war and his early childhood was 
associated with the profession of arms. England was still 



HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 47 

contending with France, and the martial zeal of the youth of 
Britain was fired by the feats of arms displayed by the army in 
Spain. The disasters of Corunna had been effaced by the 
splendid victories of Talavera and Salamanca. Young Poyntz 
volunteered for active service, and was attached to the 30th 
Regiment of Foot, then at Torres Vedras, forming part of the 
fifth division of the army under Wellington. With the Fight- 
ing Fifth, as they were called, he saw much service in outpost 
duty and frequent sorties, and thus early studied the art of 
war in that best of all schools, active warfare. Shortly after he 
joined, the British, bursting from the lines of Torres Vedras, 
pursued the retreating French under Marshal Masenna, dur- 
ing which were fought the hotly contested battles of Subjugal, 
Almeida, and Fuentes d'Onor, ending with the investment of 
Badajoz. Here for a time was stayed the onward course of 
the British . At length , the breaches being reported practicable , 
Wellington determined to take it by storm in April, 1812. 
Young Poyntz was present when the orders of the day, contain- 
ing the dispositions for the assault were read to the troops 
assigned to the desperate service. Who, that has read Napier's 
description of that terrible storm, can surmise what must have 
been the thoughts of the young lad of twelve, as he stood in the 
ranks of the British host and heard the memorable words, 
"Badajoz must be taken by storm to-night," with which the 
orders of the day began. Badajoz was taken by storm that 
night, and among the five thousand who there died, were many 
young lads on whose cheek mantled the flush of military glory, 
only to fade in the paleness of death ere the morning. Pre- 
served from the deadly mine which blew up the leading files 
of the fourth division, the muddy waters of the moat in which 
miserably perished hundreds of the survivors of Albuera, and 
many other dangers, young Poyntz came through the assault 
unscathed. 

For his services he was sent by the Government to the 
Royal Military College at Sandhurst, where he qualified for a 
commission, and on 14th April, 1814, was appointed to an 



48 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ensigncy in the same regiment in which he had served as a 
volunteer. In 1814 he applied to join his regiment, then in 
France with the army of occupation. His application was in 
some way delayed and therefore, as he writes in one of his 
private memos, "I was not at Waterloo." Fortunate, perhaps, 
for him that it was so, as the young officer who took his place 
and bore the colors of the regiment was shot dead in the first 
charge which the regiment made that day. 

At the conclusion of the war Poyntz served with his regi- 
ment in England until 1818 when he was ordered to India, 
where he remained eleven years. While in India he gained pro- 
motion, at that time necessarily slow in the army, being on 
28th Dec., 1828, commissioned Captain. Here, also, he met 
with the lady who became his life companion and faithful, 
loving wife. She was the daughter of an officer, high in com- 
mand in India. Returning to England in 1829, he remained 
there until 1834 when he embarked with his regiment for Ber- 
muda, where, remaining seven years he filled important staff 
appointments. On 23rd November, 1841, he was commission- 
ed major. 

On 29th November, 1841, he arrived at Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, with the 30th Regiment. On 2nd June, 1842, he pro- 
ceeded with the regiment to New Brunswick, where the corps 
was stationed till December, 1843. 

It was while in New Brunswick that, hearing much of the 
beauty of the Annapolis Valley, he determined to have a look 
at it. With Poyntz to resolve anything, was to carry it out, so 
taking passage on a small coasjting schooner, after a quick 
trip across the Bay of Fundy, he landed at Hampton on the 
Bay Shore. There was no conveyance handy to drive him to 
the valley, but walking to him was only a pastime. So en- 
quiring the way, he proceeded on foot over the mountain to 
Bridgetown, a distance of seven miles from Hampton. On 
reaching that part of the road which overlooks the valley, he 
was entranced with the beauty of the scene which lay almost 



HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 49 

at the feet of the spectator. It was a lovely morn in June and 
the air was redolent with the perfume of the apple blossom. 
About fifteen miles to the right dould be seen the Annapolis 
Basin with the old historic town on one side and Digby on 
the other. From thence up the valley and away to the left 
was a succession of farms in smiling plenty, dotted with quaint 
farm houses and orchards in bloom, between fields of growing 
grain. The mountain ranges, north and south, were covered 
with the fresh verdure of early 'summer, while dividing the 
fruitful land in sinuous winding was the river which has given 
to the valley its fertility; its tidal waters at the flood lapping 
the dykes which the industry of man had reared to form the 
marshes, then, as now a great source of rural wealth. As 
our traveler stood and gazed on the scene before him there 
came to him the longing desire to carry out .what he had for 
some time contemplated, retirement from long active service 
and the enjoyment of a well-earned repose, to which a long and 
honorable record in the service of his country justly entitled 
him. To him, accustomed to the changes of a soldier's life, 
the idea of a settled home, with opportunities of personal 
attentions to the education of his children, were advantages 
of such tempting nature as to be irrestible. Hence the resolve, 
shortly afterwards carried out, to abandon forever the excite- 
ment and work of military service and spend the remainder 
of his days in ease and retirement. 

. An hour's brisk walk down the mountain road, brought him 
to Bridgetown, and he found himself in the quiet enjoyment 
of a dinner at Quirk's Hotel, the chief hostelry of the town. 
The afternoon and several days following were spent in ex- 
ploring the vicinity and noting its points of beauty. The 
long lines of elms and other trees, recently set out, adorning 
the principal streets, the garden plots in front of the houses, 
with the well-trimmed hedges and neat fences of the suburban 
residences, and the busy aspect of the town struck his fancy. 
The appearance of a distinguished stranger, such as Major 
Poyntz, in the town, naturally caused more attention sixty 
4 



50 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



years ago than at present when summer tourists are more 
numerous. With a friendly and frank personality like his, 
it was not long for him to make the acquaintance and be 
invited to partake of the hospitality of the principal families. 
Here then he determined to make his future home. As he 
said to one of my informants, "I found in Bridgetown an ex- 
cellent school, a church and a cultivated minister of the Gospel, 
one earnest in purpose and work, and a thorough scholar and 
gentleman; all the cbmforts of town life with none of the ex- 
pences attendant upon a city residence. These were the 
considerations which induced me to reside here." 

His application to be allowed to retire met with success 
on the th Sepgember, 1844, and his long service gained him a 
retiring allowance on full pay. Some years afterwards he 
received the Peninsular War medal which was issued in 1848, 
with an autograph letter from his old commander, the Duke 
of Wellington, on 28th November, 1854, he received the 
honorary rank of lieutenant-colonel. 

Colonel Poyntz resided at Bridgetown for many years, and 
closely identified himself with the interest of the place. Here 
some of his family grew up to manhood and womanhood. Here 
some of his boys died and are buried in the quiet country 
churchyard, and here befell him the great sorrow of his life 
in the loss of his estimable wife, who died in 1859. Here he 
laid her to rest, and when a few years afterwards he removed 
to Windsor he never failed once a year to visit her grave, and 
to spend a week in the town renewing old friendships. 

One pleasant afternoon in October, 1889, a large concourse 
of people gathered at the Dominion Atlantic Railway Station 
across the river. Among them were the members of the Roth- 
say Lodge of Free Masons. Their crape-draped regalia in- 
dicated that the funeral of a member of their Lodge woud 
take place on the arrival of the train from Windsor. A casket 
was removed from the car, containing all that was mortal of 
James Poyntz. An aged clergyman, Rev. H. Stamer, son-in- 



HISTORY OF BRIDGETOWN. 51 

law of the deceased, accompanied the remains. Very reverent- 
ly the casket was borne to the hearse, and the long cortege 
passed to the quiet cemetery beyond. In a few moments the 
closing hymns of the Church service for the dead, mornfully, 
but thrilling with hope, sounded in the stillness of the October 
afternoon. Soon the ancient craft completed its ceremony, 
and thus peacefully the aged soldier was laid to rest beside the 
wife he had loved so well. A marble slab, perfect in its 
simplicity, marks his grave. It contains this inscription; 
"Sacred to the memory of Colonel James Poyntz, late of 
H. M. 30th Regiment, who died at Windsor, N. S., Oct. 5, 
1889, beloved and respected by all who knew him." 



THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1755-1867. 53 



THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1755-1867. 

By WILLIAM SMITH, I. S. O. 

Archivist Post Office of Canada (1902), now of the Public Archives 

of Canada. 

(Read 3rd November, 1916). 

It was with much pleasure that I accepted the invitation 
with which your president honoured me, to read a paper before 
your society on the early Post Office in Nova Scotia. There 
are two reasons for my pleasure. During my connection with 
the Post Office Department it was my good fortune to visit 
Halifax rather frequently. These visits were always looked 
forward to as enjoyable little breaks in the monotony of my 
life at the desk. The esprit du corps which happily reigns 
throughout the whole postal service, nowhere exercises a 
stronger influence than in Halifax, and the visitor from Ottawa 
could depend on a greeting marked by the utmost good will. 
I would be chargeable with disloyalty to old friendships, if 
(to mention only those officers who have passed into history) , 
I neglected the opportunity of speaking of the many pleasant 
and profitable hours I have spent in rambling about the Pro- 
vince in the company of the Inspector Colonel Macdonald, or 
in chatting with Mr. Blackadar, the Postmaster, in the con- 
tracted quarters in which for so many years he was obliged to 
cabin his ample spirit. 

My second reason for pleasure is that in Halifax I am at the 
beginning of things. It was in this city that the first office was 
established in the present Dominion of Canada. Since, so far 
as I am aware, there exists no official record of the opening of 
this office, I will perhaps be pardoned if I relate the circum- 
stance connected with my obtaining this information. While 
in Boston some years ago, collecting material for the history 
of the post office, I was invited to call upon a gentleman, who 



54 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



had written a good deal on the subject, and with whom I had 
had some correspondence. He was a German his name told 
me that much but on presenting myself at his house ou a 
Sunday morning, I was rather surprised to find myself before 
a gentleman, who without any change of appearance, might 
have taken the part of the earlier Faust. He was tall, thin 
and very grey, and bore himself with a stoop entirely in keeping 
witlAhe vellum-covered Latin volume in his hand . The volume 
was one of the twelve, which contained the philosophy of Duns 
Scotus; and I understood him to say that he was reading 
the book to improve his English, which, I should add, was re- 
markably good. He began the conversation with the abrupt 
question, "which was the oldest post office in Canada?" 
Promptly I replied "Quebec." He shook his head. "But" I 
argued "Quebec post office was established in 1763, the very 
year in which the Treaty of Paris was concluded. "True*' he 
admitted "but Halifax post office was opened eight years 
earlier (1755)." He knew nothing of the circumstances, but 
he had seen the fact noted in the Boston Evening Post of that 
year, which settled the matter. I obtained no further light 
on this point, until a year later when I was in the Record Office 
in London, still in pursuit of Post Office material. There I 
came upon the complete story. You will remember that in 
1755, affair^ between the French and the English on this 
continent were approaching a crisis. Expedition and counter- 
expedition carried out on both sides with ruthless severity kept 
the Colonies in a state of alarm, and appeals were made to the 
Mother Country to establish a regular packet service, in order 
to maintain a closer connection than at that time existed be- 
tween the two sides of the Atlantic. The British Government 
boggled at the expense, until Braddock's defeat and the 
annihilation of his army compelled them to attend to the wishes 
of the distressed colonists. The Governor^ of the Atlantic 
States, including Lawrence of Nova Scotia, addressed a joint 
appeal to the Home Government, who no longer hesitated. 
With the establishment of the packet service, a post office was 
opened in Halifax, and its correspondence with the Mother 



THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1755-1867. 55 

Country was carried on by way of New York or Boston, with 
which ports Halifax had frequent communication by war or 
merchant vessel. 

With this fact begins and ends the history of the Post Office 
in Nova Scotia for thirty- two years. It was not until the war 
of the Revolution was over, and the Loyalists had settled 
themselves dispersedly throughout the Province, that the next 
chapter opens. It must not be supposed, however, that the 
settlements which were formed at a distance from Halifax 
during the period preceding the incoming of the Loyalists were 
as isolated as the absence of regular postal communication 
would seem to indicate. In 176 7 , there were upwards of 13,000 
people in the old province of Nova Scotia, and of these only 
3,000 dwelt in or about Halifax. The remaining 10,000 were 
scattered in groups, mainly along the Atlantic coast, or on the 
shores of the Bay of Fundy. The settlements on the Atlantic 
were within easy reach of Halifax by means of the sailing vessels 
running -in or out of that port, while those on the Bay of 
Fundy had equal facilities for going to Windsor, which was 
connected with the capital by a road made by the Acadians 
shortly after the city was founded. 

Indeed, to the fishing and farming folk who made up these 
settlements, the Post Office at that time might have proved but 
a doubtful blessing. Wherever the Post Office chose to ad- 
vance its lines, it carried with it its monopoly of letter carrying, 
and as its charges were excessively high, the people may well 
have preferred to its services the opportunities of receiving or 
posting their letters, which were afforded by the occasional 
visits they or their neighbors made to Halifax. There is no 
evidence that the people living in the outlying parts of the 
province sought the intervention of the Post Office in carrying 
on their affairs. When the postal service was first established 
in Nova Scotia, the aim of the Postmaster General was not 
primarily the accommodation of the people of the province. 
It was designed rather as part of a great intercolonial system, 
binding the settlers in Upper Canada with those of Lower 



56 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and by means of 
sailing packets, bringing them all into communication with the 
Mother Country by what would today be described as an All 
Red Route. 

Until the War of the Revolution broke out, the old province 
of Quebec carried on its correspondence with Great Britain by a 
mail courier who travelled between Montreal and New York, 
where connection was made with the sailing packets from Fal- 
mouth, in Cornwall. That communication ceased on the open- 
ing of the War, and during the eight years which ensued, the 
exchange of correspondence between Montreal and Quebec, 
and Great Britain was limited to such war vessels as happened 
to come to Quebec, and to occasional trips by military expresses 
over the land route between Quebec and Halifax. In 1778, 
trips were made with more or less regularity by a vessel, "The 
Mercury," plying between Quebec and Tatamagouche, from 
which point the mails were carried by messenger to Halifax. 
During the course of the War, the Governor of Nova Scotia re- 
commended the opening of a regular packet service between 
England and Halifax, but the Home authorities believed this to 
be impracticable owing to the activities of the American priva- 
teers. No doubt, however, was entertained that with the re- 
turn of peace this reasonable proposal would go into effect. 

But this was not the case. Immediately after the Treaty 
of Paris was signed, which gave the Americans their independ- 
ence, Lord North wrote to the Governor of Nova Scotia, ex- 
pressing his belief that the separation of the older colonies 
would enhance the importance of Halifax, which would be the 
rendezvous <qf the fleet, and stating that application was about 
to be made to the Postmaster General for a regular line of mail 
packets between Halifax and England. To the general sur- 
prise, however, the Post Office, before the end of 1783, reopened 
the communication with New York, and Halifax remained a 
dependency, so far as the exchange of correspondence was 
concerned, on what had become a foreign port. In 1785, a 



THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1755-1867. 57 

remonstrance was made by the merchants of Halifax, against 
this injurious state of things, but without immediate result. 

What proved too difficult for Nova Scotia alone, however, 
yielded to the joint pressure of all the colonies. When the 
packet service between Halifax and Falmouth was resumed, the 
Canadians proposed to take advantage of it by reopening the 
route between Montreal and New York, but the Americans 
threw obstacles in the way. They did not absolutely forbid 
intercourse between England and Canada across American 
territory, but they hindered it to the point that the Canadians 
felt constrained to make a trial of the longer and more arduous 
route from Quebec to Halifax. First of all, however, it was 
necessary to Canada that Great Britain should concede what 
Nova Scotia had been striving for. Until there was a regular 
exchange of mails by sailing packets between Halifax and a 
port in England, it was of no use for Canada to send her English 
mails to Halifax. Lord Dorchester, the Governor-General, 
opened the correspondence on the subject by informing Lord 
Sydney, the Colonial Secretary, that by his direction Hugh 
Finlay, the Deputy Postmaster General of Canada, had travel- 
led over the route from Quebec to Halifax, and had arranged 
with the Deputy Postmasters General of New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia for the continuous conveyance of the mails be- 
tween Quebec and Halifax, adding that all that remained to be 
done, was for the Postmaster General to direct that the packets 
should call at Halifax. Sydney expressed his approval of the 
steps taken by Dorchester to establish regular communication 
between the several ports of his government, and promised that 
packets should be despatched to Halifax as frequently as cir- 
cumstances would permit, though he feared that the expense 
would preclude regular trips for the time. Lieutenant Gover- 
nor Parr made a further appeal, which appeared to clench the 
matter, for on the 18th September, 1787, the Postmaster General 
advertised that, commencing the following March, monthly 
tr,ip would be made between an English port and Halifax 
from March to October of each year. The Admiralty would 



58 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

not agree to the packets going to Halifax during the winter, 
declaring that during that period the winds off the coast of 
Nova Scotia were so contrary that no regular service could be 
maintained. During the winter months, the mails from Eng- 
land for Nova Scotia were carried to New York and thence 
forwarded to Boston, where they were placed on board a 
schooner for Halifax. 

The inland conveyance/from Quebec to Halifax followed the 
route along the St. Lawrence and the St. John rivers to the city 
of St. John; thence across the bay of Fundy and on to Halifax. 
Post Offices were opened along the route in Nova Scotia at 
Digby, Annapolis, Horton (later Wolfville) and Windsot. 
Finlay in his report stated that the road from Annapolis to 
Halifax was rough, but that the journey was made in one horse 
chais ih three days and by horseback in two. The courier 
employed by Mr. Joseph Peters travelled on foot. On arriving 
at the Annapolis basin, the courier handed over his bag to the 
captain of the packet ' 'Sally," who delivered it at St. John, 
whence the Postmaster sent it on its way north. 

This route from Halifax to Annapolis remained for many 
years the only one over which mails were carried. It was not 
until the outbreak of the War of 1812 that the postal service 
was extended beyond this route. 

Before describing the extensions and arrangements by which 
they were maintained, it may be well to state what I have 
been able to gather as to the postal administrators during this 
early period. The records for this time are defective, and I 
have had to depend upon almanacs and other casual sources of 
information for the names of the deputy postmasters-general 
before 1800. Joseph Peters, who died in 1800, stated not long 
before his death that he had taken the office of deputy post- 
master-general about seventeen years before that is in 1782 
or 3 at the pressing instance of his predecessor, James Stevens. 
How long Stevens occupied the office, and whether he was the 
first incumbent, I have not so far ascertained. Joseph Peters, 



THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1755-1867. 59 

who died on 13th February, 1800, aged 73 years, was succeeded 
by James Brittain who had been private secretary to the Duke 
of Kent. John Howe followed Brittain, his appointment 
dating from the 6th August, 1803. 

In sketching the outlines of the postal service as it gradually 
spread itself over the province, we have the advantage of the 
elaborate reports made by Howe to the Postmaster General of 
England. When the War of 1812 opened, it became necessary 
for the courier, who carried the mails for Quebec, to abandon 
the route through the western counties, and the packet service 
between Annapolis and St. John. The route thereafter pursued 
was through the settlements of Truro and Cumberland (after- 
wards Amherst) and a bye-route was established between 
Truro and Pictou. At the close of the war, the courier reverted 
to the western route, but the superiority of the overland route 
was so manifest that it was resumed in January, 1817, and there- 
after it continued to be the regular course so long as mails were 
conveyed by horse and vehicle between Halifax and Quebec. 
For a few years after the close of the war there was great 
activity in extending the postal service throughout the province. 
The impulse seems to have been imparted by the Governors 
Prevost and Sherbrooke. To them it was of great importance 
to be able to communicate easily with the Militia centres in the 
several parts of the province. They impressed their views upon 
Howe, who would willingly have met their wishes, but he 
laboured under serious restrictions. He was distinctly for- 
bidden by the Postmaster General in London to enter upon any 
scheme, which would involve any considerable expense, and there 
were few, if any, routes, outside the great intercolonial route 
which would not cost much more for couriers and postmasters 
than the amount of revenue to be derived therefrom. The gov- 
ernors thereupon turned to the legislature for assistance. I 
should have mentioned before, what perhaps by this time will be 
inferred, that the Provincial Post Office was quite beyond the 
jurisdiction or control of either governor or legislature. The 
deputy postmaster general was responsible to the postmaster 



gO NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

general of England, and to him alone. The provincial system 
was neither more nor less than a branch of the General Post 
Office, whose headquarters were in London. In Upper and 
Lower Canada, this state of things led to much clashing of 
authority. On one occasion a deputy postmaster general 
of Canada was harried out of his office because he refused to 
accept the orders of the governor, though his master, the Post- 
master General, maintained that his deputy had done no more 
than his duty. On another occapion, the deputy postmaster 
general came in for sharp censure, because he had opened a 
new, though not very expensive route ; and it was not admitted 
as a palliation by the authorities at home, that his action was 
taken at the express and urgent request of the governor. 
Indeed, the management of the post office in Upper and Lower 
Canada, was not the least of the grievances that precipitated 
the rebellion of 1837. 

That the Post Office in Nova Scotia managed to steer clear 
of these embroilments is to some extent a tribute to the tact of 
the two Howe's, father and son, who between them administer- 
ed its affairs for 40 years. The Post Office in Nova Scotia 
never seemed, as it did in the Canadas, to be imposed on the 
province. From the beginning it was accepted for what it isi 
an agency indispensable to the varied activities of a civilized 
state. In Canada the Post Office was not merely an institution 
for the conveyance and delivery of correspondence. It was, 
also and herein is where it differed from the Post Office in 
Nova Scotia a considerable revenue getter. The long route 
between Wuebec and Amherstburg was a very profitable one, 
and some thousands of pounds were sent annually by the deputy 
postmaster general to the Treasury in England not to be ap- 
propriated to Canadian purposes, but to form part of the general 
revenue of the United Kingdom. The Assemblies in Upper 
and Lower Canada not unnaturally demanded that the sur- 
pluses should be devoted to extending and improving the postal 
service in other parts of the country, and prepared reports 
designed to show that the course of the British Post Office in 




THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1755-1867. 61 

taking these sums annually from the country was violating the 
principles of the acts of 1778 and 1791, as regards taxation of 
the colonies by the Mother Country. The validity of the argu- 
ment was disputed by the Postmaster General, but some years 
later, it was admitted to its full extent by the Law Officers of 
the Crown. The friction engendered developed into an atti- 
tude of active hostility on the part of the Legislature against 
the Post Office and made impossible the cooperation between 
the two which was so carefully nurtured in Nova Scotia. 

In this Province, the Legislature appointed a standing 
committee to deal with postal matters, much resembling the 
Post Roads Committee of Congress. The functions of the 
Committee included the consideration of all applications for 
post offices, and post routes; and the settlement of the amounts 
of the subsidies by which the deficiencies in the revenues from 
the several routes were made up. All this work was done in 
close cooperation with the deputy postmaster general. 

These arrangements, creditable alike to the Legislature and 
the deputy postmaster general, led to the expansion of the postal 
system to all the principal parts of the province. In 1817, 
the year, before the elder Howe retired, there were regularly 
established services on routes, through the Western Counties 
to Digby, thence on to Yarmouth and Shelburne; from 
Halifax to the New Brunswick boundary at Westmorland; 
and from Truro to Pictou and on to Antigonish, which was 
the distributing point for all the eastern Harbours and .settle- 
ments. So energetically and prudently had Howe managed 
the postal affairs of the Province, that on his retirement in 1818 
in favour of his son John, he took with him the warm com- 
mendations of the Lieutenant Governors, Sir John Sherbrooke 
and the Earl of Dalhousie and the hearty good will of the Secre- 
tary of the General Post Office. 

The postage rates within the system thus established was 
very high. It was fixed by an Imperial act of 1765. To men- 
tion only some of the principal charges, the sum necessary to 



62 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

carry a single letter that is a single sheet of paper weighing 
less than an ounce from Halifax to Windsor was four pence; 
to Annapolis nine pence; to Yarmouth one shilling one penny 
half penny; to Truro five pence; to Antjgonish eleven pence; 
and to Cumberland (or Amherst) nine pence. As seated, these 
were the charges for single letters. If within the folds of the 
single sheet of which a single letter consisted, another paper 
were enclosed no matter how small the letter became a 
double letter, and the charge was doubled. A second enclosure 
rendered the letter subject to a charge three times as great as 
for the single letter. II the letter contained three enclosures 
or weighed as much as an ounce, the charge was quadrupled. 
Thus an ounce letter on which the postage today would be 
four cents if sent from Halifax to Windsor in 1818 cost sixteen 
pence; to Yarmouth, four shillings and six pence; to Cumber- 
land, three shillings; and to Antigonish, three shillings and 
eight pence. These rates remained unchanged in any way until 
the system of charging according to the number of enclosures 
gave way to the present system of charging by weight; and 
between that date and 1851, the rates themselves were unalter- 
ed, the only difference being that they were applied to letters 
weighing up to half an ounce, instead of to letters consisting of a 
single sheet. 

The arrangements for the conveyance of newspapers were 
curious, and to understand them a glance back into the history 
of the British Post Office is necessary. The statute regulating 
the Post Office in Great Britain and its Colonies was 9 Anne, 
Chap. 10. When it was enacted, newspapers were few and 
their development unforeseen; consequently no special provi- 
sion was made for their conveyance by the Post Office, and if 
sent in ordinary course they would be subject to the charges 
on letters. That was out of the question. Imagine sending the 
Acadian Recorder by post to Annapolis, at a cost of four shill- 
ings and six pence a copy! It would be supposed that the 
remedy for the difficulty would be simple. The act of Queen 
Anne could be amended by the addition of a clause, providing 



THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1756-1867. 63 

for newspapers. But there was an invincible reluctance to 
bringing this act before Parliament. It might suffer mutilation 
at the hands of reforming members. If newspapers must be 
sent by post and it was plain they must ingenuity would 
have to be resorted to. A plan was devised, which must have 
amused a hunourous public, but which was highly profitable 
to certain servants of the Post Office. A few of the officials, in- 
cluding the Secretary of the Post Office and others known as 
Clerks of the Road, had bestowed on them the right to frank 
newspapers, and armed with thite right they made bargains with 
the printers for the transmission of newspapers to all parts of 
the country, at rates fixed by the officials possessing the frank- 
ing privilege. The revenue from this business passed, not into 
the public treasury, but into the pockets of the officials con- 
cerned. About 1830, when this plan was brought to an end, 
and statutory arrangements made for the conveyance of news- 
papers, the Secretary of the Post Office made 3000 sterling a 
year from this source alone. The Deputy Postmaster General 
of Canada throve mightily under this system. In 1838 Stayner 
whose official salary was 500 sterling, had a total income of 
3053 sterling and of that he took 2103 from the business of 
newspaper delivery. This was one of the most potent of the 
causes of the public dissatisfaction with the Post Office. 

In Nova Scotia the same state of things existed, but owing 
to two reasons, popular indignation did not fall on the head of 
Howe, as it did upon that of Stayner. In the first place, owing 
to the limited extent of the newspaper business in Nova Scotia, 
Howe's revenue from this source was not great enough to shock 
the legislature; in the second, he had sedulously cultivated the 
good will of the Assembly ; and the disposition of that body was 
to forward rather than to thwart his interests. But the situa- 
tion in Nova Scotia presented certain peculiar features. In 
1833, the proprietors of the Acadian Recorder and the Free 
Press presented a memorial to the Lieutenant Governor, set- 
ting forth their grievance. They were the victims of gross 
discrimination. The allegation was that Mr. Howe, besides 



64 THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1755-1867. 

being Deputy Postmaster General, was King's Printer, and as 
such had a monopoly of the Government printing. He was 
also stated to be, either directly or indirectly interested in every 
paper published in the Province, except the Acadian Recorder 
and the Free Press. As a consequence of this interest, the 
Nova Scotian, the Journal, the Acadian and the Royal Gazette 
were distributed in all parts of the Province free of postage, 
whije every copy of the Recorder and the Free Press sent by 
post was subjected to a charge of two shillings and six pence a 
year. The petitioning publishers received little sympathy 
from the Postmaster General. It was argued that the charges 
were not illegal, and that, as they had been in operation since 
the beginnings of, the Post Office in Nova Scotia, the publishers 
must have entered into business with the full knowledge of the 
charge to which they would be liable. It is interesting at this 
point, to learn that Joseph Howe assisted his brother the De- 
puty Postmaster General, for three or four years discharging 
the duties of clerk, and for eleven months, during the absence 
of the Deputy Postmaster General in England, Joseph Howe 
took full charge oif the Department. 

In 1834, Nova Scotia was drawn into the disputes between 
the Canadas and the Home Government respecting the control 
of the postal system in those provinces. For a dozen years 
past, the Assemblies of Upper and Lower Canada had question- 
ed the right of the British Post Office to dispose of the surplus 
postal revenues, drawn from those provinces. They based 
elaborate legal arguments upon the Declaratory act of 1778, 
which was incorporated into the Canada Constitutional act 
of 1791. By this act, Great Britain declared that no taxes 
should be imposed upon any of the colonies by the King and 
Parliament, except such as were necessary for the regulation of 
commerce; and that in the case of such taxes the proceeds 
should be appropriated for provincial and not for imperial 
purposes. The Assemblies insisted that the surplus postal 
revenues came within the scope of this act. The case for the 
Postmaster General was not without its arguable aspects, but 



THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1755-1867. 65 

he was not impressed with their strength and consequently 
directed that the papers be put away. This agitation which 
was started in 1821, gathered strength as time went on, and in 
1832, the Postmaster General became convinced that it was 
necessary to examine its merits. He sent the papers to the 
Law Officers of the Crown, and was advised by them that "it 
would not be safe to agitate the question as one of law with the 
colony" and if it could be so discussed they were of opinion that 
the Postmaster General would not succeed. This opinion set 
up a lively flutter in the dove cotes: the Postmaster General 
was sure that the colony meant to get into their hands the ap- 
pointment of Postmaster and the entire arrangements of the 
Department within its territories. In his picturesque phrase, 
he declared that "we are beaten off our first position" and there- 
fore a plan should be drawn up by which the Post Office should 
agree to give up to the Provinces any surplus revenue that may 
accrue; and complete statements of the Provincial Post Office 
accounts should be laid before the Legislature. He was per- 
suaded however that he must maintain the right of the Crown to 
appoint the officers of the Department. 

It was along the lines here indicated, that the British 
Government, after mature deliberation, decided to proceed. 
An act was submitted to Parliament, and adopted in 1834, pro- 
viding for the repeal of the Imperial acts, in virtue of which the 
Postmaster General of England had administered the postal 
affairs of the colonies; and for the retention in the colonies for 
their own use, of any surplus revenue, that might remain 
after all expenses had been paid. The act was not to go into 
operation until satisfactory legislation had been enacted by the 
colonies for managing their Post Office on the proposed plan. 
In maturing the plan to be submitted for the acceptance of the 
several legislatures, the General Post Office had to keep in view 
two distinct considerations Imperial necessities and Colonial 
rights. It was absolutely necessary to the maintenance of the 
Colonial system, that there should be uninterrupted communi- 
cation between the Mother Country and all her colonies. Some 
5 



66 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

of the colonies, such as the Canadas, were so situated that to 
correspond with them, it was necessary that the mails from 
Great Britain should pass through the other colonies Nova 
Scotia, and New Brunswick. It is quite conceivable that 
differences might arise, between the postal administration of 
the several provinces, which would hamper the free passage of 
the mails between the seaboard and the remoter colonies. To 
remove the possibility of such inconveniences, it was necessary 
that there should be some authority controlling and coordinat- 
ing the several local services, so as to produce the effect of one 
continuous through service between Halifax and Amherstburg, 
at the western extremity of Upper Canada. There was no 
person in the colonies possessing the authority necessary, and 
therefore it seemed essential that the supreme control of the 
Colonial postal service should remain with the Postmaster 
General of England. But, in the opinion of the Law Officers, 
it was necessary to obtain the sanction of the local legislatures 
for any arrangements that might be made. The difficulty was 
solved by submitting for the acceptance of each of the Pro- 
vincial Legislatures, a draft Post Office bill constituting the 
Postmaster General of England to head of the Provincial Post 
Office, and providing for the appointment by the Postmaster 
General of a local Deputy Postmaster General who should 
actually administer the postal affairs of the Province. The 
bills submitted to the local legislatures were identical in terms, 
and the Legislatures were informed that the uniformity of the 
whole Colonial service required that the bills should be enacted 
by the several legislatures without substantial amendment. 

The bills were unfortunate in their reception. They were 
either rejected or laid aside by every legialature. In none of 
the Provinces did their provisions seem to meet requirements. 
In Nova Scotia the effect of the consideration of the bill was 
curious. Until it was laid before the Assembly, no one in 
Nova Scotia imagined that the postal affairs of the Province 
were not on a satisfactory basis. The desires of the people in 
the different parts were submitted to the Legislature in the 



THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1755-1867. 67 

form of petitions, and these were considered in the Post Office 
Committee, the meeting of which the Deputy Postmaster Gen- 
eral always held himself in readiness to attend ; if it were decid- 
ed to accede to a petition, the amount to be allocated by the 
Province in support of the service desired was decided upon; 
and so everything appeared to be moving satisfactorily. But 
the appearance of the draft bill, with the request that it should 
be accepted by the Legislature, aroused the Assembly to acti- 
vity. They investigated the financial relations of the Pro- 
vince with the Post Office, and discovered that the Post Office 
was each year sending to the Treasury in England, as surplus 
revenue an amount not much less than what the Legislature 
was contributing to the support of the Post Office. 

So convinced was the Legislature that the Post Office in 
Nova Scotia was practically self supporting, that they resolved 
to take its management into their own hands. A bill for this 
purpose passed the Legislature in 1838, but was declined by the 
Home Government. In the following year Messrs.Young and 
Halliburton, who were in England, after a full discussion of the 
subject with the Postmaster General arranged that the Pro- 
vince should take over the financial control of the Post Office, 
appropriating any surplus, and making up any deficit. This 
reasonable arrangement promised a continuance of the good re- 
lations which had always existed between the Provincial Gov- 
ernment and the Post Office. It was scarcely concluded, how- 
ever, when the whole question was thrown open by one of those 
intercolonial misunderstandings, which were always liable to 
crop up. A dispute arose between Canada and Nova Scotia 
as to the bearing of the charges for the overland conveyance of 
the mails brought by the Cunard steamers. Great Britain, 
after considering the merits of the difference, seems to have 
agreed with the Nova Scotia view, but as Canada could not be 
compelled to pay her share of the charge, and as the position 
Canada had taken was far from weak, Great Britain called upon 
Nova Scotia to pay the charge, allowing Nova Scotia to retain 
what was called the packet postage which belonged to Great 



68 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Britain. Nova Scotia was firm, however; and as the ex- 
penses of the whole Nova Scotia inland service, including the 
special one under consideration would involve the Nova Scotia 
Post Office in a deficit of between 500 and 600 which the 
Legislature declined to meet, the General Post Office determin- 
ed to reduce the expense of the service by cutting off a number 
of the routes which did not produce revenues necessary to meet 
their expenses. An agent was sent to Nova Scotia from the 
General Post Office to ascertain how the service in the Province 
could be reduced with the least public inconvenience. The 
reductions he effected were comparatively insignificant, and 
were productive of much friction with Canada and New 
Brunswick. 

The difficulty was finally settled in summary fashion, and, 
in relating the mode of settlement, a word or two is necessary 
on the establishment of the Cunard service. When the "Great 
Western" and the "Sirius" successfully crossed the ocean under 
steam in 1838, at a speed which reduced the time taken by the 
sailing packets by more than half, it was at once seen that the 
days of the sailing packet were at an end. The Governors 
of Upper and Lower Canada directed that their correspondence 
should be sent out by the "Great Western", and Joseph Howe 
and William Crane, a member of the Assembly of New Bruns- 
wick, representing a number of leading citizens of Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick who were in London, urged upon the 
Colonial Secretary the necessity of utilizing vessels propelled 
by steam for the conveyance of the mails between Great 
Britain and the North American colonies. The British Gov- 
ernment gave a ready assent to the representations made, and 
after negotiations, a contract was made on the 4th May, 1839, for 
a fortnightly mail service between Liverpool and Halifax, with 
subsidiary steamer services to Quebec and to Boston. The 
British Government had in contemplation a vast scheme for 
communication between Great Britain and North America, the 
central point of which, on this side of the Atlantic, was Halifax. 
There was to be a regular service, fortnightly each way, at the 



THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1755-1867. 69 

beginning, between Liverpool and Halifax. Running in con- 
nection with it, were to be auxiliary services to Quebec, New- 
foundland, Boston and Bermuda. Contracts were let for 
these several services, but the plans were scarcely brought to 
maturity before they withered and faded. So far as the main 
branches were concerned, they were made in disregard of the 
facts of geography. The two Canadian provinces were never / 
advantageously served with British mails from Halifax. Be- j 
fore ocean steamships were thought of, the General Post 
Office in London regretfully admitted that scarcely one letter 
from Canada was sent out by the Post Office packets, while 
thousands were sent by the sailing liners to New York and 
Boston. When considering the plans for the steamships to 
Halifax, the British Government, thought to overcome the 
natural advantages enjoyed by Boston, by means of a fast ex- 
press to Pictou and a steamer to Quebec. But that was for the 
summer months only. During the winter the long route 
over indifferent roads between Quebec and Halifax had to-be 
encountered, and then the advantage was clearly on the side of 
Boston, which throughout the year was connected with Mont- 
real by a railway to Albany, and a fast stage from that point to 
Montreal. In 1845, the plan of serving Canada by Halifax 
was definitely abandoned, and an agreement was concluded 
between the Post Offices of Great Britain and the United States 
for the embarking and disembarking of the Canadian mails, at 
the port of Boston. Thus the dispute between Canada and 
Nova Scotia was settled by removing the occasion for it. 
Since the mails for Canada brought by the Cunard steamers 
no longer passed over the route between Halifax and Pictou, the 
interprovincial agreements and differences came to an end of 
themselves. 

Another question of great importance called for settlement 
at this time. Tiie adoption of Penny Postage in Great Britain 
in 1840 and the agitation preceding this measure, aroused in the 
colonies a desire for a great reduction in the postal charges. 
It was generally accepted that the circumstances of the country 



70 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

made the Penny rate impossible, but the principle of the single 
rate throughout the territory of each of the provinces took a 
strong hold on the public mind in the Colonies. Memorials 
were sent from the several Provinces to the Colonial Secretary, 
and the question was considered by the British Postmaster 
General and the Treasury. The Postmaster General was of 
opinion that there should be a very considerable abatement in 
the charges, but he feared that the result would be a large de- 
ficit. The Provinces would, he had no doubt, agree to meet 
the shortage, but a situation would arise in which the conflict- 
ing views and interests of the Postmaster General and the Legis- 
latures would lead to unpleasant differences. To quote the 
Postmaster General: "In a Department like the Post Office, 
differences of opinion must necessarily arise between the 
colonies and the authorities at home as to the regulations upon 
which it should be conducted, the extent of the accommodation 
that should be given, the amount of salaries that should be 
paid, before all, the principle upon which new and frequently 
expensive posts should be established." 

The Postmaster General, after mature reflection, could see 
no other course open to the General Post Office than to resign 
his control over the Post Offices in the Colonies. He would, 
however, accompany his surrender by certain conditions, and 
by the demand that the Colonial Post Offices should be con- 
ducted on such principles as would still retain in effect a great 
portion of the advantages of central government. The con- 
ditions required free co-operation between the several colonies 
in the conveyance of the mails, and the avoidance of accounts 
with respect to the revenue collected by each Post Office. 

The British Government approved of these views and they 
were communicated to the Colonial Legislatures. On the 28th 
August, 1847, Lord Elgin the Governor General, by letter to 
the several Lieutenant Governors, suggested the advisability of 
a meeting of representatives from each of the Provinces. The 
meeting took place in October at Montreal, the Hon. J. W. 
Johnston being the delegate from Nova Scotia. This confer- 



THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA. 1755-1867. 71 

ence virtually settled the Post Office question in British North 
America. The delegates in their report say that at the thres- 
hold of their enquiry, lay the relative advantages of a system 
of united revenue and management for the four Provinces, or 
of one which would place the management of the postal arrange- 
ments in the hands of the local governments, with no greater 
central control than should be necessary for securing the Im- 
perial and intercolonial interests. Having decided on the 
latter as the preferable of the two plans, they laid down the 
principles on which the several provincial postal systems should 
be regulated. The chief of these were that there should be 
maintained throughout the British North American provinces 
one uniform system and rate of postage, which no greater 
modification than their circumstances may demand; that 
where the mails from one province have to pass through another 
province on their way to their destination, the intermediate 
province shall not make a charge to the province despatching 
the mails, for its services; and that the senders of letters should 
be free to pay their letter at the time of posting, or to leave the 
payment to the party addressed ; and, in any case, all the post- 
age collected by an administration whether as prepayment of 
letters or as the charge at the time of delivery to the peisons 
addressed, should remain its property, thus dispensing with the 
necessity of accounts between the provinces. In March, 1848, 
the Legislature of Nova Scotia adopted this report, and passed 
a bill in accordance therewith; and sent Mr. J. B. Uniacke, 
chairman of the Post Office Committee, to Canada to secure 
the concurrence of that Province in the provisions of the bill, 
preparatory to reporting the facts to the Colonial Secretary, 
whose share in the transactions consisted in securing a sanction- 
ing measure from the British Parliament. Mr. Uniacke 
arrived in Montreal on the 8th June, and two days later ex- 
plained the views of the Nova Scotia Legislature to the Execu- 
tive Council. The Council accepted in their entirety the differ- 
ent recommendations, and a report based thereupon was ap- 
proved the same day. Nova Scotia took the leading part 
in the negotiations, which prepared the way to Provincial 



72 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

autonomy. That this should have been so, was probably due 
to the fact that the discussions which had taken place every 
session for many years, had familiarised the political leaders of 
the Province with the several phases of Post Office affairs. 
The adoption of the uniform three pence rate on letters through- 
out the several provinces was entirely due to the initiation of 
Nova Scotia. In Canada while there was a steady determina- 
tion to have a considerable reduction in the rates, the Postal 
Commission could not see its way to abandon the old course, 
and substitute a single uniform charge, for the series of charges 
based on the distance letters were carried. Nova Scotia's 
firmness brought about this great beneficial change at that 
early period, when the several governments were about to take 
on themselves the management of their postal affairs. 

In 1851, the governments of the several Provinces assumed 
the charge of the Post Offices within their respective territories, 
and continued to administer them until Confederation effected 
the amalgamation of the several postal administrations into 
the one Post Office Department at Ottawa. 

The period of Nova Scotia's administration of its Post 
Office was undistinguished in any way. In normal times, the 
Post Office is rather a humdrum, pedestrian affair, like a faith- 
ful servant, of whom we seldom think, so long as he does not 
invite attention by breaking the china or otherwise infringing 
on the quiet of our lives. There was a steady expansion in 
every part of the province. In 1851, there were 133 post 
offices in the province; ,at Confederation, Nova Scotia took 
630 post offices in with her. As was inevitable, at that stage 
of the growth of the Province, there was a considerable and in- 
creasing deficit in its finances. At the end of the first year of 
its independent administration, the shortage was rather over 
10,500; on the 30th June 1867, it was 27,559. Mr. Arthur 
Woodgate, who succeeded John Howe in 1843, and who was 
Postmaster-General during the period between 1851 and 1867, 
became Inspector for the Province, on the reconstruction con- 
sequent upon Confederation. In closing I cannot refrain from 



THE EARLY POST OFFICE IN NOVA SCOTIA, 1755-1867. 73 

giving a little intimate touch of Mr. Woodgate. It is from a 
personal letter written by the official, who was sent from 
Canada, to arrange for the incorporation of the Nova Scotia 
postal system into that of the Dominion. "I am getting along 
very well with Mr. Woodgate. Its a fine thing though to 
listen to the tone of his language towards the callers on him 
during the day: it is so splendidly official and emphatic, he 
must have acquired it somewhere in England. But what has 
perhaps impressed me most is the spectacle afforded when the 
Inspector requires the presence of his Messenger from below. 
Then he proceeds to the top of the old stairs with a long post 
horn (such a one used of old by Mail Guards in England) and 
on it performs a short Fantasia!" Could anything be more ill- 
uminative of the fine gentleman? 






-j- 




SIR SAMUEL CUNARD, Bart., Born 1787, Died 1865. 
Founder of the Cunard Steamship Line. 

[From a lithograph.} [To face page 75.] 



THE LIFE OF SAMUEL CUNARD. 75 



THE LIFE OF SIR SAMUEL CUNARD, 

Founder of the Cunard Steamship Line, 1787-1865. 

By ABRAHAM MARTIN PAYNE, Halifax, N. S. 

(Read 28th March, 1905). 

As the pioneer of regular ocean steam navigation, the life 
of Sir Samuel Cunard has an abiding interest, not only for his 
fellow countrymen, but for the whole British race. The Cunard 
family was of Quaker origin, having emigrated from Wales to 
Philadelphia, Penn., in the seventeenth century. After the 
troublous times of the American Revolution, Abraham Cunard, 
the father of Sir Samuel, came to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where 
the future founder of the Cunard Line was born on the 21st of 
November, 1787. The house in which he first saw the light, 
one of the primitive settlers' habitations, is still standing within 
the grounds of the family residency on Brunswick Street, now 
in the occupation of a grandson, George E. Francklyn.* 

Although Abraham Cunard obtained a position at the Hali- 
fax Dockyard shortly after his arrival, the early experiences of 
the family, as in the case of most of the United Empire Loyalists 
were encompassed by the struggles and anxieties incident to the 
relinquishment, for the second time, of former associations 
and comforts and the building up of a new home amid strange 
scenes and unaccustomed surroundings. Educational ad- 
vantages were somewhat restricted and it would appear that 
young Cunard was not able to take regular advantage of such 
schooling facilities as then existed, As a boy he was noticeably 
bright and intelligent, steady application and unwearying per- 
severance being among his marked characteristics. Whatever 
line of study or effort he undertook was thoroughly and per- 

*The building in which he was born, is a small one, now somewhat altered, in the rear of 
No. 257 Brunswick St., and is between that street and Lockman St., and a little north of 
Proctor's Lane. Sir Samuel's father, Abraham, died at Rawdon, N. S., 10 January. 1824, 
aged 70 yean. 



76 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

sistently mastered to the smallest detail. Like many others who 
have attained exalted positions in the world's affairs, Samuel 
Cunard was to a large extent self-educated. The battle of life 
began with him early in his teens, as an employee in the En- 
gineer Department of the Halifax lumberyard, where his zeal 
and activity soon attracted favorable notice from the officials 
with whom he was brought in contact. It was a time of con- 
tinuous warfare, and the bustle of naval and military prepara- 
tions was in full progress every hour of the day. The collection 
and transportation of supplies and munitions of war, with the 
arrivals of ships of war and captured prizes, combined to centre 
a large and lucrative volume of trade in a port of such promin- 
ence as Halifax had already become. 

His brothers had engaged in a sea-faring life, principally 
to the West Indies, and he soon gave evidence of a pronounced 
inclination for marine enterprize himself, embarking in small 
ventures as opportunity offered. Amid such stirring scenes a 
business career offered greater inducements to a youth of his 
temperament and he withdrew from the public service to assist 
in the foundation of the firm of Abraham Cunard & Son before 
he became of age. Steadfast industry, undaunted determina- 
tion and a well regulated habit of prompt decision at once made 
him a leading spirit in the varied business interests of the 
community. 

It is related on good authority that the fortunate purchase 
of a prize vessel, resulting in a handsome profit, established a 
reputation for reliability in large and important transactions 
which quickly placed the firm in the front rank of the numer- 
ous enterprising concerns of the day. His vigorous personality 
and strict integrity impressed Government officials to such a 
degree, that, notwithstanding his youth, important contracts 
were entrusted to him without hesitation. 

When only twenty-seven years of age the conveyance of 
H. M. mails between Halifax and Newfoundland, Boston and 
Bermuda, by sailing vessels was undertaken at his own financial 



THE LIFE OF SAMUEL CUNARD. 77 

risk. This, his first important contract, it may be noted, was 
carried out to the entire satisfaction of the British Government. 
The commanding position attained by Abraham Cunard & Son 
is evident from the fact that they were among the foremost sub- 
scribers to the fund for the wounded heroes at Waterloo when a 
subscription was raised here for that purpose. 

When peace succeeded war, dull times overtook Halifax, and 
in 1819 the Dockyard was reduced and removed to Bermuda, 
even the gigantic Shears so familiar to oldtimers, being taken 
down, developing a condition of affairs somewhat analagous 
to the present day under similar circumstances. Still the Cun- 
ard firm maintained solid progress, and Cunard's wharf came 
to be recognized as a leading vantage point for shipping interests. 
They kept Lyle's shipyard at Dartmouth Cove constantly at 
work, employing a large number of workmen. 

Eventually Samuel Cunard had no less than forty vessels 
under his control, and his interests expanded in all directions. 
He made large investments in P. E. I., and assisted his brothers 
in establishing a business at Chatham on the Miramichi, in 
competition with the powerful firm of Gilmour & Rankin, for 
the rapidly increasing export timber business of that extensive 
region. Dr. Akins in his anjials of our city in the collections of 
the Historical Society, mentions the charter by the Imperial 
Government of Cunard's brig "Chebucto" for the protection of 
the fisheries, visiting the out-harbors for customs' regulations, 
and carrying dispatches to Quebec and the St. Lawrence. As 
another illustration of his far reaching enterprise, Murdoch's 
History records an effort to revive the old whale fishing industry 
undertaken from the Dartmouth side of the harbor some years 
previously by Nantucket skippers. Voyages were also con- 
templated to the South Seas on somewhat similar lines to the 
ventures promoted in our city within the past two or three 
years. 

Mr. Cunard was one of the earliest Commissioners of Light- 
houses, when light-houses were few and far between in our coast^ 



78 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

He was also vice-president of the Shubenacadie Canal Co., a 
famous enterprise, but a sadly unfortunate one. He was one 
of the leading promoters in the establishment of the earliest 
banking house, first known as Cogswell's Bank, later as Collins's 
Bank and still later as the Halifax Banking Company. 

As might be expected, Mr. Cunard took a leading part in 
the affairs of his native city, filling numerous positions of trust 
and responsibility as the years rolled on. His name appears 
as one of the first firewardens for the north suburbs, and he 
was also an active member of the Sun Fire Company, one of the 
most exclusive of the organizations for rendering assistance 
at fires. The quarterly meetings, dinners, and balls of the 
fire companies were notable features in the social events of 
that period. Every good citizen took a pride in belonging to 
the militia in those days, and Mr. Cunard soon rose to be colonel 
of the 2nd Halifax Regiment with its dashing flank company of 
the elite, popularly nicknamed the "Scarlet Runners," whose 
social functions were also eagerly patronized by the rank and 
fashion of the time. His benevolence was conspicuous during 
the hard winters of the twenties, and he was appointed, with 
Michael Tobin, to dispense public aid in the establishment of 
soup kitchens and general relief for the poor of the city, whose 
numbers had unfortunately been increased by unwisely directed 
immigration. 

In 1814 Mr. Cunard was married to M y iss Susan Duffus, 
daughter of John Duffus, a prominent business man of Halifax. 
Two sons and seven daughters blessed this union, which sus- 
tained a heavy bereavement by the early death of Mrs. Cunard 
on 2nd February, 1822. The family assemblage of the mother- 
less group in the front pew at St. George's Church on Brunswick 
Street, is well remembered by parishioners still living in our 
midst. Mr. Cunard was a regular and generous attendant at 
this fine old historic church for many years, and most of the 
members of his family were married within its walls. 

In the politics of the times, a man of his active disposition 
could not fail to be a prominent figure in the administration of 



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THE LIFE OF SAMUEL CUNARD. 79 

public affairs. A partizan he never became, but he was a con- 
sistent and outspoken supporter of the ancient Tory regime, 
and he occupied a seat in the old Council of Twelve, "the family 
compact" as its critics often called it. As the Hon. Samuel 
Cunard, he was familarly known for many years, long after the 
Council had given up the ghost as so humorously related by 
Sir Brenton Halliburton in an amusing valedictory. 

It was, however, in the conduct of mercantile affairs that 
his energies were chiefly directed. During a visit to England, 
he obtained the agency of the Hon. East India Company, and 
the arrival at Cunard's wharf of one of their finest ships soon 
followed. The appearance in our harbor of the "Countess of 
Harcourt," commanded by Capt. Delafons of the Royal Navy, 
with over 6,000 chests of tea, from Canton, was a red letter 
day, not only for his firm, but for his native city as well. After 
this, the substantial ironstone warehouses at Cunard's wharf, 
erected by Burbidge and Best, in the early twenties, were peri- 
odically crammed with chests of tea from cellar to attic. 

The style of the firm had been changed after the death of 
Abraham Cunard to S. Cunard and Co., the plain brass plate, 
still in use, suggesting the solidity of eminent houses in the marts 
of commerce in the Old Land. A second visit to England se- 
cured the agency of the General Mining Association, and 
further enhanced the prestige and profits of the firm. Some 
years later Mr. Cunard vindicated the charge of monopoly 
launched against the General Mining Association with the 
diplomatic skill and resource invariably displayed by him when 
exigencies arose. At forty years of age Mr. Cunard was esti- 
mated on good authority to be worth not less than 200,000, 
almost a millionaire, as we should say in our present-day 
currency. 

Eminently successful as Mr. Cunard's business experiences 
had proved, placing him in the foremost commercial and social 
rank among his fellow townsmen, his future career was destined 
to exhibit a wider scope than any of his contemporaries had ever 



80 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

deemed possible. The dawn of ocean steam navigation had 
excited his ambition, far beyond mail contracts and marine 
enterprise, within the narrow sphere of his environment. His 
penetrating foresight contemplated the establishment of 
regular communication by steam vessels, between Great Britain 
and the whole of the seaboard of the North American continent. 
He firmly believed "that steamers properly built and manned 
might start and arrive at their destination with the punctuality 
of railway trains on land." The metaphor of an ocean railway 
was a favorite theme with him for years. 

As a preface to the grand achievement of his maturer years, 
his connection with the "Royal William" may be said to mark 
the first stage in carrying out a long cherished project. At. the 
head of the list of 144 subscribers, incorporated to build the 
"Royal William," stands the name of Samuel Cunard. 

Much controversy has arisen with reference to the honor 
of the first Atlantic voyage by a steam vessel. The honor has 
been claimed for the "Savannah" in the year 1819, but as her 
adjustable paddles were only used for eighty hours in the pas- 
sage of thirty days, between Savannah and Liverpool, the claim 
of first place can hardly be conceded. Moreover, the Savan- 
nah's toy engine was subsequently taken out, and she reverted 
to her former role of a sailing packet pure and simple. 

The "Royal William" was built at Quebec, and her launch- 
ing in 1833 was an event of no small importance, graced by the 
presence of the Governor- General, Lord Aylmer, and an im- 
mense concourse of people, the band of the 32nd Regiment assist- 
ing in the ceremony. She wae originally intended to run be- 
twee.n Quebec and Pictou, but owing to financial reasons it was 
djapided to send her to London. Her performance of 17 days 
between Pictou and the Isle of Wight, in September 1833, 
doubtless clinched the convictions of Mr. Cunard as to the 
soundness and practicability of his views for the future of ocean 
steam navigation. Prejudices were rife, and by men of eminence 
in the scientific world. Dr. Dionysius Lardner, a learned 



THE LIFE OF SAMUEL CUNARD. 81 

savant, asserted as his opinion, at a lecture in Liverpool, Eng- 
land, in 1835, that "men might as well project a voyage to the 
moon as to attempt steam navigation across the stormy At- 
lantic ocean." Even such an influential personage as the great 
Duke of Wellington stated that "he would give no countenance 
to any schemes which had for their object a change in the es- 
tablished system of the country." Strong opposition prevailed 
on the part of those interested in the sailing packets. The clip- 
pers of the Shakespeare Line, the Dramatic Line, and the 
famous Black Ball Line were by no means disposed to yield 
the palm readily. Their skippers still made record ruris and 
"cracked on the dimity" in fine 'style; old Captain Bailey on 
one occasion accomplishing the run from Sandy Hook to Holy- 
head in 13^ days. Regardless of cost, their models, rigging 
and cabin appointments were improved as soon as the rivalry 
of steam began to threaten their interests in serious earnest. 
The climax of endeavor to stem the tide was the construction, 
as late as 1854, of the "Great Republic" by Donald McKay, a^Ujj 
widely known builder hailing from Shelburne, Nova Scotia, j 
who, by the way, did no discredit to his native land. The 
"Great Republic" was 205 feet in length with a 30 feet hold and 
a measurement of 3400 tons. She made a record passage of 
thirteen days between New York and the Scillies in March, 
1855, literally a dying struggle with the new factor of steam 
power. 

During the period between 1833 and 1838, the Hon. Samuel 
Cunard while distributing the British mails to their various 
destinations in Canada, the United States, Newfoundland, and 
Bermuda, as they arrived at Cunard's wharf in the old uncertain 
"ten-gun brigs," keenly noted the transition gradually going on 
and bided his time. His opportunity came in 1838, when the 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiialty issued circulars asking 
for tenders for a steam packet service to carry H. M. mails on 
the Atlantic. Not a single steamship owner in Great Britain 
tendered. Even George Burns, later destined to be one of Sir 

Samuel's associates, informed the Comptroller of the Packet 
6 



82 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Service that he did not see his way clear to uch a large under- 
taking as the proposal of the Government involved . He further 
intimated that his hands were full, and he had made up his 
mind to let the Atlantic steamship business alone. 

But it was not to be f hus abandoned, for the undaunted 
promoter from Halifax was already on his way back to England 
to seek assistance in making a bid for the contract, having been 
unsuccessful in interesting either Halifax or Boston capitalists 
in his efforts. It was not all plain sailing by any means. In 
London he met with but scant encouragement in enlisting 
financial aid, and therefore resolved to go down to Glasgow, 
fortified this time with an introductiou from James Melville, 
Secretary of the Hon. East India Company, to the eminent 
Clyde shipbuilder, Robert Napier. Napier made him ac- 
quainted with George Burns, and an invitation to dinner fol- 
lowed, at which his partner David M elver was also present. 
Mr. Mclver at first showed considerable hesitation, advising 
Mr. Burns to tell Mr. Cunard that "the thing would not suit 
them". They met again, however, next day, at Napier's, 
when all doubts and difficulties were set at rest by Mr. Cunard's 
logical and convincing advocacy. The name adopted by the 
new association which was founded in 1839, was the British 
and North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company. 

A few days sufficed to raise the required capital of 270,000 
the die was cast, the vim and enterprise of the far-seeing 
Nova Scotian had paved the way for a new era in ocean naviga- 
tion. An offer was made for the conveyance of H. M. mails 
regularly every fortnight between Liverpool, Halifax and 
Boston, and a contract for seven years signed, sealed and 
delivered. A letter from Mr. Cunard is extant, dated Piccad- 
illy, 28th Feb., 1839, to Wm. Kidston and Sons (former Halifax 
friends now doing business in Glasgow), enquiring about likely 
builders of one or two steamers of 300 horse-power and about 
800 tons. That Mr. Cunard was the master mind and leading 
spirit, is abundantly evident from the original contract for 
building the first three vessels for the company. The contract 
was signed on 18th March, 1839, by Samuel Cunard, and 
Robert Napier, in the presence of Hugh Moncrieff and Robert 



THE LIFE OF SAMUEL CUNARD. 83 

Henderson, writers, of Glasgow. This document, which may 
be fairly called historic, specified three good and sufficient 
steamships, not less than 200 feet long, equal in hull and ma- 
chinery to the steamer "Commodore" or "London" constructed 
by the said Robert Napier, and equal to the "City of Glasgow," 
as to the cabin fittings ; one to be ready for trial and delivery on 
12 March, 1840, the second on 13 April, 1840, and the third on 
1st May, 1840. James Cyrus Melville, Secretary of the Hon. 
East India Company, was to be the referee for arbitration, in 
case of any differences, and the figure for the three vessels was 
to be 96,000 sterling. 

An enthusiastic public meeting was held at Halifax im- 
mediately after receipt of the news of the success of their dis- 
tinguished fellow townsman in closing the contract. The 
arrival of the "Unicorn," the elegantly appointed steamer 
secured for the mail service between Halifax and Quebec, 
caused a great stir in our city, as many old timers still remember. 
Still greater was the enthusiasm when early in the morning of 
17th July, 1840, it became known that the British and North 
American Steam Packet Company's R. M. S. "Britannia" had 
arrived during the night, having sailed on 4th July. The success 
of her initial voyage, her noble proportions, figure-head, 
and name alike suggested a new era of progress in ocean 
transit, not only for our city, but for the whole North American 
sea-board. As described in the papers of that day, the scene 
was an inspiring one on her departure from Cunard's wharf, a 
few hours later, for Boston, as she steamed around the gaily 
decorated flagship to the booming of cannon, with every indi- 
cation of popular rejoicing. The presence on board of the dis- 
tinguished founder of the new order of things gave an added 
<$clat to the occasion. 

Mr. Cunard proceeded to Boston in the "Britannia," where 
he was the recipient of ovations so numerous as to be almost 
embarrassing. The story of his 1800 dinner invitations has 
often been told. At the great public banquet tendered him, 
2,000 guests assembled, and Josiah Quincy, the chairman's, 



84 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

first toast was, ''Health, happiness and prosperity to Mr. 
Cunard." The evidences of international good will found ex- 
pression in another toast, the quaint humor of which appeals to 
the risible faculties of people of the present day, to whom the 
sight of an ocean steamer is of daily occurrence. It ran thus: 
"Cunard's line of steam packets the pendulum of a large 
clock which is to tick once a fortnight, the British Govern- 
ment has given 50,000 for one of the weights and may the 
patronage of the public soon add another!" 

Two years after the auspicious opening of the line, Charles 
Dickens crossed in the "Far-famed fast Atlantic steamer" as 
the "Britannia" was then called, and the first chapter of his 
"American Notes" gives a lively description of his experiences 
on board. The renowned author during his brief stay in Hali- 
fax, made a visit, in company with Hon. Joseph Howe, to the 
House of Assembly then in session, occupying a prominent 
seat in the very chamber where we are now gathered. 

Mr. Cunard's brilliant success in surmounting difficulties 
was put to a severe test in 1846, when the original contract was 
about to expire, and the British Government announced its in- 
tention to renew it on a more extended scale. In the House of 
Commons on the 24th of July, 1846, Mr. Miles moved a resolu- 
tion favoring the Great Western Steamship Co.'s proposal 
to undertake it, contending that their steamers had brought 
the first news of the Canadian Rebellion and of the Oregon 
controversy, also pointing out the elaborate arrangements made 
by them to ensure speedy transit on the Atlantic. 

It appeared, however, that the schedule of the Great 
Western Steamship Co. "drew the line" at sailings in the 
winter months from November to April, while Mr. Cunard 
offered a regular all-the-year- round service. The Cunard con- 
tract further provided for the equipment of his vessels to meet 
the contingency of transport in the event of war. Like the red 
strand in the Admiralty cordage, this thread of staunch reli- 
ability furnished them, as it has ever since, a convincing proof 



THE LIFE OF SAMUEL CUNARD. 85 

of the unwavering stability of the Cunard Line. Mr. Goul- 
burn, in defending the Cunard contract, stated "that this es- 
tablishment owed its origin entirely to the activity of the 
colonists of Nova Scotia and its neighborhood, and he for one 
would be sorry to do anything against the zeal and activity of 
these colonists. ' ' Another member of parliament, Mr. Spooner, 
said that "Hon. S. Cunard was the first gentleman that had 
traversed the Atlantic in the winter time." The Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, successor to Sir Robert Peel, after giving a de- 
scription of the circumstances connected with the granting of 
the contract to Mr. Cunard, said "he felt that that gentleman 
was the ablest person with whom the Government could have 
contracted for the conveyance of H. M. mails, but he was by 
no means opposed to the appointment of a committee which 
would afford the House of Commons an opportunity of en- 
quiring into the whole circumstances." 

Ultimately a committee was appointed, the result being a 
signal triumph for Mr. Cunard on every point. The welcome 
news appeared in the Halifax newspapers early in September, 
1846. Although it goes without saying that the petition from 
Bristol and the powerful interests connected with that port 
were weighty factors to contend with, the alert Haligonian was 
fully equal to the occasion, his testimony and reasoning before 
the Select Committee proving unanswerable. A letter from a 
friendly critic which appeared in the London Times of August 
15, 1846, fairly portrays public sentiment on the subject. An 
extract is worth recording verbatim. After referring to the 
speed and regularity of the Cunard steamers and the excellence 
of their general appointments, this writer "feels confident that 
the community at large with many private friends will join 
in rejoicing at the successful issue of this select inquiry and in 
the hope that Mr. Cunard should be permitted to enjoy for 
many years the fruits of his energetic enterprise, the contract 
for which with the Government is certain to be carried out by 
him to the full letter, as he has invariably acted in every 
other most honorably." 



86 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The incident of the Select Enquiry may justly be regarded 
as the apex of our distinguished fellow-townsman's career. 
In 1846 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical 
Society ; and not long afterwards he removed with his family 
to reside permanently at London, England, leaving his son, 
William, in charge of business interests here. 

During its first decade, the Cunard Co., enjoyed almost a 
monopoly of the North Atlantic steamship business. In the 
fifties, rivalry of the most strenuous nature was encountered by 
them with resourceful ability, albeit with unending determina- 
tion to make safety the paramount consideration. Events 
amply justified their inflexible attitude in this regard. The 
Collins Line in particular essayed to eclipse the Cunarders in 
speed and luxurious appointments. In referring to this episode, 
Mr. Mclver, one of his partners, wrote to Mr. Cunard that "the 
Collins people are pretty much in the situation of finding that 
breaking our windows with sovereigns,, though very fine fun, 
is too costly to keep up." The efforts of the Collins Line, al- 
though backed by lavish capital and unstinted support from the 
Government of the United States, ended in a complete collapse. 
Subsequently other organizations followed in the wake of the 
Cunard Co. with more satisfactory results. 

Able pens have recorded the prompt and efficient service 
rendered by the Cunard Line during the Crimean War, and 
subsequent national emergencies, down to the recent struggle 
in South Africa. Suffice it to say that the history of the 
Cunard Line, as tersely described in the recent issue of a leading 
Liverpool journal, is the history of the British mercantile 
marine for the past sixty years. The confidence with which 
the young Halifax merchant first inspired the British Govern- 
ment is reflected in unchanging belief in the trustworthiness of 
the line bearing his name, by the same critical authorities at 
the present day. Twentieth century methods of marine 
competition are more pronounced than ever before, the design 
of Germany especially being to outclass Britain on the sea, just 
as the United States vainly attempted half a century ago. The 



THE LIFE OF SAMUEL CUNARD. 87 

task of upholding British prestige has been entrusted to the 
Cunard Co. by the Imperial Government which has concluded 
an arrangement guaranteeing a measure of financial support 
commensurate with the great national interests at stake. 

In 1859 Queen Victoria conferred the dignity of a baronetcy 
of the United Kingdom on the subject of this sketch, in recogni- 
tion of his distinguished services to the state. He acquired a 
fine estate at Bush Hill, Edmonton, twelve miles out of London, 
where he also had a town mansion at Queen's Gate Gardens. 

In the capital of the Empire whose maritime supremacy 
he had done so much to advance, the evening of his life was 
spent, universally esteemed as a prominent figure among the 
merchant princes of the Victorian era. Not infrequently he 
was the trusted counsellor and advisor of the highest in the land 
on important questions pertaining to maritime interests. Full 
of years and of honors his declining years were enlivened by 
social intercourse with many of the most distinguished person- 
ages of the time. To none, however, was a more welcome hos- 
pitality extended than to friends and acquaintances from his 
native land. At length surrounded by his family, with all his 
faculties unimpaired, the end came to his long and useful career 
at London on April 28th, 1865, at the ripe age of seventy-eight 
years. 

The title descended to his son, Edward, who had been the 
New York manager of the Company for many years. Four 
years later Sir Edward Cunard died, the baronetcy devolving 
on his son, Sir Bache Cunard , the present holder. His daughters 
having all passed away, the sole surviving member of Sir 
Samuel's family is his second son, William Cunard, Esq., of 
London, whose son, Ernest, is a director of the Cunard Steam- 
ship Co. Numerous descendants fill positions of dignity and 
usefulness in the Mother Country, the Great Republic and the 
Dominion of Canada. 

The personal appearance of Sir Samuel Cunard is, of course, 
well remembered by many of our Halifax people. Somewhat 



88 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

below the middle height, he was vigorous in frame, with excep- 
tional nerve force and great powers of endurance. An early 
contemporary describes him as brisk of step, brim-full of energy 
and always on the alert. His countenance was a strong and open 
one, the broad high forehead indicating marked intelligence 
and serious purpose. Determined resolution was noticeable 
in the features, blended with an expression of fairness and 
kindly consideration inviting confidence. One who knew him 
intimately described him as somewhat impetuous, almost 
imperious in manner, in his early days. His strenuous experi- 
ence's eventually merged self confidence into such masterful 
self control, that the same friend speaks of him in the autumn of 
life as being as mellow and fine a gentleman of the old school as 
one could possibly wish to meet. An English observer, about 
the period of the formation of the Cunard Line when Sir 
Samuel was in his prime, refers to him as "a small gray-haired 
man of quiet manners and not overflowing speech." In private 
life he was a consistent Christian, and an exemplary parent to a 
large and motherless family. 

His business qualifications were of the highest order. He 
had a wonderful gift of impressing people with his ideas, and 
his diplomatic ability was conspicuous. His promptness to 
grasp opportunity and transform it into enterprise was tem- 
pered with unfailing sagacity. Thus when the exigencies of the 
Crimean campaign confronted the British Government and 
his vessels were requistioned, several of them were placed at 
the service of the War Department fully equipped to comply 
with contract requirements, in a little over a week. There was 
no haggling about price, a course not entirely approved by 
his canny associates, but shrewdly designed to influence future 
patronage. 

His thoroughness was another distinguishing trait. In 
the steadfast resolve to have "nothing but the best ships, 
the best officers, and the best men," he never changed an 
iota. Some have attributed this unswerving principle to the 
Jong list of wrecks and the serious loss of life that had passed 



THE LIFE OF SAMUEL CUNARD. 89 

under his notice in the fate of no less than seven of the old 
"coffin brigs" or "death ships" (as they were often called) be- 
tween Falmouth and Halifax in a single decade. At the time of 
Sir Samuel Cunard's death the record of his line was an enviable 
one, not a single passenger having been lost in the twenty-five 
years. This record has been maintained during forty subse- 
quent years, and remains unparallelled. 

The inherent fortitude of his disposition was put to a crucial 
test through a crisis in business complications on this side of 
the Atlantic when at the very zenith of his hopes. The implicit 
reliance of powerful friends on his ability enabled him to stem 
the adverse tide, at once, in safety. An anecdote is related 
by a Halifax acquaintance illustrating the respect with which 
Sir Samuel Cunard's personality was regarded in the highest 
circles of the great metropolis. This veteran friend of Sir 
Samuel (still in our midst, I am happy to say) distinctly re- 
calls his dignified bearing at a notable dinner function in 
London many years since. Amid the throng of possessors of 
ancient lineage and exalted rank, the head of the Cunard Line, 
with easy mien and courtly grace, was welcomed as one of the 
most distinguished figures in that brilliant assemblage. 

In concluding this biographical sketch, reference should be 
made to perhaps the most striking features in Sir Samuel's 
character, his fervid imagination and his intense optimism. 
He ventured the trite prediction to another old-time acquaint- 
ance yet to be seen on our streets, that "the day would surely 
come when an ocean steamer would be signalled from Citadel 
Hill every day in the year." As an actual fact, the arrival 
of half a dozen at the present day is by no means an uncommon 
occurrence. It does not invariably happen that a man's 
ideals develop into such solid realities. 

That a prophet is not without honor save in his own coun- 
try, is as true now as it was two thousand years ago when the 
divine maxim was uttered. In many up-to-date communities 
praiseworthy efforts are constantly being made to counteract 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

this reproach. A statue preserving for future generations the 
form and features of a citizen worthy of remembrance for his 
zeal in advancing the world's progress, redounds to the credit 
of the place of his birth, and adds materially to its prestige, at 
the same time inculcating emulation among the future builders 
of its destinies. In St. Paul's Cathedral stands a monument to 
a great architect and genius ennobled by an earlier English 
Queen Sir Christopher Wren, who rebuilt the noble fane 
containing his monument, designed half a hundred other 
churches, and remodelled the thoroughfares of London as they 
are today. A significant Latin motto on his statue bears the 
words "Si monumentum requiris circumspice;" Literally inter- 
preted the inscription means, "If you wish to understand this 
monument look around you." Let the mind's eye survey the 
boundless fleets of magnificent steamers traversing the seas at 
this very hour, in every quarter of the globe. The first standard 
bearer of this host of leviathans was the subject of this memoir 
Sir Samuel Cunard who remodelled the ocean navigation of 
the world. 



ORIGINAL SHAREHOLDERS OF THE CUNARD COMPANY. 

List of partners in the British and North American Royal Mail 
Steam Packet Company, at 1st February, 1841. 



Names 

James Donaldson (cotton broker) 

James Browne (insurance broker) 

James Wright (cotton broker) 

Thomas Buchanan (Dowanh.il!) 

James Campbell (afterwards Sir James 

Campbell) 

Robert Hinshaw (drysalter) 

Alex. Downie (drysalter) 

William Brown (Kilmardinny) 

Robert Napier (Shandon) 

Robert Rodger (merchant) 

William Campbell (Tullichewan) 



Shares of 
100 each. 



160 
116 
116 
116 



Amount. 

16,000 
11,600 
11,600 
11,600 



60 


6,000 


109 


10,900 


55 


5,500 


116 


11,600 


60 


6,000 


116 


11,600 


55 


5,500 



THE LIFE OF SAMUEL CUNARD. 91 

Shares of 

Names. 100 each. Amount 

William Leckie Ewing (Arngomery) 116 11,600 

Archibald MacConnell (Thomson & Mac- 

Connell) 20 2,000 

William Connal (William Connal & Co.) . . 116 11,600 

James Burns (G. &. J. Burns) 50 5,000 

George Burns (G. & J. Burns) 55 5,500 

Charles Maclver (Burns & Maclver) 40 4,000 

Charles Maclver (Burns & Maclver) 40 4,000 

Alexander Fletcher (calico printer) 115 11,500 

Alexander MacAsian (Austin & MacAsian) 105 10,500 

Alexander MacAsian (in suspense) 13 1,300 

William Stirling (Stirling, Gordon & Co.) . 116 11,600 

Elias Gibb (wine merchant) 64 6,400 

Alexander Glasgow (Auchrenraith) -64 6,400 

James Merry, jun. (Merry & Cunninghame) 37 3,700 

David Chapman (Thomson & MacConnell) 15 1,500 
Alexander Bannermann (Henry Banner- 

mann & Sons, Manchester) 21 2,100 

John Bannermann (Henry Bannermann & 

Sons, Manchester) 21 2,100 

Henry Bannermann (Henry Bannermann & 

Sons, Manchester) 21 2,100 

David Scott 15 1,500 

James Martin (of Jas. Martin and J. & G. 

Burns) 15 1,500 

James MacCall (Daldowie) 13 1,300 

Alexander Kerr (Robertland) 7 700 

British partners 2,158 215,800 

Samuel Cunard (Halifax, N. S.) 550 55,000 



Total stock 2,708 .270,800 



THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. 93 



THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS: 

The Pony Express that in 1849 forwarded European 

News from Halifax to Digby, to be conveyed by 

vessel to St. John, and thence telegraphed 

to New York. 

By JOHN W. REGAN, Halifax, N. S. 
(Read 5th January, 1912). 

The Associated Press, the greatest news-gathering organiza- 
tion in existence, had its inception in a "pony express," started 
by six New York newspapers, that was operated between 
Halifax and Digby in 1849, for the purpose of forwarding Euro- 
pean news to Boston and New York in advance of the arrival 
at Boston of the English mail steamer from Halifax. The 
"pony express" terminated near Digby, where a steamboat 
was in waiting to convey the despatches across the Bay of 
Fundy to St. John, the terminus of the newly-constructed 
telegraph line, and from this point the news was wired to 
New York, many hours ahead of the arrival of the English 
mail-steamers from Liverpool and Halifax. The whole service 
from Halifax to St. John and by wire to New York was called 
'The Halifax Express." 

This express was started in February, 1849, and continued for 
nine months, until superseded by the extension of the telegraph 
line from St. John to Sackville and thence to Halifax in Novem- 
ber, 1849. After that, the forwarding of the English news settl- 
ed down to the less exciting method of filing the despatches at 
the telegraph office, situated, I believe, on Hollis Street, just 
north of the Bank of Nova Scotia, and the dashing "pony 
express" was discontinued forever and gave way to the new 
order of things. There was still some excitement and competi- 
tion in rushing the English news from the ship's side to the 
Halifax telegraph office, but this was tame compared to the 
desperate energy with which the news had been forwarded by 



94 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

relays of galloping horses 144 miles from Halifax to Digby in 
the average time of eight hours or a mile in about 3.29 
minutes. At first there were two rival expresses, and it is re- 
corded that on one trip they reached their destination only 2j 
minutes apart, and that the episode of the racing expresses 
passing through a post-village caused as much excitement as a 
mail-steamer arriving at Halifax. Fortnightly, day and night, 
in good weather and bad weather the despatch riders tore 
through the lonely country, bearing the European intelligence 
to the people of the United States. 

News from England was then the news of the world. It 
came in fortnightly budgets from London, and not as now in 
crisp daily messages from the ends of the earth. Vast interests 
of national, commercial, social and individual importance 
hinged upon the state of the markets and the other contents of 
the sealed despatches received at Halifax by way of the pioneer 
steamship line, and it must be remembered that the vessels arriv- 
ing at Halifax were the only regular means of trans-Atlantic 
communication. There were private lines of packets and other 
clipper sailing ships, but they were uncertain. Just imagine 
what feverish excitement there would be today if all cables were 
suspended indefinitely and all steamship communication were 
reduced to one line between Liverpool and Halifax! 

That was the condition which brought about the establish- 
ment of the "pony express" in 1849. This express is of special 
interest, because it brought the New York publishers together 
for the first time and caused the Associated Press to be founded. 
The express demonstrated the possibilities and the necessity 
for extending the telegraph line to Halifax without delay, and 
was therefore instrumental in the introduction of the telegraph 
into Canada. The "pony express" also must always be iden- 
tified with the dramatic conjunction of these two marvellous 
agencies the telegraph and the steamship. 

The name "pony express" was a term imported from the 
United States, but in reality horses were used. The term came 



THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. 95 

into use as distinct from the stage-coach or wagon express, in 
which horses were employed. It must not be confused with the 
carrying of postal matter by mounted carriers, as was once the 
custom in the province. 

The story of the "pony express" throws into greater pro- 
minence the geographical position of the port of Halifax. 

The establishment of the Halifax express as a joint venture 
of the New York papers, was a sign of the revolution that the 
advent of the novel agency of the telegraph was to effect. 
There had been tremendous competition between the metropo- 
litan papers. From 1830 to 1848 the rivalry and enterprise of 
the "Herald," "Journal of Commerce," "Courier and Enquirer" 
and several other New York journals, were the keenest imagin- 
able. 

Various schemes were adopted by the enterprising publishers 
in the publication of important news. There was then no cable, 
telegraph or telephone, no railway or steam navigation to. 
assist the newspapers except perhaps in local areas for a short 
time. Pigeon posts and hilltop signal systems were used when 
possible, and on important occasions individual newspapers 
developed elaborate horse relay expresses for the rapid convey- 
ance of despatches. The "pony express" was worked with such 
signal success by the New York "Herald" during the war with 
Mexico, that the elder Bennett was able to announce the result 
of engagements before the same intelligence reached the mili- 
tary authorities of the federal government at Washington. 

The writer is indebted to Mr. Melville E. Stone, general 
manager of the Associated Press, for the following information 
in regard to newspaper conditions in New York at this time. 
About 1825 there was a notable change in newspaper work in 
the United States. Previous to that, letters had appeared on 
important topics, but ho systematic effort had been made to 
keep pace with the world's happenings. In the new develop- 
ment half a dozen men were prominent. Samuel Topliff and 
Harry Blake were the first news managers. Topliff established 



96 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

a news-room in Boston where he sold news-reports and shipping 
intelligence, and Blake prowled about Boston harbor in a row- 
boat intercepting incoming packets and peddling out as best he 
could any news that he secured. Two young Boston journal- 
ists, David Hale and Gerard Hallock, who became familiar 
with the work of Blake and Topliff, bought the New York 
"Journal of Commerce" and transplanted their methods to New 
York. They bought a handsome seagoing yacht and cruised 
off Sandy Hook to meet incoming vessels. This incensed the 
other newspaper publishers who promptly expelled Hale and 
Hallock from the local association, and they built a rival 
schooner. Hale and Hallock then erected a semaphore on the 
highlands near Sandy Hook to which they signalled news and 
this in turn was transmitted to Staten Island, which enabled 
them to outdistance their competitors. 

The scenes about the office of the "Journal of Commerce" 
were memorable, and before long the proprietors enjoyed a 
national reputation. Then they established a "pony express" 
from Philadelphia with eight relays of horses, and were able to 
publish southern news twenty-four hours ahead of their com- 
petitors. This system worked so well that the federal govern- 
ment took it over ; but Hale and Hallock extended their express 
to Washington, and thus maintained their supremacy. They 
frequently published official news from the capital before it 
had been received at the government office in New York. 

With the advent of James Gordon Bennett and the New 
York "Herald," fresh zeal was imparted to the struggle be- 
tween the newspapers. Besides a system of pony expresses to 
report the progress of the war with Mexico, Bennett had a 
carrier-pigeon service between New York and Albany for the 
annual message of the governor which he printed ahead of 
everyone. 

In July 1840 the Cunard line of mail steamships was in- 
stituted between Liverpool, Halifax and Boston; and Bennett 
with characteristic energy established a "pony express" for 
hurrying the English news from Boston to New York. 



THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. 97 

Topliff and Blake had been succeeded at Boston by D. H. 
Craig, a newsgather of extraordinary alertness. As the Cunard 
boats approached Boston harbor, Craig met them with a 
schooner and received a budget of news. Then by carrier- 
pigeon he communicated a synopsis of the news to his Boston 
office, frequently releasing the birds 40 or 50 miles from port. 

The importance of promptly securing the European news 
developed tremendous competition between the newspapers in 
which speculators joined. Great business interests depended 
upon the state of the markets, and the course of foreign trade 
and politics. It is recorded, though not authenticated, that a 
steamer was jointly chartered by the news collectors of Boston 
to meet the mail-steamer at Halifax and hurry the European 
news to the United States. On the very first trip Craig was one 
of the correspondents, and he had managed to secrete two 
carrier-pigeons in a basket, and he released these from his cabin 
window fifty miles outside Boston with the most important 
foreign intelligence, which was published before the press- 
boat reached the city. 

Meanwhile Prof. Morse was struggling with his invention 
of the magnetic telegraph. In 1843 congress voted j&0,000 to 
build an experimental line from Washington to Baltimore, 
which occupied a year to construct. The line was subsequently 
extended to Philadelphia and New York. In October, 1848, 
under the heading "Telegraphic Wonders," the New York 
"Herald" reported it had received "interesting intelligence last 
night by electric telegraph from eight cities comprehending an 
aggregate distance of 3,000 miles." When the wires were ex- 
tended to Boston and through the state of Maine and on 
across the border to St. John, it was at once seen that it would 
be easy to receive news brought to Halifax thirty-six hours 
earlier than it would reach Boston or New York by the steamer. 
It was certain, of course, that some one would take steps to 
secure the news, and private speculators would find it to their 
interest to do this and the commercial community would be 

victimized. 

7 



98 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

To prevent this, six New York newspapers formed an or- 
ganization known as the Associated Press, to establish a "per- 
manent express run by horses from Halifax to Digby on the 
Bay of Fundy, and by steamboats from that place to St. John." 
Such was the opening wording of the announcement in the 
New York "Courier" in May 1849, in regard to the express to 
Digby. At the same time the newspapers made a deal with the 
parties controlling the telegraph which caused it to be publicly 
alleged in New York that a monopoly was created. This re- 
port, no doubt, had something to do with the issue of the an- 
nouncement by the "Courier" already referred to. 

It declared that arrangements had also been made to 
"Transmit the news by telegraph from St. John to New York 
without interruption and with the least possible delay. The 
enterprise was undertaken solely for the benefit of the sub- 
scribers and readers of the six papers concerned. The manage- 
ment of the telegraph line aided it in every way possible and co- 
operated with the press in all measures necessary to bring the 
news before the public before it could be used by private specu- 
lators, to the general detriment. The experiment thus far, 
as our readers are aware, has proved perfectly successful. It 
will be seen from this statement that the Halifax Express and 
telegraph arrangement belongs solely and exclusively to the 
New York press that is established. They have the entire 
control of it. The gentleman, by whom it is so efficiently 
managed at the Halifax end, Mr. D. H. Craig, is their agent. 
The expense of it, amounting to about $1,000, for each steamer, 
is paid by them, and the despatch received is in every respect 
their private property, subject to their disposal in any way 
they see fit, so that the public is not injured and their subscribers 
are served thereby. If the news arrived in the day time, the 
New York papers, in justice to the commercial community and 
greatly to their own injury, issue it in extras or put it upon their 
bulletins. If it comes at night, they take all possible precau- 
tion to prevent its being appropriated by parties who have no 
right to it, and lay it before their subscribeis in the regular 
morning editions. 



THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. 99 

"At an early day, or as soon indeed as it was understood 
that a Halifax express was to be run, the Boston press applied 
to the proprietors of the Halifax Express for a share in its bene- 
fits. An arrangement was promptly effected by which a copy 
of each despatch is delivered in Boston for the use of the parties 
to it, and it is generally issued simultaneously with its publi- 
cation here. For this the nine Boston papers interested pay 
regularly to the New York press about one-sixth of the whole 
expense. The arrangement is mutually advantageous and 
satisfactory to the public, and the press of both cities. 

''The enterprise has been styled 'a monopoly' by papers who 
are not parties to it. It is monopolized by its owners, and so 
long as the law protects private property it will continue to 
be, but we have no doubt that any New York morning paper 
can become a party to it by paying its share of the costs. 
Those are the simple facts in regard to the Halifax Express. We 
state them on behalf of the six New York papers by whom that 
express is owned and managed at an expense of over $20,000 
per annum, as well as of the Boston press who receive and pay 
for a share of the advantages. The Halifax Express is perma- 
nent and will be made as regular and efficient as money and the 
utmost care and attention can make it. We regard it as highly 
important to the commercial community of New York that it 
should be maintained, because in its absence the great mass of 
our business men will be at the mercy of private speculators. 
At present the utmost care is taken to protect the public and 
it is only just to say that in this endeavor the press is thoroughly 
and generously aided by Mr. Smith, the president of the 
telegraph company between New York and Boston, by Mr, 
Foss their superintendent at New York, and by all the operators 
and others attached to the lines. We look to the public alone 
for that appreciation which is of itself a sufficient reward for our 
expense and labor." 

On Wednesday, Jan. 3rd, 1849, the Halifax "Nova Scotian" 
stated that the telegraph was working between St. John and 
Calais. The issue of the same paper of February 26th, 1849, 



100 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

reprinted an item from the St. John "Observer" to the effect 
that it was intended to run a news express from Halifax to St. 
John, via Annapolis, on the arrival of every English mail- 
steamer, the news to be telegraphed from St. John to New 
York on account of the Associated Press of that city. 

The first express left Halifax on February 21st, 1849, on 
the arrival of the Cunard Royal Mail steamship "Europa," 
eleven days from Liverpool, England. Concerning this first 
express, the Halifax newspapers contain no information, but we 
can confidently infer that it was dispatched on February 21st, 
as the newspaper referring to the express of March 8th, stated 
that the latter reached Digby Gut in "three hours less than it 
was done before." The "Europa" was the English mail steam- 
ship which arrived at Halifax a trip before that of the "Ame- 
rica" to which reference will soon be made. The first run of the 
express to Digby Gut must have been performed in about eleven 
and a half hours, a record which was next to be reduced by three 
hours. It is recorded that the express was continued for nine 
months with remarkable regularity, only one trip being missed, 
and that the distance of 144 miles to Victoria Beach, Digby 
Gut, was covered in the average time of eight hours. The 
journey was performed by two riders who changed at Kentville, 
and was divided into twelve stages with a fresh horse about 
every twelve miles. The fortnightly mail steamers were liable 
to arrive at Halifax at any time, and the despatch rider had to 
be always on the alert, ready to start at any hour, night or day, 
.and the same alertness was requisite in furnishing fresh horses 
at the relay posts. 

Regarding the second trip, on the arrival of the steamship 
"America" on Thursday, March 8th, the "Express" newspaper 
of Halifax on the following Monday, March 12th, printed a 
short item as follows: "The news from England by the 'Ame- 
rica' was expressed from hence to Digby Gut in the extraordi- 
nary short time of eight hours and 27 J minutes three hours 
less than it was done before. Mr. Barnaby's express came in, 



THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. 101 

we understand, 2j minutes in advance of Mr. Hyde's.* A 
serious accident, which severely injured Mr. Hyde's courier 
occurred at Windsor bridge and delayed the latter half an 
hour." 

The news columns of the "British Colonist," Halifax, 
contained an extended reference to the new express, as follows: 
"On Thursday morning (8th March) immediately after the 
arrival of the steamer from England, two expresses (one on 
behalf of the Associated Press of Philadelphia, New York, and 
Boston, the other got up in opposition by some mercantile 
gentlemen in the United States) left this city travelling at a 
rate of speed that is, we believe, unprecedented in this country. 
The parties engaged here to convey the rival expresses over- 
land to Digby, were Mr. Hyde and Mr. Barnaby. Hyde's 
express arrived at Digby Neck at 28 minutes past 12 o'clock 
accomplishing the distance of 146 miles in 8j hours having 
met with several accidents and interruptions.! At Windsor a 
delay of 20 minutes occurred, and after starting Mr. Hamilton, 
the courier from that place, when crossing the bridge broke his 
stirrup, and was thrown from his horse with such force, tha/t he 
lay insensible for some time; he, however, remounted, and, 
though lamed, with one stirrup performed his route with as- 
tonishing despatch. A distance of 18 miles from Kentville, was 
performed by Mr. Thad Harris ff in 53 minutes. The steamer 
'Conqueror', chartered to convey Hyde's express to St. 
John, was waiting in readiness when the express arrived. 
Barnaby's express arrived 2^ minutes before Hyde's, but the 
steamer 'Commodore,' engaged by his party, had not made her 
appearance at the latest accounts." 

A contemporary issue of the "British Colonist," Halifax, 
made an editorial reference to the express as follows: "Had 
we ever entertained any doubts as to the importance of an 

*Hiram Hyde, of provincial stage-coach fame, died at Truro, N. S.. on 14th December, 
1907. Hyde had the contract for lunning the dispatch express on behalf of D. H. CraJg; while 
Barnaby served the rival corporation. 

tThis is at an average of a mile in 3i minutes, including all delays. 

ttThis was probably Thaddeus Harris, bom 1820, died June 1851, son of Hon. J.D.Harris, 
of Kentville. 



102 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



electric telegraph being constructed between Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick, the following fact would suffice to remove 
scepticism. The 'America' arrived on last Thursday morn- 
ing and incredible as it may seem, the English and foreign news 
which she carried was published in New York on the same 
evening. This news was expressed from hence to Digby, 
thence by steamer to New Brunswick, thence by telegraph de- 
spatch, and every merchant and burgess in New York knew 
the state of the European markets eighteen hours after the 
arrival of the 'America.' Had the electric telegraph been in 
operation in Nova Scotia, the news would have been in New 
York ere the steamer could have left our harbor." 

From the announcement of the New York "Courier", we 
see that not only was the Halifax Express the occasion of the 
founding of the Associated Press, but that Halifax was the first 
foreign station of the Associated Press, Mr. D. H. Craig was 
its first foreign correspondent, and the telegraph wire from the 
United States to St. John and afterward to Halifax was the 
earliest line controlled by the organization. The Associated 
Press now has thousands of correspondents at home and abroad 
and controls many thousand miles of wire in the United States, 
where it supplies the world's news as well as domestic news to 
seven hundred daily papers with a combined circulation of 
sixteen million copies, and if the formula of three readers to 
each paper is accepted the Associated Press reports are read by 
half the people of the United States. These reports are also 
sold to Canadian Press, Ltd., and distributed to daily papers 
throughout Canada. While the legal birthplace of this great 
news-gathering organization was New York, its first activities 
related to the procuring of English news landed at Halifax, 
and it is interesting to observe that the purpose of forming 
the Associated Press was the benefit and protection of the 
public. 

That Halifax has not lost ground as a news centre, is illus- 
trated by the busy cable and wireless systems centreing here. 
Here is an example: In 1909 the writer was in New York in 



THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. 103 

August and was informed by the manager of the Associated 
Press that Commander Peary had been absent two years 
and was due to return from his last polar dash, and he suggest- 
ed fitting out a steamer to intercept him at Greenland. Before 
there was time to act on these instructions the world was 
electrified by the announcement that Dr. Cook had discovered 
the North Pole. In a few days there was another announce- 
ment that Peary had arrived at Labrador with the statement 
that he had reached the pole and that Cook's claim was un- 
founded. The writer met the Peary party at Battle Harbor, 
Labrador. The detailed account of the polar dash was for- 
warded by wireless relays down the Labrador coast and across 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, through Halifax, and overland to New 
York. At the same time Dr. Cook was crossing the ocean to 
New York, on the steamer "Oscar II" at the height of his short 
lived triumph. Cook wqs accompained by the Berlin corres- 
pondent of the Associated Press, who had scrambled on board 
at Copenhagen. A condensed report of Peary's story from 
Battle Harbor was sent to Halifax from New York, and for- 
warded by wireless to Sable Island, and repeated by marconi- 
gram to Dr. Cook on board the Danish steamer in midocean. 
Cook's criticism was returned the same way and forwarded 
from Halifax by land-wire and wireless to Commander Peary 
at Battle Harbor. Though these two pole-hunters were separ- 
ated by thousands of miles of sea and barren waste, one in frozen 
Labrador and the other in mid ocean, the world was entertained 
with an amazing dialogue. Just as the Associated Press found 
the first reason for its existence in the geographical situation of 
Halifax, just so does this city continue to be a clearing-house for 
the daily record of the world's affairs. 

The telegraph office was first opened at Halifax in Nov- 
ember, 1849; and on November 15th, the first dispatch was 
sent from this city giving a synopsis of the English news re- 
ceived by the royal mail-steamship " America." The steamer 
arrived at 7.30 o'clock, but the wire between St. John and 
Calais was out of repair and was not restored until 8 o'clock, 



104 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



otherwise the "America's" news would have been in Boston by 
11 o'clock and in New York within five minutes afterward. A 
local paper stated that its reporter was in the telegraph office 
at 11 o'clock on Thursday night after the arrival of the "Ame- 
rica" and found that Mr. Gisborne, the operator, had been en- 
gaged for three hours in sending on an abstract of the European 
news and that it had reached Boston in safety and that the 
whole report would be published in the morning papers next 
day. The Halifax "Nova Scotian" commented as follows: 

"This triumph of science speaks for itself. The brief ex- 
perience had on our line, speaks favorably of the skill of the 
operator and the care and diligence applied by the superin- 
tendent." 

The "Morning Chronicle" contained the first telegraphic 
dispatch ever published in the Halifax newspapers, which came 
direct to this city by wire. It was as follows: 

Great Storm at Portland. 

"St. John, N. B., Nov. 14, 1849 : Ten buildings were blown 
down on Friday night. No other news per steamer." 

While the telegraph was only opened for business in Nov- 
ember the construction work had been in progress in and about 
the city for some time. The first post of the telegraph was 
erected on the North Common at Halifax on the afternoon of 
the centenary celebration, June 8, 1849. 

The first despatch of English news by telegraph directly 
from Halifax to Boston and New York on November 15th, 1849, 
marked the termination of the fortnightly galloping "Halifax 
Express" which had been inaugurated February 21st of the 
same year, after having been in operation for nine months.* 

*Readeis are also referred to an article in the Halifax Pony Express, by George Mullane, 
in the "Mornmg Chronicle," Halifax, for 1st January, 1914. 



THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. 105 

Statements Regarding the Pony Express. 

In response to a letter inserted in Halifax, St. John, and other 
provincial newspapers asking for information respecting the 
foregoing pony express, the writer has received a number of 
interesting replies from old residents, but several correspondents 
appear to confuse early coach and mail carrying contracts with 
the Associated Press dispatch service. 

The following statements, so received, apparently bear upon 
the subject of the Halifax dispatch express of 1849, and will 
supplement the information given in the foregoing paper. 
They are presented about as received and depend for their 
summary of details upon the respective memories of the per- 
sons who furnished them. Other statements which no doubt 
refer to mail contracts, will be given later. 

John Hall, of Lawrencetown, Annapolis Co., reports that 
his father conducted a stable at Lawrencetown, about 1848, 
where horses were boarded for a man named Barnaby who drove 
a coach and ran the "pony express." Mr. Hall's letter is in- 
teresting enough to quote at length. He says: "I well re- 
member as a boy the delight I took in riding a horse beside 
my father while exercising the express horses. The event of 
the express passing through the village, would cause as much 
excitement as the arrival of an English steamer at Halifax. 
Sometimes there was added excitement caused by a man named 
Hiram Hyde, who wagered he could carry the dispatches be- 
tween any two given places in less time than Barnaby. Hyde 
operated a rival coach line. I distinctly recall numbers of 
people standing in the street, waiting to catch a glimpse of the 
riders as they approached our village, and the eagerness to help 
change the saddle from tired to fresh horses while the riders 
walked about briskly to overcome the cramped feeling from 
hard riding. Then the riders were helped into the saddle and 
were off like a flash. Among these who rode horses, were 
Mason and John Pineo and Benjamin Chesley. John Ross 
kept the stable where Hyde's horses put up. There was almost 



10 6 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Jfmuch excitement in the village over a race between the two 
expresses as there would be in a general election at the present 
time, and I assure you that the horses received every attention 
from their caretakers, in order to win the applause of the public. 
In one race the Barnaby horse was a fine chestnut, weighing 
1,000 or 1,100 Ibs., while the rival equine was a bay with a 
white stripe, and weighed 90Q Ibs. Barnaby won easily, and 
there was cheering at our stable. The time between Halifax 
and Victoria Beach was usually from 8 to 9 hrs., but I cannot 
understand why the service was called a "pony express," as 
the finest horses were employed." 

Another correspondent, Jacob Randall, of Kingston Station, 
near the western border of Kings Co., states that his father 
kept what was called a tavern on the main road at Lower 
Aylesford one-half mile west of Kingston Station. Tenders 
were asked for the conveyance of the press dispatches and James 
King, of St. John, was awarded the contract. A trial was made 
around the Bay of Fundy through New Brunswick; and 
another through the Annapolis Valley to Victoria Beach on 
Digby Gut. The latter proved the quicker route, and King 
went through the Valley and placed horses; one at Nelson 
Chute's at Berwick, one at Randall's tavern (Lower Aylesford) 
and one about two miles below Middleton, besides others. 

My correspondent and his brother looked after the horses, 
the former being then twelve years of age. They required to be 
on the alert when a rider came, to change saddle and bridle 
as quickly as possible, and then the rider went away at once like 
a flash. Mr. Randall thinks the name of the first rider was 
Patrick Doyle. It seems that this man did not handle the 
horses to advantage, and he was replaced by Corey Odell of 
St. John, who afterwards settled in Annapolis Royal. Odell 
proved a better jockey and made faster time. Randall re- 
members an instance when the express rider Doyle arrived one 
morning at 8 o'clock, but the fresh horse that Jie mounted re- 
fused to go. Every plan to start him was tried without success. 
When a neighbor mounted the animal, the horse went away 



THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. 107 

like a bird, but he would not budge a step with Doyle on his 
back. After four hours balking, Doyle gave it up and went on 
to the next station. Randall states when the mail steamers 
arrived in Halifax harbor, a small boat would be summoned by 
a steam whistle to receive the sealed dispatches, which were 
hurried to the shore and handed to the rider who was off at 
once. The first change was at Sackville near Bed/ord. The 
rider carried a horn with a very sharp, shrill blast, which was 
constantly sounded for a distance of one-half mile before ap- 
proaching a relay station, whether day or night, and ample 
warning was given in this way to hold a fresh horse in readiness. 
The despatches were enclosed in a sealed bag carried under the 
arm with a strap over the shoulder. Neither of the riders 
lived in Halifax. The horses usually walked returning. Ran- 
dall corroborates other statements that the average time from 
Halifax to Victoria Beach was 8 hours, or 18 miles an hour, 
when the roads were good. 

Mr. Randall says that at the conclusion of the despatch 
service, King tendered for the mail contract and was awarded 
the same and ran in opposition to the Davidson coach, which 
Randall says was operated by Barnaby. The opposition be- 
tween the King mail and the Davidson coach, was so keen that 
either coach would go a mile off the main road to get a passenger 
to prevent the traveler going by the other coach. 

In view of Jacob Randall's statement that the first experi- 
ment in forwarding the news from Halifax, was conducted via 
Truro and Sackville to St. John, inquiries have been made at 
Truro among friends and descendants of the late Hiram Hyde. 
Hyde wa^s a resident of Truro for many years. Some of his 
surviving friends at Truro, men upwards of eighty years of age, 
state that they never heard Hyde mention the horse express, 
and they felt confident, therefore, that any effort to forward 
the news overland through Truro and Sackville and through 
New Brunswick to. St. John, must have been limited to one 
attempt; which not being successful, the other route through 
the Annapolis Valley and by boat to St. John was immediately 



108 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



adopted. Hyde was born in New York and came to New Bruns- 
wick shortly before the outbreak of the Canadian rebellion. 
In that affair he took a contract to transport British troops in 
winter to Quebec. He afterwards settled at Truro and operat- 
ed an extensive stage-coach system, carrying mails and passen- 
gers, in different parts of the province. Luther B. Archibald of 
Truro remembers a dispute that arose in 1858 between the Nova 
Scotia Telegraph Co. and the New Brunswick Telegraph Co. 
The former would not transmit the European news from Hali- 
fax, which was therefore sent by rail to Truro and forwarded to 
Sackville by Archibald and Purdy in a light rig. This continued 
for a short time until the dispute between the two companies 
was satisfactorily settled. 

Mrs. Mary Odell, of Annapolis Royal, has sent a statement 
that she is the widow of Corey Odell, one of the two riders who 
carried the dispatches for King Brothers, in 1849, and that she 
is now in her eighty-second year. On New Year's day, 1912, 
Mrs. Odell called on Mrs. Agnes King, age 81, widow of Arthur 
King. In talking over old times, Mrs. King stated that the 
pony express was inaugurated by the Associated Press after the 
telegraph line was built from New York to St. John. Mrs. 
King says that year was 1849, and remembers distinctly a race 
between King Brothers and Barnaby, who had the contract 
for carrying mails from Halifax to St. John. Barnaby chang- 
ed horses every 12 miles. The Kings won the race in the re- 
markable time of 6 hours, having the pick of horses from their 
St. John stables. Mrs. Odell says that an Irish jockey car- 
ried the dispatches from Halifax to Kentville, and Corey Odell 
from there to Victoria Beach, for King Brothers. On arrival 
at Granville Ferry a gun was fired from the old fort at Annapolis 
notifying the steamer, which was in readiness at Victoria 
Beach to start for St. John. 

In a scrap-book in the possession of C. E. W. Dodwell, C. E., 
Halifax, there is a clipping from London "Engineering," giving 
an extract from a letter published in the Windsor "Mail' 'of Feb- 
ruary 13th, 1879, advocating a failway through the Annapolis 




THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. 109 

Valley, and citing the old express running from Halifax to St. 
John overland and by water, in an average of 11 hours, but 
occasionally 10 hours, the land trip being 144 miles and water 
passage 40 miles. The writer, evidently an old resident, said 
the average time from Halifax to Victoria Beach was 8 hours, 
and the fastest time 7 hours 15 minutes (that would be an 
average of about a mile in three minutes.) On one occasion 
45 miles between Halifax and Windsor was covered in one hour 
and 45 minutes (or an average of a mile in 2.33 minutes). 
Mention is made of a bridge at Horton being left open for re- 
pairs, as the dispatch rider was not expected, but the mail- 
steamer arrived at Halifax earlier than usual and the rider came 
during the night, which was very dark. The horse leaped the 
open space in the bridge, 18 ft., and the rider did not know 
until reaching the next station just what was the explanation. 

There is another story that a dispatch rider's horse, dashing 
through the covered bridge over the Avon on a dark night, 
struck a wooden post, and fell dead; the rider being severely 
injured. Still another story reports an express rider having 
been thrown from his horse near Avonport in Lower Horton, 
and being unable to proceed. As the despatches could not be 
delayed, William B. T. Piers, a gentleman formerly of Halifax 
but then a resident of the locality, and a fine horseman, jumped 
into the saddle and galloped through with them. 

T. M. Robinson, of 2 Wright St., St. John, N. B., who was 
unquestionably the first telegraph operator in the Maritime 
Provinces and probably the first in Canada as well, contributes 
several facts concerning the pony express. He was connected 
with the Nova Scotia Telegraph almost from its inception^ and 
was secretary of the New Brunswick Telegraph Company. 
This company constructed the telegraph extension from St. 
John to Sackville. Mr. Robinson states that he was in New 
York from Sept., 1844, until April 1848, and witnessed the first 
telegraph wire being taken into the office on Wall St., N. Y., 
in April, 1845. During the winder of 1847-8 he saw a statement 
published in New York that the telegraph wire had reached 



110 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Portland and that the Associated Press had forwarded English 
news by express from Halifax to Digby and by steamer to 
Portland and by telegraph to New York. Mr. Robinson does 
not think this experiment was repeated, because when he ar- 
rived in Digby some time later he learned that the Portland 
steamer had been delayed by ice coming out of the Annapolis 
River, and that the news did not reach its destination much in 
advance of the Cunard steamer's arrival at Boston. Mr. 
Robinson says Halifax capitalists subscribed thirty per cent, 
of the stock of the New Brunswick Telegraph Company. It 
was thought to be a poor investment; indeed the line would not 
have been built through the provinces as early as it was, had 
not the Associated Press agreed to pay heavy tolls. They 
paid the Nova Scotian Government line $150,00, the New 
Brunswick Telegraph Company $130,00, and four other com- 
panies between St. John and New York proportionate prices 
for a three-thousand word report on the arrival of each mail 
steamer. For many months the press service contributed fifty 
per cent, of the New Brunswick Telegraph Company's revenue, 
and the company never paid less than eight per cent, to its 
shareholders. 

One of the oldest printers in Canada is Alexander West of 
32 North St., Halifax, for many years a familiar face about 
town, but now confined to the house through old age. He 
will be ninety in April. Interviewed recently by the writer, 
Mr. West says he entered a printing office in this city at eleven 
years of age. He was forty years in the "Acadian Recorder" 
office and fifteen years in the "Chronicle" office. He worked 
for the Howes. At the recommendation of P. S. Hamilton he 
was selected by D. H. Craig to board the mail steamers and to 
transfer, so he claims, the despatches to the express rider on 
shore. Mr. West vividly recalls the small boat he kept at the 
market wharf in which he rowed out to meet the incoming 
steamers at George's Island, whenever the weather suited, in 
order to save waiting for the Cunard liners to dock. He says 
the despatches were made up in sealed packages in Liverpool 



THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. Ill 

and given into the custody of the purser. West arranged to 
make himself known by displaying a small flag of particular 
make. Showing this, he drew his boat alongside the mail 
steamer and received the despatches from the purser over the 
paddle box. On some occasions the despatches came in sealed 
tin cans and were dropped overboard in the harbor in sight of 
West and picked up by him. He declares that in the end, the 
government prohibited delivering the despatches until arrival 
at the wharf. Mr. West says the packages often contained 
news of immense importance to the public. As a rule the same 
news was the common proprrty of the officers and passengers 
of the steamer, but there were occasions when this was not the 
case. Mr. West mentiones a supplementary despatch handed 
to the purser at Queenstown, where the steamers touched, 
which was probably sent to Ireland by special boat and 
courier to intercept the mail for America. This despatch re- 
lated to an important occurrence that had taken place after the 
steamer left Liverpool, which was not known on board the liner. 
At this point Mr. West's memory seemed to fail him. He 
says he read the despatch, and was startled that it contained an 
announcement of the death of the Queen. The writer reminded 
him that the queen died only a few years ago, but he insisted 
this was the momentous character of the despatch and he prides 
himself that he was the only possessor for a short time, on this 
side, of a secret worth a million, to use his language, and that he 
faithfully kept his counsel and did not breath the news before 
it became public later. It seems plausible to believe that 
something important had actually occurred, but whatever the 
news was that reposed in West's keeping, it comforts an old 
man, nearly a nonogenerian, to think he did not betray his 
trust. It is not at all certain that Mr. West himself took as 
active a part in handling the despatches as his story indicates. 
His mind is very feeble and memory confused, but his words 
add a dramatic touch and are reproduced for what they are 
worth. Mr. West's statement doubtless refers to the receipt 
in Halifax on the 5th of June, 1849, by the royal mail packet, of 
the news of an attempt to shoot Her Majesty in St. James' 



112 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Park, by a laborer named John Hamilton. This news created 
great excitement in Halifax. 

Statement Relating to Mail Riders. 

The following few items received from correspondents, 
doubtless refer to mail contracts in the early days, and have 
nothing to do with the pony express, but are appended here, as 
they may be of interest in othei respects. 

It must be remembered that Dr. Akins, in his * 'History of 
Halifax," Page 89, says that a regular post communication was 
opened with Annapolis in the summer of 1786, and a courier was 
engaged who went through once a fortnight with the mail 
between Halifax and that town. John Howe was at that time 
postmaster, and continued so at least until 1808. 

Gilbert O. Bent, of 101 Leinster St., St. John, informs me 
that his mother's grandfather, John Bath, a native of Hull, 
England, landed at Halifax about 1770 or 1774 with an uncle, 
William Clarke, and took the latter's horses, which he brought 
with him, across country and settled in the township of Gran- 
ville Annapolis County. He was the first to carry His Ma- 
jesty's mails to Halifax across Nova Scotia on horseback. 
Previously they had been taken on foot. Bath died 3 Nov., 
1816, aged 65 years. Mr. Bent refers to Calnek's History of 
Annapolis County, Pages 159 and 475 for further details. 
This is said to have been the beginning of the mounted post in 
Nova Scotia. 

Frank A. Bolser, of Spa Springs, Annapolis Co., sends 
an interview with Richard W. Hians an old neighbor, 
whose father rode a dispatch horse in the early days, but this 
was a government mail contract. This rider, William Hians, 
was employed by the post-office department of Halifax, which 
was in charge of John Howe,* a half brother of Joseph Howe. 
John Howe married a sister of Wm. Hians. Richard Hians 
says King of St. John was the chief contractor for this mail 

*John Howe was pcstmastei at Halifax, fiom 1803 until 1843. 



THE INCEPTION OF THE ASSOCIATED PRESS. 113 

service and he re-let the work to the riders. The mail was 
carried by swift packet service acioss the Bay of Fundy from 
St. John. The vessel pulled into the wharf at Annapolis 
Royal near Hog Island, so-called, where the mail was handed 
to a post-office official to distribute the packages to the proper 
couriers. The dispatches were in leather sacks. These were 
very large and were handed to the riders just as taken from the 
packets, without being opened, and were carried through to 
Halifax, and never opened on the road. Some riders carried 
local mail also. William Hians rode to Windsor, and his 
brother Richard from Windsor to Halifax, where the dispatch 
mail was delivered direct to the office of John Howe. The 
horses employed were about 1200 pounds, as lighter animals 
could not carry the immense weight of the English mail. They 
were tough, trappy horses, supposed to be thoroughbred. Two 
horses went ahead, fastened by their bridle to one another, also 
attached behind the shoulders by some form of surcingle. 
Pouches were thrown across their backs, and the rider followed 
on a saddle-horse, generally smaller, and directed the pair of 
carriers. Relays were about fifteen miles apart. The stops 
and changes on Wm. Hian's route were: Bridgetown, Wilmot, 
Aylesford, Kentville and Windsor. The horses were ridden as 
fast as they could endure when carrying dispatch mail; but 
slower at other times. Wm. Hians stopped at Sangster's, in or 
near Windsor, at the end of his route. The whole distance 
from the Bay of Fundy to Halifax was covered in less than 
a day. These riders were armed, carrying two pistols. Upon 
William Hians wishing to go to the city for one trip, he and his 
brother Richard exchanged loutes. This change becoming 
known, Richard was assailed by a highwayman at Elm Brook, 
just east of Middleton, Ann. Co., The robber stopped the head 
horses, and rode in close to Richard and stabbed him with a 
knife. Fortunately the knife struck a brass button and 
did little harm. Before Hians could get his pistol to bear, it 
being dark, the robber disappeared. The narrator of the above 
facts, possesses one of the pistols carried by his father. 
It is marked "Hatton, Liverpool," and seems to be as good as 



114 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

ever. The barrel is threaded on, and to load it, it has to be 
unscrewed, exposing a chamber in which to place the powder 
and ball. The weapon is fired by a percussion cap and ham- 
mer.* The bore is very large. At the last of the service, 
William Hians drove a four-wheeled waggon said to be the first 
in the province. It was sunk at low-water mark at Margaret- 
ville, on the Bay of Fundy shore, to avoid imposts, being one 
of several vehicles imported from the United States. The 
vehicles were discovered, and seized and sold. Hians obtained 
one of them, and drove the mail after that with two horses 
tandem, until the regular coach line started, when he went to 
the Shelburne route and from there to the St. John and Freder- 
icton road and finally retired to his farm at Spa Springs, where 
his son still lives. 

*Percussian caps came into use in England between 1820 and 1830, and this taken in cons 
sideration with the statement that Howe was then postmaster, would approximately date th 
story between 1830 and 1843. 



LIST OF DONORS TO N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 115 



LIST OF DONORS AND BOOKS 

Donated to the Library of the Nova Scotia Historical 

Society. 



American Historical Association: 

Annual Report. 
Bangor Historical Society: 

Proceedings, 1864-1914. 
Boston Book Company: 

Annual Magaine Subject Index. 
Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Society: 

Journals. 
Canadian Military Institute: 

Selected Papers. 
Chicago Historical Society: 

Charter, Constitution and List of Members. 
Cornell University. 
Cowie, Dr. A. J.: 

The Clockmaker, (1st Edition.) 
Eaton, Rev. Arthur W. H.: 

"Americana" containing " History of Halifax, Nova Scotia" 
and "Rhode Island Settlers on the French Lands in 
Nova Scotia." 
Essex Institute: 

Historical Collections. 
Harvard University: 

Catalogue. 

Official Register. 

Historical Association (London) . 
Jordan, Louis Henry. 



116 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Kansas State Historical Society: 

Collections. 
Lansing, Rev. Dr.: 

History of Trinity Church, New York. 
Laval University: 

Annals. 
McGill University: 

Calendars. 
Massachusetts Historical Society: 

Collections. 

Proceedings. 

Warren-Adams Letters. 
Memorial of Hon. James MacMillan. 
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Society: 

Collections. 

Report for 1914. 
Nebraska State Historical Society : 

Collections. 
New England Historical and Genelogical Society: 

Register. 
New York Historical Society: 

Address "Treaty of Ghent,'' by W. M. Sloane t LL. L, 

Collections. 
New York Public Library: 

Bulletin. 
Newberry Library: 

Report. 
Nichol, Dr. W. G.: 

State Obsequies of Sir Charles T upper. 
Nova Scotia Society of Engineers. 
Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society : 

Quarterly, 1914-16. 
Queens University: 

Calendars. 



LIST OF DONORS TO N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 1 17 

Rhode Island Historical Society: 
Proceedings. 
Reports. 

Royal Colonial Institute: 
United Empire. 
Year Book. 

Royal Historical Society: 
Camden, Third Series. 
Transactions. 
Royal Society of Canada: 

Transactions and Proceedings. 
Saskatchewan University: 

Calendar. 

"Shelbourne Gazette." 
Simpson, J. R.: 

Historical Landmarks Association Report. 
Thompson, Slason: 

The Railway Library. 
Toronto University: 

Crusade of 1383. G. W. Wrong. 
Review of Historical Publications Relating to Canada. 
University of North Dakota: 
General Catalogue, 1913-15. 
University of Trinity College: 

Calendars. 
University of the State of New York: 

Index to Ecclesiastical. Records, Vol. 7. 
Vermont Historical Society: 

Proceedings. 

Virginia Historical Society. 
Virginia Magazine of History and Biography. 
"Weekly Monitor" (Bridgetown). 



118 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



Wentworth Historical Society: 

Papers and Records. 
Western Reserve Historical Society. 
Wisconsin Historical Society: 

Collections. 

Proceedings. 

Wisconsin History Commission. 
Wiswell, W. H. 

Woman's Canadian Historical Society '">f Oiiawa 
Annual Report. 
Transactions, V. 



LIST OF PAPERS. 



119 



LIST OF. PAPERS. 

RBAD BEFORE THE NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY, JUNE 21, 1878, TO MAY, 1917. 



DATE. 


TITLE. 


WHENCE OBTAINED. 


Published in 
Collections. 


1878. 
June 21 
Sept. 5 
Oct. 3 
Nov. 7 

1879. 

Jan. 2 
Mar. 6 

June 5 

Nor. 6 
1880. 

Feb. 5 
Mar. 11 
Apr. 11 

May 6 

May 13 

June 3 
Nov. 11 
Dec. 3 

1881. 
Jan. 6 

Feb. 3 
Mar. 14 

Apr. 7 

May 5 

Sept. 1 
Oct. 6 
Nov. 3 

Dec. 8 




Hon. A. G. Archibald . 
Rev. Dr. Hill 


Vol. i. p. 18. 
do. 35 

Vol. i. p. 59 

Vol. vi. p. 91. 
Vol. ii. p. 3. 
Vol. ii. p. 17. 

Vol. ii. p. 31. 

Vol. ii. p. 135 
Vol. ii. p. 129. 

Vol. ii. p. 100. 

Vol. ii. p. 110. 
Vol. Hi. p. 197. 

Vol. ii. p. 11. 


History of St. Paul's Church. Part I ... 
Autobiography of Revd. Wm. Cochran . 
Telegraphy in Nova Scotia and neigh- . 
boring Provinces 


Rev. Dr. Cochran 
G. E. Morton, Esq 

Miss E. Frame 


Early Settlement of Shubenacadie 
Journal of Colonel Nicholson at Siege of 
Annapolis 


T. B. Akins, Esq 

Robt. Morrow, Esq . . . 
Hon Dr Altnon 


Translation from the French, relating 
to the religious beliefs of the Indians 
prioi to the discovery by Cabot .... 
Journey to Yarmouth in 17 by Mather . 
Byles 


Early Journalism in Nova Scotia 


J. J. Stewart, Esq .... 
Rev. Dr. Hill 
T. B. Akins, Esq 

do 

J. T. Buhner, Esq 
W. A. Calnek, Esq .... 
J. T. Buhner, Esq .... 
do 


History of St. Paul's Church. Pts II III 
Governor Cornwallis and the First 
Council 
Witherspoon's Journal of the Siege of 
Quebec 


Walter Bromley and his labors in the 
cause of Education, by late John 
Young. (Agricola) 


Sketches of the Winniett, DeLancy, 
and Milledge families | 


Revolutionary Incidents in Nova Scotia 
1776-1778 


Sketch of Brook Watson, by Revd. 
Hugh Graham 
Brook Watson's account of the Expul- 
sion of the Acadians 


do 


Early History of the DissentingChurches 
in Nova Scotia ... 


Rev. Dr. Patterson . . . 

Miss E. Frame 
W. A. Calnek, Esq .... 

T. B. Akins. Esq 
do 


Biographical Sketch of Rev. Jas. Mur- 
doch . 


Biographical Sketch of Alexander Howe 
Account of the Manners and Customs of 
the Acadians, with remarks on 
theu removal from the Province; 
by Moses Delesdernier, 1795 


Letter (dated June 27, 1751) from Sur- 
veyor Morris to Governor Shirley, 
with a plan for the removal of the 
Acadians 


Extracts from the Boston News Letter, 
1704-1760. and from Halifax Ga- 
zette 1752 


Miss E. Frame 


Judge Croke (a Biography) 


Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
Israel Longworth, Esq 
Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
Rev. Dr. Patterson .... 

T. B. Akins. Esq 




Chapter from the life of S G W Archibald 
Government House 


Nicholas Perdue Olding, (a Biography) . 
Petitions to the Council of Massachusetts 
Bay from residents of Yarmouth, 
and from Council of Cumberland . . . 
Proposal of Capt. John Allen as to cap- 
ture of Hailfax and conquest of 
Nova Scotia . . 



120 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Continued.} 



DATB. 


TITLE. 


WHENCE OBTAINED 


Published in 
Collections. 


1882. 
Jan. 

Feb. 
Mar. 

6 

Nov. 
Dec. 

1883. 

fe 

& '. 
8%. I 

Dec. 

1884. 
Jan. 3 
Mar. 6 

May 1 

Nov. 13 

Dec. 4 

1885. 
Feb. 5 

Mar. 12 
Apr. 9 

May 7 

Oct. 1 
Nov. 6 

Nov. 5 
Dec. 3 

1886. 
Jan. 7 
Feb. 11 

May 18 

cc. 2 


Who was Lebel? 


Jas. Hannay, Esq. St 
John N. B. . . 


Vol. xv. 
VoUii.p. 13. 

Vol. iv. p. 247. 
Vol. xvii. p. 111. 

Vol. ix. p. 119. 

Vol. vi. p. 123. 
Vol. iv. p. 11. 

Vol. iv. p. 64. 
ol.vii.p. 129. 

ol. vi. p. 137 
ol. v. p. 11 


Nomenclature of the Streets of Halifax 
A visit to Louisburg 
History of St. Paul's Church. Part IV. 
Chapter in the Life of Sir John 
Wentworth 


Rev. Dr. Hill 


P. Lynch, Esq 
Rev. Dr. Hill 

Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
W. A. Calnek . 


Edward How and his family 


M. S. Journal of Mr. Glover, Secretary 
of Admiral Cockburn, when con- 
veying Napoleon to St. Helena in 
1815 


Nepean Clarke, Esq . 

Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
P. Lynch, Esq 
Rev. Dr. Patterson . . 
E. Hepple Hall, Esq . 
Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
Rev. Dr. Hill .... 


The Province Building 


Jarly Reminiscenes of Halifax 
The Stone Age of the Micmacs 


Newfoundland, past, present and future 
Sarly Life of Sir John Wentworth .... 
Nomenclature of the streets of Hafx pt i 
Tour with General Campbell, in July 
and August, 1875, along the 
coasts of Nova Scotia, by Lieut. 
Booth, R. E . . W 


T. B. Akins, Esq 

P. Lynch, Esq 

.D. Macdonald, Esq. 
srael Longworth, Esq 

T. B. Akins, Esq 
Rev. Dr. Patterson . . . 

do. 


Celebrated persons who have visited 
Nova Scotia 
hips of War wrecked on coasts of No- 
va Scotia and Sable Island in 18th 
century 


[on. S. B. Robie (a Biography) 
'lans submitted to the British Govern- 
ment in 1783 by Sir Guy Carleton 
1.) For the founding of a Seminary of 
learning at Windsor N S 


2.) For the establishment of an Episco- 
pate in N. S 
amuel Vetch. 1st English Governor 
of Nova Scotia 


amuel Vetch. 1st English Governor 
of Nova Scotia. Part II 


Exodus of the Negroes in 1791, with 
extracts from Clarkson's Journal 
aga of Eric the Red. with an account 
of the discovery of Vinland. Trans 
lated (by Capt. Ove Lange) 
arly History of St. George's Church 
Part I-II 


Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
. Jack Esq . ... 


Rev. Dr. Partridge . . . 
Rev. A. W. H. Eaton. 


)ld Churches of Cornwallis and Horton. . 
Letters from Rev. Jacob Bailey to Rev 
Mather Byles 


Letter from Duke of Kent to Dr. Wil- 
liam Almon 


Rev. Dr. Patterson . . . 
Hon. Sir A. Archibald 

'. B Atkins. Esq 
Jon. Sir A. Archibald | 
lev.Dr. Burns. . . 


'he League of the Iroquois 


xpulsion of the Acadians. Part I 
ethod of the Acadian French in cul- 
tivating their land especially with 
regard to raising wheat 


Judge Isaac DesChamps 1785 | 
ermuda |j 


entennial Memories 



UST OF PAPERS 121 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Continued.) 



DATE. 


TITLE. 


WHENCE OBTAINED. 


Published in 
Collections. 


1887. 

Jan. 1 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Mar. 1 

Apr. 
Apr. 

Nor. 1 
Dec. 

1888. 
Jan. 2 

Feb. 2 
Feb. 2 
Mar. 2 

Apr. 10 
Nov. 1 
Dec. 20 

1889. 
Jan. 15 
Mar. 12 

Apr. 9 
Nov. 12 
Dec. 10 

1890. 

Feb. 13 
Nov. If 
Dec. 9 

1891. 

Jan. 10 
Jan. 15 
Jan. 20 
Feb. 10 

Mar. 20 

Nov. 10 
1892. 

Jan. 12 
Feb. 9 

Nov. 8 
Dec. 13 


Vinland 


Hon. L. G. Power . . . 
P. Lynch, Esq 
Rev. Dr. Partridge . . 

Judge R L Weatherbe 
Dr. Geo. Lawson .... 

Hon. Sir A. Archibald 
F. B. Ciofton, Esq... 
J. J. Stewart, Esq . . . 

John E. Orpen, Esq. . 

D. Allison, Esq 
F. B. Crofton, Esq . . . 
Dr. C. G. D. Roberts, 
Hon. J. W. Longley. . 
Rev. T. W. Smith . . . 
Geo. Creed, Esq 

Lt.-Col. Wainwright 

Fames Hannay, Esq., 
St. John, N. B . . . 
F. Mascarene Hubbard 
Boston 
Rev. S. T. Rand 
C. F. Fraser, Esq 

H. Y. Hind 

Judge Morse, Amherst . 
P. Lynch. Esq 
Prof. A. MacMechan . . 

Sydenham Howe 
Hon. L. G. Power .... 

Rev. Geo. Patterson . . 

Prof. Geo. Lawson 
Peter Lynch, Esq., Q. C 

Miss Eliza Frame 
Rev. Geo. Patterson 
D. D . 

ion. W. J. Almon .... 
Israel Longworth 


Vol. vii. p. 17. 
Vol. xvii. -'* * 
Vol. vii. p. 73. 

Vol. vi. p. 17. 
Vol. vi. p. 91. 

Vol. vii. p. 45. 
Vol. vi. p. 53. 

Vol. xvii. 
Vol. ix. p. 78. 

Vol. IX. 


Early Reminiscences of Halifax, Part II 
Early Hist, of St. George's Church Pt. II 
Acadian Boundary Disputes and the 


Colonist Plants of Nova Scotia 


Memoir of John Clarkson, by his bro- 
ther, (the celebrated) Thos. . 
Clarkson . 


A Study of ' 'Sam Slick' ' 


Early Journalism in Nova Scotia 


Statement with reference to ' 'French 


The settlement of the early Townships, 
Illustrated by an old census 


T. C. Haliburton, Writer and Thinker.. 
The Aroostook War 


Howe and his contemporaries 


The Loyalists at Shelburne 
Photographs on Rocks at Fairy Lake . 
North West Territory and Red River 


The Early Settlers of Sunbury County . 
Memoir of Governor Paul Mascarene .... 

_ N 

Legends of the Micmac Indians | 
Jnited Empire Loyalists 
nquiries into the History of the Aca- 
dian District of Pisiquid 

History of Beaubasin . .' 


Early Reminiscences of Halifax, Part III 
in Historical Note on ' 'John Crowne' ' 

Agricola by Joe Howe 


Lichard John Uniacke 
'he Portuguese on the North East 
Coast of America, and the first 


f acts and enquiries concerning the ori- 
gin and early history of Agricul- 
ture in Nova Scotia 
Reminiscences of Halifax, Part IV 

Extracts from Old Boston Papers .... 


[ooped Cannon found at Louisburg . . . 

ournal kept by Rev. Dr. Mather Byles 
in London 1784 


haoter in History of Onslow . . 



122 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Continued). 



DATE. 


TITLE. 


WHENCE OBTAINED. 


Published in 
Collections. 


1893. 
Jan. 10 
Feb. 14 

APf 'ffl " 
July 28 
Nov. 14 

Dfe. tl 

1894. 

Feb. 13 
Mar. 20 

Nov. 27 
1895. 

Jan. 22 
Feb. 12 

Mar. 12 
Dec. 12 

1896. 

Feb. 11 
Apr. 23 

1897. 

Apr. 13 
Nov. 9 
Dec. 14 

1898. 

Jan. 21 
Feb. 17 
Mar. 15 

Apr. 12 
Nov. 8 
Dec. 13 


Rambles among the Leaves of my Scrap 
Book 
The Log of a Halifax Privateer in 1 757 . 
Sir William Alexander and Scottish 
Attempt to Colonize Acadia 
' 'Royal William- ' Steamship 
Voyages and Discoveries of the Cabots. 

Recollect Fathers in Canada 


W. H. Hill.... 
Archd. MacMechan . . . 
Rev. Geo. Patterson 
D. D 
Sir Sandford Fleming 
Rev. Moses Harvey . . . 

Geo. Patteison, M. A.. . 

F. Blake Crofton 
Rev. Geo. Patterson, 
D. D 


Vol. X. p. 93. 
Vol. IX. 

Vol. IX. 

Vol. XIII. 
Vol. XIII. 

Vol. XVIII | 
Vol. X. 


Critical Observations on Evangeline. . . . 
Origin and History of Names of Places 
Nova Scotia 




J. Plimsoll Edwards . . 

Hon. L. G. Power .... 
Charles Stubbing 

W. H. Hill 
W. L. Brown 


Irish Discovery of America 


Early Military Life in Halifax 
Early Life in Halifax 


French Protestants in Nova Scotia .... 
Historical Gleanings 

History of Wilmot and Aylesford 


Rv. G. Patterson, D. D. 
Dr. H. Y. Hind 

Rv. E M Saunders D D 
Rev D M Gordon. D. D 
Sir J. G. Bourinot .... 

Mrs. Chas. Archibald . 
Rev. W. O. Raymond . 
Rev TW Smith, D. D . 

Mrs. J. M. Owen 
Chf . Jus. Townshend . . 
C. Sydney Harrington . 


Reminiscences of N.W.Rebellion in 1885 
Loyalist Makers of Canada .... 


Scottish Immigrants to Cape Breton . . . 
Benj. Marsden of Marblehead 


Slavery in the Maritime Provinces 

Early French Missionaries at Port Royal 
Hist, of the Courts of Judicature of N. S. 
History of the Law and Courts of N. S . . . 



1899. 

Jan. 10 
Jan. 17 
Feb. 14 
Mar. 14 
June 21 
Nov. 16 
Dec. 12 

1900. 

Feb. 13 
Mar. 29 
Nov. 20 
Dec. 11 


Military History of Nova Scotia I 
Origin of Nova Scotians 


Harry Piers 
Sir John Bourinot .... 
Dr. A. H. MacKay.... 
Hon. Wm. Ross 
Jas. S. Macdonald .... 
Chf. Jus. Townshend . . 
Harry Piers 


History of Education in N. S 


Freemasonry in Nova Scotia 


Hon. Edward Cornwallis 


Chancery Courts of Nova Scotia 


Military History of Nova Scotia. II 
Lord Dalhousie 


Dr.Archd. MacMechan 
Rev. W. O. Raymond . 
Rev. Dr. Brock 
Dr. Hannav . . 




Legend of Evangeline 
The War of 1812. . 



Vol. XII. 



Vol. XI. 



LIST OF PAPERS. 123 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Continued). 



DATE. 


TITLE. 


WHENCE OBTAINED. 


Published in 
Collections. 


1901. 
Jan. 15 

Feb. 26 
Nov. 26 

1902. 

Feb. 11 
Mar. 12 

Nov. 25 

Dec. 9 
1903. 
Jan. 23 

Feb. 10 
Mar. 10 

Apr. 14 
Dec. 15 

1904. 

Jan. 12 
Mar. 15 
Apr. 5 
Dec. 6 

1905. 
Jan. 11 

Mar. 28 
Dec. 5 

1906. 

Jan. 23 
Mar. 13 
Dec. 11 
1907. 

Mar. 1 
Apr. 9 
May 14 

Nov. 12 

Dec. 10 
1908. 
Jan. 14 
Feb. 25 

Mar ' 24 

Apr. 21 
Nor. 10 




Jas. S. Macdonald . . . 

Rev. T. W. Smith 
Dr.Archd. MacMechan 

E. F. Hart . . . 
R. R. McLeod 
Chief Justice Sir Chas. 
J. Townshend 
Senator Poirier 


Vol. XII. 

Vol. XIV. 

Atlantic Month- 
ly, Feb. 1907. 

Vol. XVI. 
Vol. XV. 

Am. Hist. 
Review. 

Acadiensis. 
Vol. XIII. 
Vol. XVI. 

Vol. XII. 
Vol. XIII. 

Vol. XIV. 
Vol. XIX. 
Acadiensis, 
Ap. July, 1906. 

Vol. XVI. 

Vol. XIV. 
Vol. XV. 

Vol. XVII. 

A Pamphlet 
|pub. by Society 


Capture of St. Pierre, 1795 


Lord Charles Greville Montague 
Notes on North 'n portion of Queens Co . . 
Hon Alex Stewart 


John Cabot 


Relations and Conditions of Halifax 
during Revolutionary War 
Hon. Joseph Howe 


Miss Emily Weaver . . . 
F. Blake Crofton 

D. R. Jack, St. John . . . 
Rev.E M Saunders, D D 
Prof. W. C. Murray . . . 

Jas. S. Macdonald .... 
Geo. E. E. Nichols .... 
A. Martin Payne 
J. B. Calkin 


Periodicals of the Maritime Provinces 
from the earliest Times to the 
Present 


Rev. John Wiswell and his Times 


History of St. Matthew's Church, Hal'x 
Richard Bulkeley 


Notes on Nova Scotia Privateers . . . 


Duke of Kent 


Old Time Customs 


Account of Celebration of Ter-Centen- 
ary of DeMont's Landing at An- 
napolis . . ... 


Mr. Justice Longley . . . 
A. Martin Payne 
Archd. MacMechan . . . 

Jas. S. Macdonald . . . . 
Dr.Geo.Johnstone.D.c.L 
Mr. Justice Longley . . . 

Jas. S. Macdonald .... 
Rev. C. W. Vernon . . . 
W C Milner 


Sir Samuel Cunard 


Halifax in Literature 


Lt.-Gov. Francklin 


Sir Guy Carleton 
Washington Treaty 1871 


Gov. Parr and the Loyalists 


Governor DesBarres and Sydney 


Existing historic relics of the Town of 
Lunenburg 


Miss Agnes Creighton 
Jas. S. Macdonald .... 

Major J. Plimeoll 


Sir Geo. Prevost 


The Militia of Nova Scotia, 1749-1830 
John Young, (Agricola) the Junius of 


John Irvin 


Letters of S.G.W. Archibald. 1800 & 1820 
Customs of the Micmac Indians 
Louisburg a notable ruin I 


Judge Patterson 
H W Hewitt 


John S. McLennan 1 





124 NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Continued). 



DATS. 


TITLE. 


WHENCE OBTAINED. 


Published in 
Collections. 


Dec. 
a*.; 
1909. 
Jan. IS 
Jan. IS 
Mar. S 

Mar. 9 
Nov. 9 
Dec. 14 
1910. 
Jan. 18 
Mar. 8 
Apr. 12 

Nov. 4 
Dec. 2 
1911 
Jan. 20 
Feb. 14 

Mar. 10 
Mar. 21 
Nov. 8 

Dec. 1 
1912 
Jan. 5 
Feb. 2 
Mar. 1 

April 12 
May 3 

Nov. 
Dec. 

Dec. 

1913. 
Jan. 

Jan. 

Jan. 
Feb. 

Mar. 

Mar. 
April 

4, 

Nov. 

Dec. 

1914 
Jan. 


Fisheries of British North America and 
the United States Fishermen 


Mr. Justice Graham . . 

Dr. R. C. Archibald . . 
Rev. John Forrest.D.D. 

Judge Savary 


Vol. XIV. 

Vol. XVI. 
Vol. XVI. 

Vol. XVII. 

Vol. XVII. 

Vol. XIX. 
/ol. XVI. 

/ol. XVIII. 

Vol. XVII. 
Vol. XVII. 

Vol. XVII. 






Ancestry of the late Sir Fenwick 
Williams of Kars 


Sea Fights, gleaned from Prov. Archives 


GeorgeMullane 
Theodore H. Boggs . . . 
H. B. Stairs 

Lt. J, A. R. Jones 


S. African campaign and Contingent . . . . 
Capt Jas Cook R N 


Lt. Gov. Michl. Franklin (2nd paper) . 
Memorials of Grand Pre and Basin of 


Jas. S. Macdonald . . . . 

3eo. Johnson, D.C.L. . 
Hon. W. Ross 


i Free Masonry in N S Part II .... 


The Trent Affair 


Geo. Johnson, D.C.L . . . 
E. Lawson Fenerty 
Judge Chesley 


The Old Mail Routes and Post Roads 
Temperance legislation for the past 100 
years in Nova Scotia 


Life of Hon. Judge William Blowers Bliss 
Karly legislation in Nova Scotia 


Sir Chas. Townshend . . 


History of the Militia of Nova Scotia, 
ii 1830-1867 


Major J. Plimsoll Ed- 
wards I 


The early settlers of McNab's Island.etc. 

The inception of the Associated Press, etc . I 
Life of Hon James W. Johnston [ 


H. W. Hewitt I 


John W. Regan I 1 
John Y. Payzant ... . P 


The Military Associations of Sir John 
Cope Sherbrooke 


David Allison, LL.D..I 1 
Donald A. King n 


History of the N. S. Postage Stamps . . 


Motes on the French and Pre-Revolution 
settlements of Shelburne County . j 
Old Dartmouth ] 


T. C. Lockwood, M. D 
Son. Mr. Justice Russell' 

George Mullane 


A Sketch of Lawrence O'Connor Dayle, 
a Representative of Halifax in the 
Karly Forties 


Short Historical Note on the so-called 
'Norse Stone,' at Yarmouth 

Brief Historical Note on Thomas Wil- 
liams, grandfather of Sir Fenwick 
Williams 


Moses H. Nickerson. . . 

Capt. Jas. D. Ritchie . . 

Prof D.F. Harris, M.D. 
Prof. J. W. Falconer. . 

Rev. John Forrest.D.D. 
H. N. Paint . . 


An old Edition of Galen, by Laguna, 
1604, in the Cogswell Library. . . . 
The Historical Method 


Why the First Settlers came to Nova 
Scotia 


The Ancient French Cemetery near 
Rockingham 


The Finding of Alexander McNutt 
Reminiscences of the House of Assemblyj 
Reminiscences of a Long Life (John Mac- 
Kay, Esq.,New Glasgow, 1772-1884) 
Charles Inglis, First Bishop of Nova) 
Scotia L 


Rev.A.W.Eaton,D.C.L. 
Hon. Mr. Justice Russell 

Rev. Allan Pollok.D.D. 

;rchdeacon Armitage.l 
M.A.,Ph.D . . 
.C.Jost,Esq.,M. D. 


The Settlement of Guysboro' and Hallo- 
well Grant \j 


\ Brief History of Town of Bridge- 
town, with Sketch of career of 



Colonel Poyntz . 



IJohn Irvin, Esq., K. C |Vol. XIX. 



LIST OF PAPERS. 125 

PAPERS READ BEFORE THS N. S. HISTORICAL SOCIETY. (Continued.) 



Days. 


Title. 


Whence Obtained. 


Published in 
Collections. 


Feb. 


Wolfe's Men and Nova Scotia 


Beckles Willson . . . 


Vol. XVIII. 


Mar 


Jonathan Belcher 


Hon. Sir Charles Town 




April. 


The Earl of Halifax 


-shend, D. C. L. 
A.. M. Payne 


Vol. XVIII. 


May 1 


Artists in Nova Scotia 


Harry Piers 


Vol XVIII 


Nov. 
Dec. 


Acadian Recollections of Fifty YearsAgo . . 

A Short History of Presbyter ianism in 
Pictou 


Rev. Arthur John 
Lockhart 

Rev. Allan Pollok 




Dec. 


The History of the First Roman Catholic 
Church in Chignecto 


D. D 
W. C. Milner 




1915. 
Feb. 


Some Historical Causes for the War Spirit 
in Germany 


Rev. George MacK. 








Wrong 




Mar. 

Apr. 
May 


The Rise of Prussia up to the Death of 
Frederick the Great 
Recollections of Sixty Years Ago 
Halifax Currency 


Prof. Todd 
*ev. Dr. Allan Pollok 
Mr. Horace A. Flem- 


VoL XIX. 






ming 




Nov. 


Significance of Joseph Howe on the Liter- 
ary History of Canada 


Dr. J. D. Logan 




Dec. 

1916. 
Jan. 


Our First President Hon. John W. 
Ritchie 

Thomas Chandler Haliburton 


HLon. Senator Power . . . 
Mr. Beckles Willson . . 


Vol. XIX. 


Feb. 
Mar. 


Some Old Provincial Laws 

The Winning of Responsible Govern- 
ment" 


Mr. Humphrey Mel- 
lish, K. C 

Mr. Justice Russell . . . 




Apr. 
May 


Dne Hundred and Sixty Years After 
Weather Records in Halifax 


Mr. Placide Gaudet . . 
Rev. Dr. Forrest 




Nov. 
Dec. 


The Early Post Office in Nova Scotia . . . 
Sources of Canadian History 


Mr. William Smith . . . 
Major J. P. Edwards 


Vol. XIX. 


1917. 

Jan. 
Feb. 


Hon Sir John S. D. Thompson 
The Philosophy of History 


Mr. Justice Russell 
Prof. H. L. Stewart. . . 




Mar. 
Apr. 


French Protestant Immigrations to Nova 
Scotia 
Legends and Traditions of the Annapolis 
Valley. . 


Mr. Wm. L. Payzant 
Mr. John E. Wood 








worth . . . 





126 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



COLLECTIONS OF THE NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY. 



VOL. 



I Inaugural Proceedings. History of St. Paul's Church 
(I). Journal of Colonel John Nicholson at the Cap- 
ture of Annapolis. An Account of Nova Scotia in 1743* 
Diary of John Thomas. OUT OF PRINT. 

II. Proposals for Attack on Nova Scotia. The First Coun- 
cil. Journal of John Witherspoon. History of St. 
Paul's Church (II, III). Rev. James Murdoch. Sir 
Alexander Croke. The Acadian French. OUT OF PRINT.. 

III. History of St. Paul's Church (IV). Journal of Col- 
onel John Winslow. Government House. 

IV. Hon. Samuel Vetch. Winslow's Journal at the Sitge* 
of Beausejour. 

V. The Expulsion of the Acadians. Gordon's Journal at 
the Siege of Louisburg, 1758. OUT OF PRINT. 

VI. Acadian Boundary Disputes and the Ashburton Treaty. 
The Loyalists at Shelburne. Early Journalism in Nov& 
Scotia. King's College. History of St. George's Church 



VII. Vinland. General Return of Townships, 1767. His- 
tory of St. George's Church (II). Letters relating to* 
Early History of Church of England in Nova Scotia^ 
Deportation of Negroes to Sierra Leone. 

VIII. History of Halifax City, by Thomas Beamish A kins.. 

(With special index.) 



COLLECTIONS 127 

VOL 

IX. Voyages and Discoveries of the Cabots. The Township of 
Onslow. Richard John Uniacke. Ships of War Lost on 
the Coast of Nova Scotia and Sable Island. Louisbourg; 
an Historical Sketch. 

X. The Slave in Canada, by Rev. T. Watson Smith, D. D. 
XL The War of 1812, by James Hannay. 

XII. Hon. Edward Cornwallis. Governor Lawrence. Richard 
Bulkeley. By Jas. S. MacDonald. 

XIII Rev. John Wiswall. Recollections of Old Halifax. H. 
M. Naval Yard, Halifax. Nova Scotian Privateers. 

XIV. Tercentenary Celebration of the Founding of Annapolis. 
The British North America Fisheries and the United 
States Fisherman. Capture of St. Pierre, 1793. Gov- 
ernor Parr. 

XV. Hon. Alex. Stewart, C.B., with portrait, by Sir Charles 
Townshend. Records of Chignecto, Beausejour, Maps 
and portraits, by W. C. Milner. Nomenclature of the 
Streets of Halifax, with portrait, by Rev. George W Hill, 
D.C.L. 

XVI . Memoir Lieut. -Governor Michael Francklin, with portraits, 
by James S.Macdonald. The Trent Affair, with portrait, 
by George Johnson, D. C.L. James William Johnston, 
First Premier of Nova Scotia under Responsible Govern- 
ment, with portrait, by JohnY. Payzant, M.A. Notes 
Historical and Otherwise of the Northern District of 
Queens County ; by R. R. McLeod, M. A. History of St. 
Matthew's Church, Halifax, with portraits, by Prof. 
Walter C. Murray, M.A., LL.B. Early Reminiscences 
of Halifax, with portraits, by Peter Lynch. 



128 



NOVA SCOTIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



XVII. Memoir of the Life of the Honourable William Blowers 
Bliss, with portraits, by Hon. Sir Charles J. Townshend. 

Notes on Thomas Williams of Annapolis Royal, with 
portraits, by James D. Ritchie. A Short Note on the 
Yarmouth "Runic Stone," by Moses H. Nicker son. 
Remarks on the Fletcher and Related Stones of Yarmouth, 
N. S., by Harry Piers. The Fenwick Family in Nova 
Scotia, by Colonel G. C. Fenwick, Indian Army (retired.) 
The Militia 0/ Nova Scotia, 1749-1867, with portraits, 
by Joseph Plimsoll Edwards. Early Reminiscenes of 
Halifax, by Peter Lynch, Q. C. A Sketch of Lawrence 
O' Conner Doyle, a Member of the House of Assembly 
in the Thirties and Forties, with portraits, by Ge rge 
Mullane. Notes on Several Governors and Their Influence, 
by Joseph Howe. Statement Relative to the Introduction 
and History of Responsible Government in Nova Scotia, 
by Rev. E. M. Saunders, D. D. Centennial Number of 
"Acadian Recorder. 1 ' 

XVIII. Wolfe's men and Nova Scotia, by Beckles Willson. Jon- 
athan Belcher, First Chief Justice of Nova Scotia, by Sir 
Charles Townshend, D. C. L. Dockyard Reminiscences, 
by Charles Roche. Early Scottish Settlers in Cape Breton, 
by Mrs. Charles Archibald. Artists in Nova Scotia, by 
Harry Piers. History of Nova Scotian Postage Stamps, 
by Donald A . King. 

XIX. Our First PresidentThe Honorable John William 
Ritchie, by Hon. Lawrence G. Power, K. C. Recollec- 
tions of Sixty Years Ago, by Rev. Allan Pollok, D.D. His- 
tory of Bridgetown, by John Irvin, K. C. The Early 
Post Office in Nova Scotia, 1755-1867, by William Smith, 
L S. O. The Life of Sir Samuel Cunard, by A. 
Martin Payne. The Inception of the Associated Press, 
by John W. Regan. 






i 






APPENDIX. 
BEAMISH MURDOCH, Q. C., D. C.L., M. L. A. 

The Nova Scotian Historian. 

Born about 1800; Died 9th February, 1876. 

(See Frontispiece.) 

The following obituary notice extracted from a Halifax 
newspaper, gives a brief account of Beamish Murdoch, of whom 
a portrait is herein for the first time published: 

"This gentleman who long ago in Nova Scotia was distin- 
guished for literary taste and habits, died at Lunenburg, N. S., 
on 9th February, 1876, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. 
In his youth and early manhood he was a voluminous contri- 
butor to the provincial newspapers and Acadian Magazine 
which was published in Halifax about fifty years ago. For a 
considerable time when the late Philip J. Holland was the pro- 
prietor of the Acadian Recorder, Mr. Murdoch occupied its 
editorial chair, and in that capacity exhibited no small 
amount of ability as a popular journalist. His style was easy, 
flowing and chaste. The tendency of his mind impelled him 
to engage in literature, and during his long life, his brain was 
seldom idle, or his ready pen for any considerable length of time 
unemployed. His habits were studious and his classical and 
scientific attainments respectable. Besides contributions in 
multitude to various periodicals, he was the author of several 
literary undertakings of an extended and permanent character. 

"In 1825 he was the author of a pamphlet, 48 pages, octavo, 
descriptive of the Miramichi fire and the destructive disasters 
connected with that terrible occurrence. This was followed 
six years later by an essay concerning imprisonment for debt. 
Soon after (in 1832) he published an "Epitome of the Laws of 
Nova Scotia" in four volumes. When, in] 1849, the centenary 
celebration of the settlement of Halifax took place, Mr. Mur- 
doch was chosen to deliver an oration in reference to that event. 






His best and most voluminous work was the "History of Nova 
Scotia or Acadia." In all these literary efforts, industry, deep 
research and considerable amount of literary labour and ability 
were manifested. 

"Mr. Murdoch was professionally a lawyer, and for several 
years he was a successful practitioner at the bar; but when in 
the meridian of manhood, he almost wholly relinquished his 
legal pursuits and turned his attention more exclusively to 
literature. His habits and tastes were in the direction of do- 
mestic quietude and companionship with literature. 

"In 1826 he was returned to the assembly for Halifax. At 
the election in 1830 he was again a candidate but was defeated. 
For ten years he was the Recorder of the city of Halifax. In 
short, Beamish Murdoch was a man of no ordinary intellectual 
capacity an industrious student and was ranked among the 
distinguished men of his native land. In a ripe old age he has 
passed away, a^id the memory of his life labours is embalmed in 
the literature and annals of Nova Scotia." 

From the Morning Chronicle, Halifax, 11//7 February, 1876. 



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